All connections part of History.
|"Cave Man" sites||WHS whose prime value lies in Caves inhabited by prehistoric humans/archaic humans.||10|
|Abbasid Caliphate||The Abbasid Caliphate (749-1258) was the third of the Islamic Caliphates of the Islamic Empire, after overthrowing the Umayyad caliphs from all but Al Andalus.||8|
|Achaemenid Empire||The Achaemenid Empire (c. 550-330 BCE), sometimes known as First Persian Empire, was an empire in Southwest Asia, founded in the 6th century BCE by Cyrus the Great. It expanded to eventually rule over significant portions of the ancient world which at around 500 BCE stretched from the Indus Valley in the east, to Thrace and Macedon on the northeastern border of Greece.||12|
|Almohads||Sites connected to the Almohad Caliphate:
|Amarna Letters||The Amarna letters are an archive of correspondence on clay tablets, mostly diplomatic, between the Egyptian administration and its representatives in Canaan and Amurru during the New Kingdom.||7|
|Ancient Anatolian cultures||WHS representing or belonging to Ancient Anatolian civilizations.||6|
|Ancient Greek colonies||Colonies or trading posts of Ancient Greece||13|
|Ancient Roman colonies||Colonies or trading posts of Ancient Rome (outside of current Italy), with a significant Roman population.||38|
|Anglo Chinese Relations||WHS connected with significant events impacting the past and current relationships between China and England/GB/UK||4|
|Archaeological 'Type Sites'||WHS which are/include an archaeological "Type site". "In archaeology a type site .... is a site that is considered the model of a particular archaeological culture. For example, the type site of the "Pre-Pottery Neolithic A" culture is Jericho ..." and "An archaeological culture is a pattern of similar artifacts and features found within a specific area over a limited period of time. They are sometimes termed Techno-Complexes (Technology-Complexes) to differentiate them from sociological cultures" (Wiki). "Cultures" are commonly either named after their "type site" or the technology in use, but the type sites are not necessarily the most impressive or famous ones ,being named after the site at which the culture was first identified and defined. Provide some evidence that archaeologists regard the location as a "site type" and the name of the culture/period it relates to.
See also: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Type_site.
|Archaic Greece||The archaic period in Greece (800 BCE - 480 BCE) is a period of Ancient Greek history.||4|
|Assassinations||Assassinations taken place at a WHS having killed one or more notable persons.||29|
|Aurignacian||The Aurignacian is an archaeological tradition of the Upper Palaeolithic. It is associated with the earliest modern humans in Europe and their migration from the Near East. It first appeared in Eastern Europe around 43,000 BP, and in Western Europe between 40,000 and 36,000 years BP. (wiki)||4|
|Aztec Empire||WHS related to the Aztec Empire. The Aztec Empire was an alliance of city-states that ruled the area in and around the Valley of Mexico from 1428 until their defeat to the Spanish in 1521. At its height, the alliance controlled most of central Mexico as well as some more distant territories within Mesoamerica. Aztec rule has been described as "indirect".||5|
|Baltic Way||The Baltic Way was a peaceful political demonstration that occurred on August 23, 1989. Approximately two million people joined their hands to form a human chain spanning over 600 kilometres (370 mi) across the three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
See also Route Of The Unesco Worldheritage Cities In The Baltic States.
|Been part of independent Finland (de facto)||WHS, outside of the current borders of Finland, that have been part of independent Finland (de facto).||3|
|Berbers||The Berbers are a people ethnically indigenous to North Africa west of the Nile Valley. Today, most of the Berber people live in Northern African countries such as Algeria and Morocco. (wiki)
Sites must include physical remains or historic contributions made by Berber groups. Tuareg are considered as Berber.
|Birthplaces||WHS which derive a significant part of their OUV from being a "birthplace" (real or "believed").||5|
|British Military victories over France||4|
|Bronze Age Collapse||WHS Destroyed during the 'Bronze Age Collapse'.
