Petra is the archaeological site of an ancient Nabatean city cut into the red sandstone rock. The remains of the city consist of Royal Tombs, obelisks, houses, streets, temples, sacrifical places, a Theatre, a Monastery and the Treasury.
It also held an extensive water engineering system. The Nabateans blended ancient Eastern traditions with Hellenistic architecture.
The city developed as an important caravan centre between the Dead Sea and the Red Sea. The main developments took place between the first centuries BC and AD. The site moved into obscurity to all but locals from the 7th century on. It was rediscovered in 1812.
On its inscription as a World Heritage Site it was described as "one of the most precious cultural properties of man's heritage".
Map of PetraLoad map
Visit October 2012
Much has been written already about this highly rated WHS. It’s among the most iconic and well-known tourist destinations in the world. So I don’t think a general introduction is necessary, and I’ll limit this review to a few observations from my 1.5 day visit in October 2012:
• One of the best experiences I found the hike up to the Monastery, and settling myself in a cave right in front of it (across the square and above the café which sells a very refreshing lime & mint juice). Despite the number of visitors, Petra has plenty of spaces were you can roam around on your own or sit quietly and take it all in.
• Like all very popular WHS, it attracts a mixed crowd of nationalities and types of visitors. Although one has to do a lot of walking in Petra, more than one woman arrived on impressively high heels. Busloads are shipped directly from the beach resorts at the Red Sea, lots of loud Russians too. I also encountered groups of South Asians, whom I thought to be migrant workers in Jordan or the Gulf (my visit coincided with the Eid holiday).
• The number of visitors is actually dwindling since it almost reached the 1 million mark in 2009. It has fallen back to the level of 2007 (about 600,000). It certainly did not feel overly crowded, maybe only the plaza in front of the Treasury is. Both times that I entered via the Siq, one day at 12.30 pm and the next day at 8 a.m., I was able to take photos without any unwanted people in it.
• I wasn’t too bothered about the souvenir sellers or the donkey/camel/horse touts . They are not very persistent (Jordanians are pretty sedate in general), and do add a lively atmosphere to the otherwise huge archeological site.
In general, I was a tiny little bit disappointed by it. For me the site lacked the real Wow-factor, the excitement that for example Machu Picchu or Angkor have given me. The design of the sculptures and architecture often is Roman or Hellenistic, so pretty familiar. People say that you can spend days in Petra, but I think after 1.5 days (total of 10 hours visiting) I have seen most of it. Only when you would like to explore the hiking trails you can spend more time.
Petra, man. There isn't much that hasn't been said about Petra, so I'll make this short for once. It's one of the most undeniable wonders of the world, and to me, one of those few places that lives up to the huge amount of hype it gets. I was lucky enough to visit in April 2018, arriving late morning from Amman and staying until nightfall. It was enough time to thoroughly explore the basic route from the entrance to the Monastery at a relatively relaxed pace, though I wish I had been able to get to the Treasury Overlook and the High Place of Sacrifice. Nevertheless, the short visit was just an amazing experience, and I think it gave me a good look at Petra's unique OUV. It's a city of the dead and the living, of culture and nature, and of creative and technical genius. While the beautiful tombs carved into the cliffs seem to define the city, the theater and "earthquake-proof" building were just as impressive. My favorite part of the visit, though, was exploring this ancient city with its cute canine inhabitants. This one puppy followed me all the way from the Siq to the exit. Definitely a highlight in all of my travels!
One of the most underrated destinations in the world was my first impression as I made my way down the winding Siq, the narrow entrance into the Archaeological site of Petra. Hand in hand with my 5 and 3 year old who were keen to run and play, they seemed more interested in gathering rocks than gazing at the massive Treasury, Al-Khazneh, that stood before us.
Petra is one of the places that I recommend to everyone I know and hope they will see its wonder and magic as I have.
Read more from Lindsay N here.
