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Ancient Thebes

Ancient Thebes

Ancient Thebes with its Necropolis is an archaeological site that represents Egyptian civilization at its height during the New Kingdom (1570-1069 BC).

Thebes was its capital and the religious center. Successive pharaohs created temples, monuments, public buildings and tombs – to worship the god Amun and to glorify themselves.

The inscribed area includes the two great temples of Karnak and Luxor on the east bank of the Nile, and the Necropolis on the west bank.

Map of Ancient Thebes


  • Cultural

Visit April 2017

Thebes, what we now call Luxor, is one of the most ancient “tourist” destinations in the world. Already the ancient Greeks came here to marvel at the temples that were built by the Egyptian pharaohs. Later Christian and Muslim generations had much less respect for their forefathers, so it wasn’t until the 19th century that these sites were rediscovered by Europeans. The 21st century has brought Asian tourism to the spectrum: the Chinese are the only nation that dare to come here today en masse. It became especially popular since a visit of president Xi Jingping to president Sisi in 2016, which partly took place in the inner courtyard of Luxor Temple.

April 2017

The site was already inscribed as a WHS in 1979, with epithets such as “splendid”, “monumental” and “unique and unequaled”. It is also part of our Top 200. Not much of substance has been written about it yet among our reviewers though (sorry guys). Important to know is that it comprises 3 locations: the temple of Karnak and the temple of Luxor on the East bank of the Nile, and the Necropolis on the West Bank. Especially the latter is a collection of many temples and tombs, scattered around in a rural area and at the foot of a barren mountain ridge.

On my first day, after having visited the excellent Luxor museum as an appetizer, I started with Karnak Temple. Heavy security measures are in place at this and Luxor Temple: cars are searched, trunks have to be opened. People have to pass security booths everywhere (similar to Paris, where I was a few weeks ago), and armed guards hover at strategic road blocks. There’s actually not much glory to be gained for a bomber at the moment – the parking lot was nearly empty. Karnak stands out for its size, the size of everything actually. Much has been taken away (such as the obelisk that now is at the Place de la Concorde in Paris) or has fallen down. Its prettiest feature is the hypostyle hall, a forest of 134 massive columns (much thicker than the average Roman or Greek ones).

April 2017

Luxor Temple lies at the heart of modern Luxor, there’s even a McDonalds right next to it. A long row of sphinxes once connected Luxor Temple with the Temple of Karnak, 3 km’s away. Egyptian authorities are now rebuilding this monumental path. I think it’s important to be aware that Luxor is still changing every day – the path is nearly finished, statues are put upright, colourful ceilings have been restored. Luxor Temple has more sculptures and carvings than Karnak, and I found it more atmospheric.

During my second day in Luxor I went to the necropolis on the West Bank of the Nile. I had a driver and a guide with me, and we first had to cross the bridge which lies 20 minutes or so south of Luxor. Life on the “other” side of the Nile seemed more rural, especially sugarcane is harvested. We first stopped at the Colossi of Memnon – two enormous statues that once guarded yet another huge temple complex. German archaeologists are still excavating here, and the outline of the complex and other statues can already be seen.

Afterwards we went to the Temple of Habu – the favourite of my guide, and I can easily understand why as it is the most intact of all around Luxor. The Ramses that had this built was especially proud of his slaughter of enemies, as shown by carvings of bunches of hacked-off hands (with a scribe next to it counting the numbers). The ceilings here are well-preserved too, including their colours. The only issue is that birds have taken over many of the niches that are present in the cut sandstone.

April 2017

Finally I did go and see some tombs. At the one of Ramose, a Noble, I was the only visitor. The Tombs of the Kings however are the masterpieces. And that’s where they all take the few tourists that are left in Egypts nowadays! There surely where over 100 buses and cars at the car park, mostly used by daytrippers from the Hurghada resorts. Certainly they weren’t staying in Luxor. An entrance ticket here gives you access to 3 of the tombs out of the 12 or so that are open. Some “special” tombs (like the one of Tutankhamon) can only be entered for an extra fee. On recommendation of my guide I went into tombs number 6, 8 and 2. One with the longest corridor deep into the mountain, the other two with fantastic bright paintings. The lighting is very good, so one can really enjoy it all. Photography is forbidden in the Valley so you have to go and see it for yourself.