The term “Late Bronze Age Collapse” refers to the period around 1200 - 1100BC when a significant change occurred in the nature of the civilizations occupying the lands of, and adjacent, to the Eastern Mediterranean. This was accompanied by destruction of the cities of those civilizations, the demise of their Kingdoms and a transition period, after which different and, at first smaller, entities emerged. The causes of these events have been assigned variously to technological advances, natural catastrophe and migrations. Whilst the empires of Egypt and Babylon were significantly impacted they managed to survive and the changes were greatest in the Eastern Mediterranean. In Greece the events were followed by the “Greek Dark Ages” and are thought to have influenced the story lines of later Greek epic poems such as the Iliad and the Odyssey capturing both the past glories and the chaos of the period. See
|Built in connection with an Anniversary||WHS which were constructed for or are closely linked to a historic Anniversary celebration/commemoration (either in total or via a major element which contributes significantly to the site’s OUV)||7|
|Built over the ruins of an Incan city||3|
|Bulgarian Empire||WHS connected to the First and Second Bulgarian Empires, a key regional power in Europ's medieval history.
The First Bulgarian Empire was established on the territory both north and south of the lower course of Danube River, and is usually described as having lasted between 681 and 1018, when it was subjugated by the Byzantine Empire.
The medieval Bulgarian state was restored as the Second Bulgarian Empire in 1185, and existed until it was conquered during the Ottoman invasion of the Balkans in the late 14th century.
|Byzantine Empire and Civilization||The Byzantine Empire is the term used to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire of the Middle Ages, centered on its capital of Constantinople until its fall to the Ottomans in 1453.||58|
|Camino Real||WHS connected with "Royal Roads" within the Spanish Empire. Excluding individual WHS also included within a larger inscribed "route".||5|
|Canaanite cultures||Non-Jewish Levantine cultures predating the occupations by Babylon, Persia, Greece and Rome (excluding the Phoenicians who enjoy their own connection).||3|
|Carolingian Empire||The Carolingian Empire of Charlemagne and his family (also known as Frankish Kingdoms"" ) covered parts of what is today Germany and France from the 5th to the 9th century."||10|
|Castaways or shipwrecked mariners||WHS with documented examples of castaways or shipwrecked sailors spending a significant period of time (i.e more than a few days) as the sole inhabitants before being rescued.||9|
|Chalcolithic||The Copper Age, also called the Chalcolithic is an archaeological period characterized by regular human manipulation of copper, but prior to the discovery of bronze alloys. Modern researchers consider the period as a subset of the broader Neolithic, but earlier scholars defined it as a transitional period between the Neolithic and the Bronze Age. (wiki)||5|
|Chinese Porcelain in Africa||WHS Archaeological sites in Africa in which Chinese Porcelain has been discovered.||3|
|Chola Dynasty||The Chola dynasty was a Tamil dynasty which ruled over parts of southern India (from the 3rd century BC until the 12th century AD).||3|
|Classical Greece||the Classical period corresponds to most of the 5th and 4th centuries BC (the most common dates being the fall of the last Athenian tyrant in 510 BC to the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC). The Classical period in this sense follows the Greek Dark Ages and Archaic period and is in turn succeeded by the Hellenistic period. (wiki)||5|
|Congresses and Conferences||Sites of Congresses, Conferences or Conventions. The meeting must have been historically significant. The buildings/location must be known and within the WHS. Legislative Parliaments are excluded (see separate Connection). Where a Congress/Conference led to the signing of a Treaty at the same location it is "connected" with the more "famous" title.||8|
|Contains significant structures from the 20th Century||WHS that hold an important structure from the 20th century, while the main part of the WHS itself belongs to an earlier century||22|
|Contains significant structures from the 21st Century||WHS that hold an important structure from the 21st century, while the main part of the WHS itself belongs to an earlier century||11|
|Coronation Locations||This includes all "installation" ceremonies for monarchs.||24|
|Declarations of Independence||Places where independence was declared.||8|
|Diplomatic Missions of Joseon Envoy Min Yonghwan||Min Yonghwan (1861-1905), was a minister of the Korean Empire and known as a conservative proponent for reform. He is remembered today for his efforts on behalf of Korean independence in the waning days of the Joseon dynasty and a statue to his memory now stands near the gates of Seoul's Changdeok Palace. In 1895, Min was appointed as the first ambassador to the United States. However, the murder of his aunt, the Empress Myeongseong, by Japanese troops in October 1895, prevented his taking up the post. In April 1896, Min was appointed special ambassador and sent to Russia to attend the coronation of Czar Nicholas II. After a six month journey Min returned to Korea in late October of the same year. In January 1897, Min was again sent to Europe as Korean envoy to the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria. These journeys served to further convince Min of the necessity of modernization. Upon his return to Korea, Min was an active supporter of the Independence Club.