The old Bedouin man waved to the west. “My tent is over there.” He lived still in Petra, had done all his life, as had his father and grandfather before him, generation after generation. Lives lived among the city of the dead. Every morning, still sprightly in his sandals, he trekked from his tent up Jebel Madbah. For what? The chance to sell a handful of grubby coins? Or the for the pleasure of gazing out over the chasms and tombs of his ancestral home? How, I wondered, had Petra changed during his lifetime? How would it be sustained? Did he have children of his own to continue his vigil, or was he the last of the guardians of Petra, a Petra that lived and breathed and interacted with the awe-struck visitors from across the globe? But I had no way to ask him. He pointed out the path further into Wadi Farasa and returned to his vigil. The last I saw of him as I turned to call back “Maasalama!” was a solitary robed figure sitting on a jutting spur of rock, head bowed, staff across his knees.
The rose-red city of Petra deserves every single word of hype it receives. Despite the crowds (though there are ways to escape them as I discovered) there is still something raw and mysterious about this once-hidden city. The archaeology itself is often beside the point. The central section of Petra, the stretch containing the theatre, the colonnaded street, the market places, the Great Temple, the royal palace and the later Byzantine church, tells the most about how the Nabateans lived. But people hurry past, eager to see more about how they died. Because the most iconic and noticeable remains of the Nabatean civilisation are their tombs.
Other reviewers have covered the basics below, so I shall just focus on the four (okay, four-and-a-half) stand out experiences.
- The Siq and the Treasury. The most exceptional teaser campaign in history. The walk from the site entrance in Wadi Musa to the Treasury is 2km, of which the last 1.2km is through the narrow twisting chasm of the Siq, walls of red sandstone towering overhead. This opens out before al-Khazneh, ‘the Treasury’, the grandest of Petra’s tombs. I walked this route three times and it never failed to build my anticipation in advance of the great reveal. For my first walk I was just one of a river of tourists, squeezing through the canyon, voices echoing from the walls above. For the last I and my friends were alone. We had hitched a ride down from Wadi Musa in the back of as local man’s pick-up and were the first people through the gates at 6am. We processed through the Siq in reverent silence, fingers tracing the smoothly-worn stone, and halted at its end, revelling in the uninterrupted views of the Treasury (and the opportunity to take photos with no crowds or camels in the background).
- The Treasury Overlook. I don’t know if this is an established name, but this is what we termed the view down from the bluff opposite the Treasury’s frontage. Following the trail past the Royal Tombs there are steps leading upwards. These emerge atop the landform through which the Siq snakes. The top is wild and barren but we found piles of stones and scuffed footprints leading the way to a rocky spur. The Treasury stood impassive to our left. Shadows slanted across its famous façade. As we had been the first people into Petra that day there were only a couple of tourists in front of it, small black specks serving to provide a sense of scale. I found it incredibly impressive so I’m a little bit distraught to read from Solivagant’s review below that this route is now off-limits to tourists.
- The Monastery. The ‘Monastery’, ad-Deir, is the second most famous sight at Petra but it is a good trek from the Treasury. You need to go into the heart of the complex and it is then another 45-60 minute walk from the Wadi Musa turn. In the heat it is a very stiff climb. When I visited there were boys hiring out donkeys; think carefully before doing so because the descent looked particularly terrifying. But definitely see the Monastery once, and enjoy the satisfaction of having completed the journey. There is a drinks stall at the top!
- The High Place of Sacrifice and Wadi Farasa. A well marked stairway winds up to the High Place of Sacrifice. On a final jutting finger of rock can be found the altar, basin and drains where the Nabateans gave offerings to their gods. Views are expansive rather than revelatory – you can see a long way over the hills but few specifics of Petra itself can be made out. But that is made up by the walk back down through Wadi Farasa (Butterfly Valley). This was possibly my highlight of the entire trip. Standing with your back to the drinks stall, facing the obelisks, look out for two steps to your right. Once over these there is a trail, indistinct at first and only marked by cairns of stones and a couple of painted arrows. The crowds of Petra melted away. Instead new characters appeared – a black-robed woman selling necklaces, archaeologists at work, the elderly Bedouin coin-seller. You pass the Garden Tomb, the Roman Soldier’s tomb. I felt I was discovering Petra’s secrets for myself. Here a rocky overhang like an eagle’s beak, there a hole in a plain stone revealing exotic veining within. At one spot there was an overhang with red scalloped banding so beautiful it looked as though it had been worked by hand. I climbed up for a better look and in doing so found an incised god, a votive offering, etched into the rock face. The thrill of discovery was intense.