Community Reviews

Jay T USA - 19-Jun-16

Ancient Thebes by Jay T

The temples and monuments of Ancient Thebes, including the tombs in the Valley of the Kings and the Valley of the Queens, are a must-see for anyone interested in Egyptian history. I visited this area found in the modern-day city of Luxor at the end of a three-day Nile cruise by dahabiya in 2012. After viewing many beautiful, smaller temples along the river, I was a bit overwhelmed at the size of both the Karnak and Luxor Temples in Luxor. The columns in Karnak Temple's Great Hypostyle Hall were massive and covered with hierogylphs, and the walls seemed to stretch in all directions. Statues of pharoahs were found throughout both temples, and one of a former pair of obelisks remained in front of the Luxor Temple; the other obelisk was given to France in the 19th century, and can now be seen in the Place de la Concorde in Paris. Across the Nile River were a number of tombs, including the famous Tomb of Tutankhamen in the Valley of the Kings, and the fascinating mortuary temple of Queen Hatshepsut, which were well worth visiting. I enjoyed my time in Luxor, and recommend at least two days to spend viewing the sites (and even that may be too short). I also recommend drinking plenty of water, since I saw at least one tourist faint from dehydration.

Logistics: The great temples in Luxor are on the east side of the Nile in Luxor, while the tombs are on the west side of the Nile; these can be seen as part of a tour or by arranging private transportation.

Clyde Malta - 07-Sep-12 -

Ancient Thebes by Clyde

I visited the WHS in April 2010. It is the cradle of ancient egyptian civilization and includes the temples of Karnak and Luxor and the Valley of the Kings with Tutankhamen's tomb. I dreamt of visiting this WHS since I was child and would visit again in a heartbeat! Incredible!

Paula Fonseca Brazil - 25-Jun-11

Ancient Thebes, now named Luxor is everythig the books told us about Ancient Egypt. The Kings and Queens have their faces showed to you and you recognize all them. There, the Gods are expecting us at every corner you turn around. When you visit the tombs, temples, monuments there's a feeling you are visiting someplace marvellous and misterious and at the same time, that seems like your parents home.

John booth New Zealand - 16-Oct-10

Ancient Thebes by John Booth

The temples of Luxor and Karnak on the west bank and the Temple of Hatshepsut on the east bank of the Nile are simply amazing for the amount of work and effort that was expended creating them. Today, even with cranes and other machinery it would be difficult, but 5000 years ago it was all done by human power. And then followed all the work of painstakingly carving the designs and hyroglyphs. The effort surely dwarfs any construction project of the modern era.

Stewart ayukawa canada - 20-Jun-09

A visit to the Valley of the Kings and Queens is remarkable. The tombs were mesmerizing spectacles. The chambers might have once be filled with artifacts like the one of Tutankhamon fame. The hieroglyphics were stunning . some filled entire chambers. Some told stories on the ceilings or pillars. It was unlike anything anywhere. This is not a place that one can describe in words. It was very complex and otherworldly. I was much more impressed with the tombs than the great architectural achievements. Many of the artifacts found in the tombs is on display at the incomparable Egyptian Museum in Cairo.

Ben Pastore USA - 28-Apr-06

Once the religious center of ancient Egypt, the Temple of Karnak was as impressive as they come. And while repeated exposure to ancient sites tends to leave one jaded to a place's importance, Luxor and its surrounds still made for a wonderful place to wander about and image the glory of the days of the Pharoahs

Christer Sundberg Sweden - 25-Feb-06

Ancient Thebes by Christer Sundberg

You can cruise up and down the Nile in many ways. As a matter of fact it is quite an industry these days and I heard that over 600 vessels have a permit to operate on the river. Have I known better in advance, I would rather have embarked on a felucca for a couple of days even though I must admit that the luxury of the Mövenpick Nile Cruiser was quite enjoyable after all...