On November 17, 1905, Japan succeeded in foisting upon Korea the Eulsa Treaty making Korea a Japanese protectorship. Min and many other officials pleaded with King Gojong to annul the treaty and execute the five Korean officials who had signed it, now widely referred to as the "Five Traitors of Eulsa" (Eulsa ojeok). But, his remonstrations were silenced by Japanese force, Min decided to commit suicide as a final act of resistance and protest by a loyal official. On November 30, 1905 Min cut his own throat. After his death, in his pockets were found five identical messages on the back of his calling cards to the representatives of China, Great Britain, the United States, France, and Germany in which he pleaded with those powers to recognize the true situation within Korea. He also left a final message directed towards the people of Korea, in which he promised to help his fellow countrymen "from the nether world" if they would strengthen their collective will and spirit and exercise their learning in an all out effort to "restore our freedom and independence." - Wiki
Plea found on the back of envoy calling cards:
Our twenty million citizens may be annihilated in the midst of their struggle for survival. Noble envoys, how can you not recognize Japan's purpose and also ignore Japan's actions? November 30th 1905
*Note all connection descriptions are from the personal travel diaries of Min Yonghwan during his travels as a Joseon envoy.
|Discovered during building of a Railway||WHS that have been Discovered during building of a Railway.||4|
|Displayed on the Madaba Map||The Madaba Map is part of a floor mosaic in the early Byzantine church of Saint George at Madaba, Jordan. The Madaba Map is a map of the Middle East. Part of it contains the oldest surviving original cartographic depiction of the Holy Land and especially Jerusalem. It dates to the 6th century AD.||3|
|Drifting Across the Sea: A Record of Ming China||Choe Bu (1454-1504) was a Korean official during the early Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910). He is most well known for the account of his shipwrecked travels in China from February to July 1488, during the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). Choe's diary accounts of his travels in China became widely printed in the 16th century in both Korea and Japan. Modern historians also utilize his written works, since his travel diary provides a unique outsider's perspective on Chinese culture in the 15th century and valuable information on China's cities and regional differences. The attitudes and opinions expressed in his writing represent in part the standpoints and views of the 15th century Confucian Korean literati, who viewed Chinese culture as compatible with and similar to their own. His description of cities, people, customs, cuisines, and maritime commerce along China's Grand Canal provides insight into the daily life of China and how it differed between northern and southern China during the 15th century. (Wikipedia)
"Choe Bu is determined to prove himself a good Confucianist and Korea a great Confucian state. Not only do the Koreans impress the Chinese with their behavior, but they are also well on the way to proving that they are respectable people. Good manners and Choe's Confucian learning save their lives." (Choe Bu's Diary, From the Introduction by John Meskill)
*Note all connection descriptions are from the travel diary of Joseon Official Choe Bu. (Choe Bu's Diary: A Record of Drifting Across the Sea)
|Early Hominid Remains||14|
|Eunuchs||Eunuchs were mostly servants or slaves who, because of their function, had been castrated, usually in order to make them reliable servants of a royal court where physical access to the ruler could wield great influence.
This connection includes courts where eunuchs were employed.
|Excavated by the Deutsche Orient-Gesellschaft||The Deutsche Orient-Gesellschaft is a German voluntary association based in Berlin dedicated to the study of the Near East.||6|
|Feudalism||Sites where the OUV is connected to Feudalism.||7|
|Forbidden City||WHS-cities that have been closed to outsiders / visitors for a certain period in history.||7|
|Formative stage||WHS with remains of the Preclassic (or Formative) Stage - the American equivalent to late Neolithic.