- Petra by Night. All the above can be seen on a basic visitor’s ticket. An additional ticket – on top of your basic ticket - is required for the Petra by Night experience. This takes you back into Petra after dark, a trail of tealights leading you on through the Siq. The final destination is the Treasury, its frontage illuminated by torches, the stars sparkling overhead. Here visitors sit while musicians play traditional music on the ney (flute) and rababa (a bowed fiddle). I lay back and stared up at the heavens, letting the exotic melodies transport me. The crowds were not quite as appreciative as I would have liked – I certainly would have found the atmosphere better if we had processed through the Siq in silence as requested rather than being surrounded by inconsequential chit-chat. But it is still an abiding memory of Petra for me.
World Heritage-iness: 5
My Experience: 5
(Visited August 2009)
UNique - 8/10
Nestled in the valley of Wadi Musa, protected by the narrow gorges and high vantage points, is Petra, the capital city of the ancient Nabatean kingdom. The kingdom was at the height of its political and economic significance and prosperity from the 4th century BC and until the Roman conquest in 2nd century AD. Romans continued construction in the city by expanding the amphitheater and adding tombs and temples. Using the sandstone of the valley, the inhabitants of Petra carved out their buildings directly out of the mountains. Due to the unique colour of the rock, the ancient city appears to glow ablaze in the setting sun.
ESsential - 10/10
Voted as one of the new Seven Wonders of the World, it is no surprise as Petra’s architecture exemplifies an intricate mixture between the Western Hellenistic and Mesopotamian cultures. The columned pediments of the Treasury and the Monastery provide a striking contrast to the impeccably flat facades of the Royal Tombs. Similar to Hampi and Pompeii, Petra provides a vivid snapshot of the entire civilization from its high religious and ritualistic monuments to the modest cave dwellings of the city dwellers.
COst-effective - 4/10
At the steep price of 55 Jordanian dinars for the two-day pass, Petra is definitely the most expensive Heritage Site I have visited. Having said that, the vastness of the complex really allows you to explore the city at your own pace and create your own itineraries off the beaten pass. For us personally, a two-hour hike from the Monastery to the Little Petra not only provided the much-appreciated respite from the crowds, but also allowed to look at the lesser known, yet more natural attractions of Petra.
Read more from Yuri Samozvanov here.
*Hums Indiana Jones theme* I was so looking forward to seeing the entrance to the cave to the holy grail! Imagine when I found out that it was all fake - Hollywood you got me again!! Honestly I didn't but I also didn't know that the treasury was off limits and didn't even go far or had anything special inside. The wall is still highly impressive after what was an amazing walk through the canyon, excited to reach it at any moment. The water flow system in the canyon is ingenious. The souvenir stands didn't even offer any Indiana Jones dress up anymore - I guess that time has gone - you can still buy a camel magnet though! Great!
I also should have ditched the tour guide. He kept telling the group to stick with him and called people leaving back to the group. The American college girls were right to go for the camel ride straight away and get away from us. The main reason was that with the limited time on this 24h tour from Egypt you only spend a couple hours at Petra; enough to see the main highlights but a little rushed (could have skipped the 1h shopping oops I mean bathroom break). Nobody from the group went up the hill to the additional rock caverns, although I find it impressive enough from the bottom. A masterpiece of design with the rock outcrops, the ruined city is still a wonder and the location was picked for a good reason. Defenses, water supply, caves to keep cool, plus you get Harrison Ford to come by and shoot a movie!
Yes, by now you figured the picture is actually from the Legoland in Dubai ;) I visited Petra in 2016 but I doubt much has changed since then. Way too many peddlers, camel riders annoy you, hot, dusty… but that didn't sour my experience in any way. A must see.
It probably goes without saying that Petra is an incredible site - one of the best in the world. I had high expectations before arriving and my visit exceeded them!
I spent about 10 hours at the site over just one day. I arrived with a tour group at about 6am and we toured around the main sights together until about 11am. Then I had another five hours on my own.
My first recommendation would be to get there early. It was magical arriving really early in the morning before other tourists arrived. Having the walk through the canyon without the crowds and then seeing the treasury (and being able to take photos) with nobody in front of me was incredible. I won't forget it soon!
There's a main path through Petra that you can follow and you'll see many of the main landmarks in the central area.