Working our way up the river, passing and visiting the temples of Edfu and Kom Obo my cruiser finally reached Luxor where I had decided to stay for a couple of days. I started with a visit to the valley of the Queens, which is less visited than the Kings and a better place to study the hieroglyphs and carvings in the ancient tombs. The graves of the valley of the Kings are of slightly larger proportions and despite the hordes of tourists it is quite exciting to enter the tomb of Ramses II and the other, since long gone, royalties of Egypt. I recommend you to skip Tutankhamen’s grave. It is very small and really nothing to see. The exhibition in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo on the other hand, is the place to go in this case.

The temple of Luxor and Karnak is an absolute must. If Luxor is impressing, Karnak is enormous and top of the pops when it comes to Egyptian temples and I read somewhere that over 80.000 people where working on the temple site in it’s heydays.

If you don’t want to do the full-fledged tour of Egypt, Luxor is the place to stay for a couple of days and indulge yourself in the ancient life of the pharaohs. I promise you it will be much rewarding.

Klaus Freisinger Austria - 29-Jun-05 -

It´s hard to believe that this is the first review for Thebes, since it´s not only one of the Egypt´s, but also one of the world´s greatest archaeological sites and definitely worth a journey. Most people will combine visiting Thebes with a cruise on the Nile, and this is highly recommended - easily beats any Mediterranean or Caribbean cruise! Thebes (as the Greeks called it - it was Weset in ancient Egyptian) is the capital of Upper Egypt and was the country´s centre throughout the Middle and New Kingdoms. It was much larger in Antiquity than it is today, but seeing everything in the area still takes up a lot of time (worth it). On the east bank of the Nile, the Luxor Temple is great, but can´t be beaten by the Temple of Karnak connected to it by an avenue of sphinges, truly a wonder of the world with its huge columns and the impressive hieroglyphs. They are both in the city of Luxor, which offers many conveniences for visitors, but you have to cross the Nile to the west bank to see even more stunning attractions: the Valley of the Kings, the Valley of the Queens, the Memnon Colossi, and the Temple of Hatshepsut, all located in a beautiful desert landscape. The tombs of the pharaohs can be visited (at least some of them), and this is something nobody should miss - truly a fascinating experience.

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Community Rating

Community Rating 4.75. Based on 12 votes.

Site Info

Full name: Ancient Thebes with its Necropolis

Unesco ID: 87

Inscribed: 1979

Type: Cultural

Criteria: 1   3   6  

Link: By Name By ID

Site History

  • 1979 - Inscribed 


The site has 3 locations.

  • Ancient Thebes: Ancient Thebes Necropolis
  • Ancient Thebes: Temple of Karnak
  • Ancient Thebes: Temple of Luxor


The site has 55 connections.



  • Obelisk
  • Dynastic Burial Places: Valley of the Kings
  • Necropolises
  • Historical zoos: Egyptian Queen Hatshepsut established a zoo in Thebes around 1490 BC
  • Sphinx: Great Sphinx of Thebes
  • Granaries: The Ramessuem - " behind the temple and the palace, were huge and extensive storerooms. Most of them appear to have been for grain, and had a hole in the roof through which sacks of corn could be poured. Barry Kemp has calculated that to fill all the granaries would have taken 226,328 sacks of grain, which would have been enough to feed 3,400 families for a year, and assuming an average sized family, this would mean 17,000 to 20,000 people" See  Link
  • Hypostyle: Most Egyptian temples contained a Hypostyle Hall. The most famous is "The Great Hypostyle Hall" at Karnak  Link