The dates, and the characteristics of the period called "Formative" vary considerably between different parts of the Americas:
- North America 1000 BC - 500 AD
- Mesoamerica 2000 BC - 250 AD
- South America 1800 BC - 200 BC
|Fusion||WHS where the OUV is derived from a fusion of cultural influences.||49|
|Golden Age of India||"The period between the 4th century and 6th century CE is known as the Golden Age of India because of the large achievements Indians made in the fields of science, technology, engineering, art, dialectic, literature, logic, mathematics, astronomy, religion and philosophy during the Gupta Empire. "||5|
|Golden Horde||The Golden Horde was a Mongol khanate (1241-1502) that invaded Russia and neighbouring regions.||9|
|Goryeo||Goryeo was a Korean kingdom established in 918 by King Taejo.||3|
|Guarani||Group of culturally related indigenous peoples of South America, distinguished by their use of the Guaraní language.||6|
|Gypsies||Sites connected to groups known as "Gypsies", that consist of Roma, Sinti or Dom people||7|
|Hanseatic League||The Hanseatic League was an alliance of trading guilds, active in Europe between the 13th and 17th centuries.||15|
|Helladic Greece||"Helladic is a modern archaeological term meant to identify a sequence of periods characterizing the culture of mainland ancient Greece during the Bronze Age... (c.3200–c.1050)" (wiki)||3|
|Hellenistic Greece||Hellenistic Greece is the historical period of the country following Classical Greece, between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the annexation of the classical Greek Achaean League heartlands by the Roman Republic (31 BC). (wiki)||10|
|Historic Resorts||WHS containing areas which developed significantly as "Resorts" for visitors - with structures for lodging, eating and entertainment etc. Excluding "occasional" hotels in National Parks or cities.
|Historical events||Whose OUV is directly/significantly derived from a single event of historical importance. Event and date must be named, including a link to the OUV text.||15|
|Historical Food Remains||26|
|History of Aviation||7|
|Hittites||WHS created by, or which refer to, the Bronze Age Anatolian Hittite empire (c1600-1180BC). See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hittites||6|
|Holy Roman Empire||The Holy Roman Empire was a realm that existed from 962-1806 in Central Europe. The empire's territory was centered on the Kingdom of Germany, and included neighbouring territories, which at its peak included the Kingdom of Italy and the Kingdom of Burgundy. For much of its history the Empire consisted of hundreds of smaller sub-units, principalities, duchies, counties, Free Imperial Cities and other domains.||13|
|Homeric Locations||Possible location for places referenced in the Iliad and the Odyssey||6|
|Indus Valley Civilisation||The Indus Valley (or Harappan) Civilisation was a Bronze Age civilisation in the northwestern regions of South Asia, lasting from 3300 BCE to 1300 BC.||3|
|Inscribed in connection with an anniversary||WHS inscribed on, or in connection with, the celebration or recognition of a major "anniversary" of the site. Sometimes the process takes place slightly out of sync with the actual anniversary because of the uncertainty of the timescale to gain inscription. Not all are successful. - UK had hoped to gain inscription of "Darwin at Down" to celebrate the 200th anniversary of Darwin's birth. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/culturenews/4392682/Charles-Darwins-home-nominated-as-World-Heritage-Site.html||6|
|Insurrections||WHS at which Insurrections took place aimed at overturning the established government (whether successful or not) and involving mass action or force.||13|
|Iron Age||WHS whose OUV derives entirely or significantly from Iron Age constructions. The Iron Age is the archaeological period generally occurring after the Bronze Age, marked by the prevalent use of iron. The dates and context vary depending on the geographical region.||20|
|Joseon Dynasty||Joseon (July 1392 - 1897) was a Korean sovereign state that lasted for approximately five centuries.||8|
|Judensau||"Judensau (German for "Jews' sow" or "Jewish sow")] is a derogatory and dehumanizing image of Jews in obscene contact with a large sow (female pig), which in Judaism is an unclean animal, that appeared during the 13th century in Germany and some other European countries; its popularity lasted for over 600 years" (Wiki). Still "in situ" within a WHS. Those in Wittenberg and Regensburg have nearby "explanatory" plaques which have been criticised for not being "explanatory" and "critical" enough.||5|
|Khmer Empire||The Khmer Empire was the largest continuous empire of South East Asia.||9|
|Khorezm empire||Khorezm or Khwarezm were a series of states in Greater Iran. Its capitals were Old Urgench and, from the 17th century on, Khiva.
|Knights Hospitaller||The Knights Hospitaller (also known as the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, Order of St. John, Knights of Malta, and Chevaliers of Malta) was a Christian religious/military order, and was charged with the care and defence of the Holy Land.||11|
|Knights Templar||The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon, commonly known as the Knights Templar or the Order of the Temple, were among the most famous of the Western Christian military orders. The organization existed for approximately two centuries in the Middle Ages.||8|
|Limes||WHS that are marking the borders of the Roman Empire.||3|
|Located in a Former Capital||With inscribed features which date to the period(s) when it was a Capital||204|
|Mamluk Sultanate||The Mamluk Sultanate (1250-1517) was a regime of a military caste of former soldiers of slave origin who had been converted to Islam. They were of varied ancestry but were often Kipchak Turks, Circassians, or Georgians.||6|
|Mayan culture||WHS with remains of Mayan culture.