There are two other hikes you can do that I would recommend with one day. The first is the hike up to the Monastery - it's just as spectacular as The Treasury and the setting is special in a different way. The other hike is up to the viewpoint high above the Treasury, coming the back way from near the Royal Tombs. The view is beautiful and there are some nice cafes to take a rest.
If it helps anyone, I've put together a map and instructions on my blog with these tips of how to visit Petra in one day.
Read more from Michael Turtle here.
I visited Pera at the end of March, and spent a day and a half exploring the site.
-wear closed toed shoes! So many little pebbles got in my shoes.
-it's much larger than it seems from the outside. Give yourself all day.
-Petra at night isn't super exciting, but it is beautiful
Here's the post on my website with an interview from Jane Taylor, author of "Petra and the Lost Kingdom of the Nabataeans:"
Like many of my age, I suspect, my introduction to Petra was via "Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade", which used the iconic façade of the Treasury to represent a temple housing the legendary Holy Grail. Petra is easily the most recognizable site in Jordan, and was, not surprisingly, the first Jordanian World Heritage Site in 1985. The rock passage through the Siq to this ancient Nabatean city is memorable by day, but even more magnificent during Petra by Night, when the canyon and Treasury are lit up by candles. The ancient music left a bit to be desired for me, but I enjoyed the atmosphere and the shadowy reflections flickering on the rock faces. There is a lot to see in Petra, and long walks are almost guaranteed, unless you take up one of the many offers for camel or donkey rides. I particularly enjoyed the hike to the Monastery at the back of the city, as well as the climb to the High Place of Sacrifice, which offers amazing views of the ancient city below (bring water). At the front entrance to Petra is a museum which provides background on and context for the Nabatean tribes who built the city. Petra does not disappoint!
Logistics: Petra may be visited via private transportation, or by day tour from Amman, Jordan, or Aqaba, Israel; I'd recommend staying overnight outside Petra in order to fully appreciate the site. Tickets are also discounted for guests staying at least one night in Jordan. Petra by Night is currently held on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Thursdays.
I visited Petra during Christmas holiday in 2014. We drove all of Jordan. During our trip we really could see that the political situation in the area is keeping visitors away as at many places the amount of tourist was not much. Also in Petra we did not feel that it was busy. The site is spectacular. Most people know the treasury view as "Petra" but its so much more. We walked one day all the way to the monastery. and the second day to the high alter. For us this was enough to see the most important things. A must do of course. For photo's kindly see the website.
Read more from Chris here.
Of the 600k + people each year who enter Petra via the Siq and come to that iconic view of the Treasury I wonder how many are aware of the extent to which it has been enhanced by a degree of "rebuilding"from the site's ruined state. The attached pair of photos, taken from almost the same location, shows that one column, complete with a Corinthian capital, has been reconstructed, whilst the other 5 have been considerably restored. The origins of the 2 photos are
a. Taken in c1923 and scanned in from the book "Wonders of the Past". Ed - J.A Hammerton. Pub - Fleetway. It will have been "hand-coloured".
b. Taken by me in April 1994 in the days when one could still climb up the cliff opposite the Treasury - on my last re-visit in 2012 notices and barriers had been erected to prevent this! Another change is that entry to the Treasury through the columns was prevented in July 2001
A few Google searches have identified the history of this reconstruction. It turns out to have been done in 1961/2 (just before my first visit in 1964!). It is interesting to note that the reconstruction was created largely from original fallen elements (in shadow on the left in the earlier photo) whilst the upper part is said to have been "hollowed" to reduce the weight. See photos and description here - http://nabataea.net/trestoration.html.
This WHS is one of my favourite and deserves at least 3 full days to get a glimpse of such an immense site. There are several trekking trails to follow and others for you to discover and complete and peaceful solitude. The Treasury from the Siq is jaw-dropping but so is The Monastery (Deir). The colourful rocks close to the public toilets are incredible and the whole archaeological site is huge. Be on the lookout to spot the striking Light Blue Lizard that lives in the valley - really unique.
Petra holds a special place in my “travel memory” as, back in 1964, I visited it on my first major “expedition” whilst hitch-hiking from UK to Jerusalem (then in Jordan) and back. Since then I have revisited it 1999 and in 2012. Enormous changes have taken place to the “visit experience” over those years. Many of them are irreversible but that doesn’t mean that they are welcome – the concern now is what the coming years will bring and whether Petra itself can survive and provide a worthwhile visit?
