Early Archaeology

Archeological sites excavated before the 20th century.

Connected Sites

Site Rationale Link
Ancient Thebes Belzoni and Carter discovered many of the tombs in the 19th century. This was the first attempt to systematically excavate the Valley of the Kings, which had been a well-known source for antiques long before.
Danube Limes In multiple locations, excavations were conducted before the 20th century, e.g. Regensburg (2nd half of the 19th century), Künzing (1897-8), Schlögen (1838-40), Enns (mid 19th century), Carnuntum (from 1885), Bratislava-Rusovce (1888-91). (Nomination file, p. 106-108, 111, 117)
Lower German Limes "Lithography showing the first scientific excavation (1827–1834) at Voorburg-Arentsburg (Forum Hadriani)" (Nomination file, p. 48) – "Reuvens is famous for his excavations at the former estate of Arentsburg at Voorburg, where he lived in 1827–1834. Here, he uncovered parts of the Roman town of Forum Hadriani, recording his findings in excellent drawings and plans." (Nomination file, p. 88) – In 1820, "the first excavations in the area of the legionary fortress in Bonn took place." (Nomination file, p. 89) Between 1819 and 1844 Philipp Houben, who stood on the threshold between antique collecting and scientific archaeology, carried out extensive excavations in the area of the legionary camps, the CUT and the burial grounds at his own expense. (wiki)
Pompei Excavation of Herculaneum started at 1738. It was the first site ever to have been excavated.
Syracuse Altar of Hieron: "Amateur archaeological excavations were undertaken by Giuseppe Maria Capodieci in 1780, Saverio Landolina in 1813, and F.S. Cavallari in 1839. The only systematic and scientific excavations of the site were undertaken by Robert Koldewey and Otto Puchstein in 1893." (wiki)
Troy Excavation by Schliemann and Calvert started at 1865. It was the first time a historical text was connected to an archaeological excavation. This was also the first stratigraphic excavation.


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  5. Be explained, with reference to a source