The history of Maya civilization generally is divided into three principal periods: the Preclassic (c. 2000 BC – 250 AD), Classic (c. 250–900 AD), and Postclassic periods (c. 950–1539 AD).
|Medici||The House of Medici was a political dynasty, banking family and later royal house that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de' Medici in the Republic of Florence during the late 14th century. Several of the dynasty members were patrons of the arts.||7|
|Medici lions||WHS that contain the original or copies of the Medici lions, a pair of marble sculptures of lions: one of which is Roman, dating to the 2nd century AD, and the other a 16th-century pendant. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medici_lions||5|
|Megalithism||WHS connected to Megalithism, the culture surrounding the building of megaliths. The word megalithic describes structures made of such large stones without the use of mortar or concrete, representing periods of prehistory characterised by such constructions.||18|
|Mentioned by Pliny the Elder||WHS that feature in the encyclopedia of Pliny the Elder (Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23 - August 25, AD 79): Naturalis Historia||7|
|Mesopotamia||Mesopotamia is a name for the area of the Tigris-Euphrates river system, corresponding to modern-day Iraq, the northeastern section of Syria and to a much lesser extent southeastern Turkey, smaller parts of southwestern Iran and Kuwait.
In modern scientific usage, the term Mesopotamia is usually used to designate the area until the Arab Muslim conquests in the 7th century AD, with Arabic names like Syria, Jezirah and Iraq being used to describe the region after that date. (wiki)
|Mislabeled archaeological sites||Sites or immoveable objects therein that were named after a function or use that was proved to be wrong afterwards (and that name still persists).||3|
|Mousterian||Mousterian is a name given by archaeologists to a style of predominantly flint tools (or industry) associated primarily with Neanderthals (Homo neanderthalensis) and dating to the Middle Paleolithic, the middle part of the European Old Stone Age... The culture was named after the type site of Le Moustier, a rock shelter in the Dordogne region of France. Similar flintwork has been found all over unglaciated Europe and also the Near East and North Africa (Wiki - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mousterian )||7|
|Mughal Empire||The Mughal Empire ruled most of the Indian subcontinent from the early 16th to the mid-19th centuries.||10|
|Nabatean culture||The Nabataeans were ancient peoples of southern Jordan, Canaan and the northern part of Arabia, whose oasis settlements in the time of Josephus (AD 37 - c. 100), gave the name of Nabatene to the borderland between Syria and Arabia, from the Euphrates to the Red Sea. Their loosely-controlled trading network, which centered on strings of oases that they controlled, where agriculture was intensively practiced in limited areas, and on the routes that linked them, had no securely defined boundaries in the surrounding desert.||6|
|Neanderthals||WHS where traces of occupation by Neanderthals have been found.||7|
|Neolithic age||The Neolithic or New Stone Age (period in time varies per geographical area)||57|
|Nine Years' War||The Nine Years' War (1688–1697) was a conflict between France and a European coalition which mainly included the Holy Roman Empire (led by the Habsburg Monarchy), the Dutch Republic, England, Spain, Savoy and Portugal. It was fought in Europe and the surrounding seas, in North America, and in India. It is sometimes considered the first global war. (Wikipedia)||6|
|Normans||Descendants of Vikings who, in the 10th century, settled on land in northern France (later "Normandy") granted to them by Charles the Simple. Intermarried with the Frankish/Gallo-Roman natives and adopted the local Romance language Conquered land in Italy in 1030 and took over most of S Italy by 1099. Invaded England in 1066. Were involved in military adventures in Wales, Scotland and and in Crusader States (particularly Antioch) in the Middle East. This connection is limited to locations which are significant in Norman History since "Romanesque Architecture" as developed by the Normans has its own Connection.||8|
|Oldest Buildings||WHS containing remains of the world's oldest "buildings" - Cut off date 2000BC. A "Building" is defined as any man-made structure which originally had a roof and walls. This definition excludes caves, standing stones/circles, and "Dolmens" (single chamber megalithic tombs) but allows more complex "passage tombs". Show approx date. Where a WHS contains buildings of different ages only the oldest is identified. Identify specific structures and/or locations meeting the definition rather than referring merely to a general statement of "period of occupation".||20|
|Oldest continuously inhabited cities||WHS located in one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world.