In 1964 there was no entrance fee, I just signed in at the police check-point and slept overnight in one of the caves. There were almost no other visitors (though it was low season August) and, on my departure evening, I slept on the floor outside Wadi Musa police station as there wasn’t suitable lodging in what was then a tiny village – happy days! Of course there were no “Lonely Planet” guide books or similar and, although an on-site Archaeologist was helpful, I really saw the site “blind” and, inevitably, missed much of its significance. Visitor information boards had not yet reached the site!
By 1999 the place was transformed, with a busy (and rather untidy) town having grown up just beyond the entrance – and a 5* hotel. Entry fees had reached JD20. Our latest visit in 2012 identified even more people and more changes. Entry fees had risen beyond inflation – Jordan now gets JD50 per person and 90 for day-trippers from Israel and Egypt. It could probably get even more – tourists might grumble but, having traveled so far, few are going to miss the site for a few extra dinars
The daily maximum number of tourists in the UNESCO-approved management plan of 1994 was 1500. However, in 2009 the average daily number in April (the peak month) was 3195 and the max 4583. In 2010 these figures were 4015 and 5145. Annually, 93k visited in 1985 and this had reached 975k in 2010 (twice as many as when we had visited in 1999!) and plans are to increase this to 1.5 million as Jordan continues to market Petra as a tourism destination via activities such as “New Seven Wonders”
So what changes has this massive, and apparently inexorable, increase in visitors brought about?
a. Some locations, such as the Treasury and the theatre, have been permanently cordoned off because of erosion problems. Apparently most of the historic “makers marks” on the latter’s masonry disappeared within 10 years.
b. The site has lost its feeling of isolation with the village of Um Sayoun now clearly visible on the hillside as one enters from the Treasury. In 1964 Bedouin still lived in and ran their flocks in Petra (I remember a fine camel train but now the only camels are for tourist rides) – they were however removed in the 1980s and they have concentrated in villages close to the site.
c. The dreaded “Health and Safety” has made an appearance too! In 1999 we were still able to climb the cliffs behind the Treasury to obtain the fine views they provided. In 2012 there were notices prohibiting this. The entrance to the Monastery climb now has a notice warning that a guide should be taken. One can imagine that it could become obligatory in some locations or that some of the side routes will be closed altogether. But one can perhaps understand the reasons – the terrain is rough and wild. Apparently the search and rescue facilities are not adequate for the number of tourists (many of whom are even older and less mobile than we are!) and the accidents which occur.
d. Several striking new “toilet blocks” have appeared - the use of informal latrines by all those tourists can’t have been very pleasant! There was even a “toilet in a cave” (photo!!) where one could sit (or stand!) and look at the carving and the colours of the rocks! I wondered if it might have been this very cave where I had slept all those years ago. The design has been criticized as being “monumental” and apparently the WHC has written twice to Dept of Antiquities asking for their removal.
e. Formal restaurants have reached the site. Our day trip from Aqaba included a lunch at one of them. Stylish tented awnings softened the lines of solid buildings and I had high hopes when I noted that it was run by Crowne Plaza, but, in our opinion, the food was less good than one would have hoped for from that brand and we didn’t eat anything! Better to take a picnic and eat wherever you want!
f. In 1999 we had entered at 7 am and did find some relative peace and quiet – I would aim to go in at 6am now! Later, everywhere was crowded and “pinch points” like the Treasury were a bun fight. The track up to the Monastery was also a constant stream of people. The “hassle factor” was quite high, albeit in a reasonably friendly manner, but every ruin and every corner on the trail revealed yet another souvenir seller or drinks stall. I know they are only trying to make a living but the site would be more pleasant if the numbers were limited and the locations centralized.
Some aspects of the site have improved. The Siq path has been restored (by WMF) to what is thought to have been its original level after centuries of rubble accumulation. It was fully paved in Roman times and this has been left where it was found and, where not, a modern consolidated material has been laid to reduce dust etc. The Byzantine Church, which was only discovered in 1990, has been excavated to uncover its fine mosaics and these have been protected by a shelter.