  • Assyrian Empire
  • Historical Food Remains: Tutanchamon Tomb (3,000 year old doum fruit)
  • Buried treasures: Tomb of Tutankhamun / by: Howard Carter / in: 1922/ now: Cairo Museum
  • Specified on Herodotus' Oikumene
  • Strikes: Around 1152BC the workers at Deir el Medina went on strike: the first documented strike in history!  Link
  • Contains significant structures from the 20th Century: New Gourna: built by Hassan Fathy, one of the best-known (and to me only-known) Egyptian architects of the 20th century, and is considered a prime example of the fusion of Modern architecture with traditional building techniques Link
  • Early Archaeology: Belzoni and Carter discovered many of the tombs in the 19th century. This was the first attempt to systematically excavate the Valley of the Kings, which had been a well-known source for antiques long before.
  • Oldest Buildings: 2100-2000 11th Dynasty tombs. Thebes was inhabited from around 3200 BC.. (and) was the capital of Egypt during part of the 11th Dynasty (Middle Kingdom) and most of the 18th Dynasty" Wiki (After which its use for burials continued throughout the New Kingdom period to the 20th Dynasty - 1189-1077BC). The 11th Dynasty ruled from c 2200BC to 1991BC approx and the tombs of its rulers are visible today at Thebes. Most of "its rulers were buried in complexes cut into low gravel hills at Tarif, at the northern end of the Theban Necropolis. Called saff tombs (saff meaning "row" in Arabic), these complexes were fronted by a long rectangular courtyard and a western portico consisting of a row of pillars behind which lay rock-cut offering chambers and burial crypts. Some think these saff tombs had pyramidal superstructures, but no traces of these now survive." Mentuhotep II (2061 - 2010BC) broke with tradition and had his mortuary temple built at Deir el-Bahar. This structure certainly had "buildings" with walls and roofs and its built ruins are visible today Link
  • Hittites: Representations of the Battle of Kadesh between the forces of Egypt and the Hittites (Ramesses II ("The Great") and Muwatalli II) exist in the Temples of Luxor and Karnak and at the Ramesseum. e,g The Karnak Hypostyle Hall. The "Poem of Pentaur" describes the Egyptian version of events on the walls and was first translated by James Henry Breasted in 1903. Link
  • Oldest continuously inhabited cities: Luxor, c. 3200 BC

Human Activity

  • Writing systems: Champollion came here and developed some of the ideas which led to his decipherment of the script
  • Mummies: Mummy of Ramesses II was found here (now displayed in Cairo museum). Also Tutankhamun and others
  • Board Games: Tomb of Nefertari with a mural showing her playing the ancient Egyptian game of "Senet"  Link
  • Masks: Burial mask of Tutankhamun's mummy
  • Astronomy and Astrology: Tomb at Deir el-Bahari: astronomical ceiling containing the oldest version of an Egyptian celestial diagram ever discovered Link
  • University of Chicago Oriental Institute: The OI's "Epigraphic Survey" has been operating on site since 1925 - originally in a building "behind" the Colossi of Memnon. See  Link

Individual People

  • King Chulalongkorn of Siam (Rama V): (9-10 Nov)
  • Giovanni Belzoni: in 1815 he removed the enormous bust of Ramesses II from the Ramesseum and had it shipped to England. Henry Salt presented it to the British Museum where it is still on display. On a return trip in 1817 he made a string of finds including the tombs of Ramesses I and Seti I
  • Queens and Empresses: Queen Hapsetshut (1508-1458BC) 5th Pharaoh of 18th dynasty. Several Buildings initiated by her - The red chapel of Hatshepsut in Karnak and the Deir el-Bahari Temple
  • Sir William Matthews Flinders Petrie: Discovered and interpeted the Merneptah Stele at Luxor in 1896. Though primarily about Libya, the inscription also refers to a people who Mernaptah had "smitten" during a military campaign in Canaan (c 1208 BC) which has been widely interpreted as specifying "Israel" ("Israel is laid waste and his seed is not") and is thus considered to be the "first probable instance of the name "Israel" in the historical record" (Wiki)
  • Prince Pückler: Karnak, Luxor temple, Ramesseum, Valley of Kings - tombs of Rameses IV and VIII
  • John D Rockefeller Jr: The excavations over many years at Luxor by the Chicago Oriental Institute (which itself had been founded with the assistance of Rockefeller) were funded by the Rockefeller Foundation). John D Rockefeller had a direct personal relationship with the Institute's founder Henry Breasted who had initiated a direct request to him for funds, and visited the dig in 1929.

Religion and Belief

  • Goddesses: Temple Precinct of Mut at Karnak  Link
  • Mosque: Abu Haggag Mosque, which stands atop the ruins of Luxor Temple Link



WHS on Other Lists

  • World Monuments Watch (past): Mortuary Temple of King Ahmenhotep III, Luxor (2004, 1998); Valley of the Kings, Luxor (2006, 2002, 2000); West Bank of the Nile, Luxor (2008)

World Heritage Process


250 community members have visited Ancient Thebes.