Cut off date = later than 1000 BC
|Omani Sultanate of Zanzibar (Zanj)||3|
|Once Claimed for the USA||3|
|Ottoman Empire||The Ottoman Empire was a Turkish-ruled state spanning much of Southeastern Europe, the Middle East and North Africa (1299-1922). Connected sites must have visible remains from that era.||29|
|Paid in Beer||WHS where records exist that workers at the site have been paid in beer.||3|
|Palaeolithic and Mesolithic||Significant Palaeolithic and/or Mesolithic sites||26|
|Paleo-Indian||The Paleo-Indian (or Lithic) Period is a stage in archeological chronology that covers the First human habitation of the Americas. It consisted of small groups of hunter-gatherers which entered the area when ice-free corridors developed. They used stone tools.
It includes remains of both Clovis and pre-Clovis cultures, of which the latter is further explained in a separate connection: “Pre-Clovis archaeological sites in the Americas”.
The Paleo-Indian is followed by the Archaic period, when agriculture was developed and people started settling down in larger groups. The Archaic started around 8,000-7,000 BCE (timelines differ per region, can be later, up to 3,500 BCE).
|Pentapolis||WHS which are or were once a "Pentapolis" or a part of one. "A Pentapolis is a geographic and/or institutional grouping of five cities" See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pentapolis.||5|
|Phoenician world||Sites that were part of the Phoenician cultural empire or trading world.||13|
|Pisan colonies||Colonies and trading posts from the Republic of Pisa (11th-14th century)||6|
|Places of Execution||a. Locations of state-organised judicial/quasi-judicial executions
b. Operated over a period or on a number of occasions such as to achieve historical "notoriety"
|Popes||The Pope is the leader of the Roman Catholic Church. So far there have been 265 of them (since the first century AD).
P.S.: we're not going to include all sites ever visited by a pope - just those that are strongly linked to one or all of them
|Pre-Clovis archaeological sites in the Americas||WHS with remains of pre-Clovis cultures in the Americas, ending the "Clovis first" consensus. Roughly 13,000 years BP and earlier.
|Pre-Inca cultures||Sites of Pre-Inca cultures within the Inca Empire.||11|
|Pueblo culture||WHS created by Ancestral Puebloans, "also known as the Anasazi, were an ancient Native American culture that spanned the present-day Four Corners region of the United States" (wiki) and Northern Mexico, or related to present-day Pueblo people.||5|
|Punic Empire||Empire of the city-state of Carthage (also sometimes referred to as Western Phoenician)||7|
|Qhapaq Nan (Inca)||Inca communications and cultural network||13|
|Queens and Empresses||WHS significantly connected with a Queen or Empresss "Regnant" (ie. a monarch reigning in her own right as opposed to a Queen "Consort" or "Dowager"- see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_queens_regnant ), and where there are physical remains directly connectable to the Queen. (Excluding sites solely connected as a "dynastic burial place" containing the tomb of the queen among others which has its own connection)||22|
|Republic of Genoa||The Most Serene Republic of Genoa was an independent state in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast from 1005 to 1797.||10|
|Republic of Venice||The Republic was an Italian state originating from the city of Venice. It existed from the late 7th century until the late 18th century.||15|
|Residences of Roman Emperors||Palaces/Villas etc built/owned by Roman Emperors. Specify emperor and approx dates.||6|
|Roman monuments converted into churches||5|
|Roman Province in its official title||WHS whose official title references a Roman Province. The number and boundaries of Roman Provinces varied across the history of the Republic and Empire as a result of conquest and reorganisation. Any province created during these periods whose name is reflected in the official title of a WHS is valid. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_province||10|
|Sassanid Empire||The Sassanid Persian Empire is the last pre-Islamic Iranian empire. It was one of the two main powers in Western Asia for a period of more than 400 years (224-651).||9|
|Second World War||Sites (named locations) where significant events during the course of WWII took place, that played an important role during WWII or which are strongly related to its memory.