And what further changes can be expected? A problem is that most visitors arrive in the same few hours – apparently a staggered/time stamped ticketing system is under development. Other plans include the introduction of “zones” and a trail system within the site and also the introduction of another exit (the current “need” for everyone to enter and exit through the Siq inevitably reduces the maximum capacity) – and this would need a shuttle service as well. On can imagine a very different visitor experience if these types of changes were introduced.
So, improved management might reduce some of today’s negatives – but I wouldn’t bank on it and it would seem likely that a visit in another 5 years would find it even more crowded, touristy and expensive. Still worth it but such a shame!
I was in Petra at the end of December and agree it is a place worthy of the designation of a World Heritage Site.
What a shame that it is being degraded by the camels, donkeys, touts, bazaars at all levels of the site (with nails even driven into the walls of the ruins), and kids allowed to climb all over the top of the monastery.
Come on UNESCO - get on top of the situation and get the Jordanians to take some pride in their site.
Any atempt to hype up this site would be futile, so huge, stupendous and icconoic is it. So I won't try I'll just say this one is an absolute must see.
When you are lucky enough to go two tips:
Firstly the large tented buffet serves the best felafel I've ever had!
And second if you get the chance do the night time Petra by candle light walk - what is breathtaking by day becomes a romantic dream when illuminated by hundreds of flickering flames........
Petra, is in my opinion one of the most high-ranking of all World Heritage Sites and if you are planning a visit, make sure you take your time. The ancient Nabataean, and later Roman, town is spread out over a large area and the alternative to walking is to use horse, camel or donkey so you’d better be a true friend of animals…
Traditionally, you enter Petra through the 1,2 km winding old canyon called The Siq, where the water once carved its way through the red sand stone over thousands of years. The many colors of the Siq has named Petra “Rose city” and the swirls and shades in the stone are just as fantastic as the ancient monuments.
After having slowly made your way through the Siq, you catch your first glimpse of The Treasury, a classical view of the most classical of all Petra temples. The amphitheatre and the many other enormous grave monuments are all carved out of the stone and after some further walking you reach the lower town and what was once the Roman area. Here you can relax at the restaurant before you decide whether you head back (4 km) or continue even further…!
My recommendation is to allow at least two days to visit Petra. And don’t go there in the summer when the temperature could rise above +40. But once you are there, don’t forget to also include an excursion to the most beautiful desert sceneries you’ve probably ever going to see in your life – Wadi Rum, 2 hours south towards Aqaba – where David Lean once filmed his masterpiece Lawrence of Arabia.
I lived in Wadi Musa, the town at the entrance to Petra, in the late 1970s. I worked on a conservation project in the surrounding hills for 2 years. The Bedouins still lived in the caves in Petra, and there were very few tourists. There was only one hotel (I lived in a small flat under the town's minaret...I woke early each day!). I had the good fortune of befriending a Bedouin family in one of the caves (Mohamed had married a New Zelander), and hiking around the exotic sights. I enjoyed the historical, cultural, and local culinary delights very much (mensaf was my favorite, the camel burger was unique but not so appetizing). I look forward to returning after 25 years to see if I can find my old friends, and see how Petra has been preserved.
The most famous site in Jordan, this spectacular ancient trading city can be reached through a 90 metre deep canyon in the mountain. The first thing you see after marching through the canyon is the infamous treasury; "el Khazneh" with its mighty colonnades carved right out of the colourful limestone rockface. All around are astonishing temples, burial chambers, stairs, bathhouses, canals and market areas and even a roman amphitheatre with a capacity of thousands of spectators, many of these also carved out of the rockface. In the distance, one can also see Um al-Biyara where spectacular views of the surrounding area can be enjoyed. This being a summer visit, however, the heat got the best of me and I ended my tour at the amphitheatre and sought shelter in the shade of the canyon.
Laura Lee Intscher
Petra was the most unexpected delight and one of my all time favorite places. It was more spectacular than I was expected. A local guide took me thru the gate - before offical opening time (he knew some gaurds - and perhaps some money changed hands). We hiked in the dark to the place of high sacrafice - to see the sunrise over the whole site. After going back down into the city in the valley below I explored the entire site - for hours on my own. I loved the color of the rocks, the remoteness and size of the place - and the general lack of hordes of tourists. Well worth a visit.
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