Significant WWII battles are listed in the Sieges and Battles connection, wartime damage is listed under the Damaged in WWII connection and there is also Forced labour during WWII .
|Seljuk Empire||The Seljuq Empire controlled a vast area stretching from the Hindu Kush to eastern Anatolia and from Central Asia to the Persian Gulf. From their homelands near the Aral sea, the Seljuqs advanced first into Khorasan and then into mainland Persia before eventually conquering eastern Anatolia. The Seljuq empire was founded by Tughril Beg in 1037. (wiki)||8|
|Shell Mounds (Middens)||A shell midden or shell mound is an archaeological feature comprised mainly of mollusk shells.||13|
|Sieges and Battles||WHS within whose boundaries a "Siege" or "Battle" took place for which a reference of it subsequently being called such is available. (Possible sources - Wiki's "List of Battles" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_battles or "List of Sieges" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sieges).||81|
|Silk Roads||The Silk Roads comprised a network of ancient trade routes across Central Asia that linked people, ideas, goods, technology, and diseases from Rome to China during the period from c. 500 BCE to 1500 CE. See this blog post about how the sites below were selected.||72|
|Songhai Empire||From early 15th to late 16th centuries Songhai was one of the largest African Empires in history. It had grown out of a small 11th centry state centred on Gao, Mali. Its decline was marked by a heavy defeat at the hands of Moroccan forces of the Saadi dynasty in 1591. They went on to sack its cities and effectively destroy the Empire but were unable to exercise continuing control over the area which splintered into small kingdoms.||4|
|Spanish Royal Residences||7|
|Specified on Herodotus' Oikumene||Herodotus Oikumene (world Map) did not survive in its original but was described by several Greek scholars and was reconstructed during the Middle Ages. See map.||7|
|Strikes||WHS which have been locations for "historically significant" strikes.||3|
|Summer residences||WHS connected with sites created as or containing significant numbers of summer residences for rulers and ruling classes to escape from the heat and bustle of the capital||10|
|Tatars||Tatars are a Turkic ethnic group numbering 6 to 7 million in the late 20th century. The majority live in Russia, while the original Tatars inhabited the north-eastern Gobi in the 5th century and, after subjugation in the 9th century by the Khitans, migrated southward. In the 13th century, they were subjugated by the Mongol Empire under Genghis Khan. Under the leadership of his grandson Batu Khan, they moved westwards, driving with them many of the Turkic peoples toward the plains of Russia.||8|
|Teutonic Knights||The Order of the Teutonic Knights of St. Mary s Hospital in Jerusalem, or for short the Teutonic Order is a German Roman Catholic religious order. It was formed to aid Christians on their pilgrimages to the Holy Land and to establish hospitals to care for the sick and injured. Its members have commonly been known as the Teutonic Knights, since they also served as a crusading military order during the Middle Ages. The membership was always small and whenever the need arose, volunteers or mercenaries augmented the military forces.||9|
|The British East India Company (EIC)||WHS connected to the British East India Company. English (later British) joint stock company formed in 1600 to trade with the East Indies. "The Company eventually came to rule large areas of India with its own private armies, exercising military power and assuming administrative functions.[Company rule in India effectively began in 1757 after the Battle of Plassey and lasted until 1858 when, following the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the Government of India Act 1858 led to the British Crown to assume direct control of India in the new British Raj." (Wiki) See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_India_Company||3|
|The Inquisition||Where a building or location significant to the process remains within an inscribed area.||7|
|The Tetrarchy||WHS connected with "The Tetrarchy" - the system initiated by Diocletian of having 4 rulers for the Roman Empire. The basic organisational structure was to have a separate ruler or "Augustus" for each of the Western and Eastern empires with each "helped" by an heir apparent known as a "Caesar" who would later move up to be Augustus. After 20 years the Augustae were supposed to retire - but only 1 successful rotation took place - in 305. Each ruler had a territory - leading to the creation of "multiple" capitals for Italy, East, Gaul and Illyricum. It lasted in various forms from 293 AD to 324 though it began to break down in 305 and the period after 313 was one of internecine conflict until Constantine emerged victorious in 324 uniting the empire and declaring himself the sole "Augustus" (but now ruling from the East). The "personnel" involved included - Diocletian, Maximian, Constantius, Galerius, Severus, Maximinus, Licinius, Maxentius and Constantine.||6|
|Thirty Years' War||The Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) was one of the most destructive conflicts in European history. The war was fought primarily (though not exclusively) in Germany and at various points involved most of the countries of Europe.||10|
|Thomas Cook Round the World tour 1872-1873||WHS recorded as having been visited by by the first ever round the world tourist trip as organised and accompanied by Thomas Cook (1808-92) - pioneer of organised tourism. Duration - 222 days in 1872/3. Cost - 200 guineas. Route - US (New York - the Statue of Liberty wouldn't be built until 1886, Niagara Falls, Detroit, Chicago, Salt Lake City, Sierra Nevada, San Francisco), Japan (Yokohama, Nagasaki, Osaka, Hiogo/Kobe, Yedo), China (Shanghai, Hong Kong), Malaya (Singapore, Penang), Ceylon (Galle), India (Madras, Calcutta -, Benares, Agra, Kawnpore, Lucknow, Delhi, Jubblepore, Bombay - but before the Victoria Terminus was built in 1887), Egypt/Palestine (Suez, Cairo, Jaffa, Jerusalem, Damascus, Baalbek, Beyrout, Constantinople)
"On completion of the tour, on or around the 6th of May, I hope to be able to satisfy the demands of inquirers about the practicability and expense of tours around the World" (Written from Constantinople)
|Thracians||The ancient Thracians were a group of Indo-European tribes inhabiting areas in Southeastern Europe.||4|
|Three Kingdoms of Korea||The Three Kingdoms of Korea refer to the ancient Korean kingdoms of Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla, which dominated the Korean peninsula and parts of Manchuria for much of the 1st millennium CE. The Three Kingdoms period ran from 57 BCE until Silla's triumph over Goguryeo in 668.||5|
|Time Capsules||WHS where Time Capsules have been hidden (or found).||4|
|Trans Saharan trade routes||WHS connected with the trade routes which linked sub-Saharan Africa with the Mediterranean. These did exist in Ancient times but had their high point much later after the introduction of the Camel around 3C AD such that "regular trade routes did not develop until the beginnings of the Islamic conversion of West Africa in the 7th and 8th centuries. Two main trade routes developed. The first ran through the western desert from modern Morocco to the Niger Bend, the second from modern Tunisia to the Lake Chad area. These stretches were relatively short and had the essential network of occasional oases that established the routing as inexorably as pins in a map. Further east of the Fezzan with its trade route through the valley of Kaouar to Lake Chad, Libya was impassable due to its lack of oases and fierce sandstorms. A route from the Niger Bend to was abandoned in the 10th century due to its dangers" (Wiki) The main goods included gold and slaves going north and Salt going south. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trans-Saharan_trade||9|
|Treaties||Sites where treaties were signed See Wiki for definition of a "Treaty". Location/building of signing must be known and within the WHS. Declarations of Independence do not fit the definition (see separate Connection). Where a Treaty/Agreement was signed at the same location as a connected "Congress/Conference" it is "connected" with the more "famous" title.||12|
|Umayyad Caliphate||The Umayyad Caliphate (660-750) was the third largest contiguous empire in the world. It reigned from Damascus and later Harran. After its demise in Syria, it survived on the Iberian peninsula and transformed into the Umayyad caliphate of Cordoba.||16|
|Underwater Archaeology||Sites with underwater remains in the core zone.||11|
|Via Francigena||The Via Francigena is ancient road and pilgrims route between Canterbury and Rome, which passes through England, France, Switzerland and Italy||7|
|Via Maris||Name given post hoc to a Bronze Age trade route linking Egypt with the empires of Syria, Mesopotamia and Anatolia. The exact route described by the term is difficult to determine since it varied over time, had several branches and archaeological views about it have varied. The current name has been Latinised from "The Way of the Sea" (Isaiah 9:1) and seems to have been adopted in late C13 as meaning the total coastal route from Egypt to the Northern Levant and beyond. Some scholars believe however that the Isaiah was refering only to a route from Meggido to Tyre.
|VOC||The VOC (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie) or Dutch East India Company was a chartered company established in 1602, when the States-General of the Netherlands granted it a 21-year monopoly to carry out trading and colonial activities in Asia.||5|
|WIC||The Dutch West India Company (Dutch: Westindische Compagnie or WIC) was a chartered company of Dutch merchants. On June 2, 1621, it was granted a charter for a trade monopoly in the West Indies (meaning the Caribbean) by the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands and given jurisdiction over the African slave trade, Brazil, the Caribbean, and North America. (wiki)||7|
|Women Explorers||WHS which are linked to noteworthy female achievements in the realm of Exploration.||4|
|Zapotec civilization||WHS related to the Zapotec civilization. This was an indigenous pre-Columbian civilization that flourished in the Valley of Oaxaca. The Zapotec referred to themselves as Be'ena'a, which means "The People".||3|