Damaged in World War II

Sites that were severely damaged during the Second World War.

Connected Sites

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Aachen Cathedral Aachen, including its famed cathedral, was heavily damaged by Allied bombing attacks and artillery fire, but the cathedral's basic structure survived.... the glazing of the 14th-century choir hall, the Neo-Gothic altar, a large part of the cloister, and the Holiness Chapel (Heiligtumskapelle) were irretrievably destroyed (wiki)
Asmara President's Palace
Baroque Churches Wiki "The Church of San Agustin ....survived the bombardment of Intramuros by American and Filipino forces with only its roof destroyed, the only one of the seven churches in the walled city to remain standing. The adjacent monastery suffered total destruction. Architect Angel Nakpil designed the rebuilding of the structure as a museum in the 1970s."
Belfries The belfry of Abbeville was nearly completely destroyed by bombardments in 1940. The belfry of Amiens was also bombarded in 1940. (Nomination file, p. 46, 47) The belfry of Bergues was severely damaged during the Second World War. (Nomination file, p. 7) The bell floor was hit by a fire bomb in May 1940. Although they were retreating, the Germans dynamited the belfry in September 1944.
Bergpark Wilhelmshöhe Bis ins Jahr 1945 flog die Royal Air Force mehrere Angriffe auf die durch die Rüstungsindustrie für die Kriegswirtschaft des Nationalsozialismus wichtige Stadt Kassel. Dabei wurde der Bergfried der Löwenburg grosstenteils zerstört (übrig blieb nur der Treppenturm mit einigen Mauerresten) und weite Teile der Anlage schwer beschädigt (wiki de)
Bisotun "The monument later suffered some damage from Allied soldiers using it for target practice in World War II, during the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran" (Wiki)
Budapest During the retreat, Germans blew up all the bridges over the Danube. The whole city was destroyed during the two-month-long siege of Budapest (1944-1945). ... more than 80 percent of its buildings destroyed or damaged, with historical buildings like the Hungarian Parliament Building and the Castle among them. All seven bridges spanning the Danube were destroyed.
City of Bath "Bath suffered three air raids in reprisal for RAF raids on the German cities of Lübeck and Rostock, part of the Luftwaffe campaign popularly known as the Baedeker Blitz. Over 400 people were killed, and more than 19,000 buildings were damaged or destroyed. Houses in the Royal Crescent, Circus and Paragon were burnt out along with the Assembly Rooms, while the south side of Queen Square was destroyed. All have since been reconstructed, and regeneration work is continuing."
Classical Weimar Zerstört oder schwer beschädigt wurden unter anderem das Goethe- und das Schiller-Haus, die Stadtkirche St. Peter und Paul, das Deutsche Nationaltheater (das lichterloh ausbrannte), das Wittumspalais, die Markt-Nordseite und das Stadthaus. (Wiki)
Cologne Cathedral Suffered fourteen hits by aerial bombs during World War II, without collapsing
Colonies of Benevolence Originally, the living quarters of the farm at the Wortel component were situated at the crossroads, but after having been damaged during World War II it was rebuilt as a south wing of the existing farm complex. (Nomination file, p. 60)
Corfu Municipal Theatre of Corfu
Curonian Spit "The battles of January 1945 saw considerable destruction of the woodland cover from fire, bombing, and the movementof heavy vehicles. Restoration work began after World War II and has continued with success" (AB eval))
Eisinga Planetarium "During a bombing raid in World War II, a bomb fell about 150 metres from the planetarium, which led the cogwheel mechanism to come to a standstill and the Mercury wheel broke in two. It was replaced by an identical one, after which the mechanism was put back into operation." (AB ev)
Ferrara "During World War II", the Castello Estense "was severely damaged by Allied aerial bombing, thus it was partially reconstructed in 1946." The Teatro Comunale also suffered badly.
Florence Florence bridges
Genbaku Dome Originally the Hiroshima Prefectural Industrial Promotion Hall, it survived as a ruin at the atomic bombing of Hiroshima on 6 August 1945.
Ghadames "Until World War 2, Ghadames was the home of Libya's oldest mosque, the Atik...built in 666, but destroyed by Allied bombing. A new mosque has been erected in its place."
Graz Despite being one of the heaviest bombed towns in Austria,the Old Town of Graz was not seriously hit as the allies concentrated on the manufacturing and railway areas BUT there was 1 significant piece of damage - The stained glass windows of the oldest church, the Stadtpfarrkirche, "were destroyed.... The new windows, designed by Albert Birkle from Salzburg caused controversy as they showed Hitler and Mussolini among the torturers of Jesus."
Great Spa Towns of Europe "the famous Weilburg Palace in Baden bei Wien, destroyed during the last days of World War II" – City of Bath: "During World War II, much of this southern part of the city was destroyed by German aerial bombing raids, prompting large-scale reconstruction after the war ended." (Nomination File, p. 362, 442)
Gusuku of Ryukyu Shuri area was totally destroyed in WWII
Hildesheim Cathedral and Church St. Michael's Church was destroyed in an air raid during World War II on 22 March 1945 (wiki)
Le Havre As a result of numerous air-raids during World War Two, the port of Le Havre lost its administrative and cultural center as well as much of its housing in the center of the city.
Lednice-Valtice Cultural Landscape Jagdschloss Katzelsdorf
Lübeck During World War II (1939–1945), Lübeck became the first German city to suffer substantial Royal Air Force (RAF) bombing. The attack of 28 March 1942 created a firestorm that caused severe damage to the historic centre. This raid destroyed three of the main churches and large parts of the built-up area; the bells of St Marienkircke plunged to the stone floor. (wiki)
Malbork Castle The Castle was partly destroyed by artillery bombardment in 1945, at the end of World War Il.
Mathildenhöhe Darmstadt "The following buildings were damaged in the late summer of 1944 during the Second World War: the Behrens, Christiansen, Habich, Keller and Olbrich houses from the 1901 exhibition; the Three House Group from the 1904 exhibition; the Exhibition Hall from the 1908 exhibition; and the group of tenement houses from the 1914 exhibition. Some of the damaged buildings were removed during the 1950s. Others were rebuilt differently or converted for new uses. The Ernst Ludwig House was purchased by the city in 1951 and converted for cultural use. Damaged buildings that were in public ownership, such as the Exhibition Hall, were safeguarded after the war." (Ab Ev)
Medina of Sousse The ribat at Sousse was damaged during the 1943 shelling of the city during the North African campaign of the Second World War. (Archnet)
Mehmed Paša Sokolović Bridge Five of its 11 arches were damaged during World War II
Melaka and George Town Between 1944 and 1945, Royal Air Force and United States Army Air Force bombers from India repeatedly launched bombing raids on George Town, seeking to destroy naval and administrative facilities. Several colonial buildings were destroyed or damaged, such as the Government Offices, St. Xavier's Institution, Hutchings School (now the Penang State Museum) and the Penang Secretariat Building.
Meteora The area was bombed during WWII e.g The 14 century Agios Stefanos .... Much of the monastery was destroyed during World War Two and the Greek civil war that followed
Mining Sites of Wallonia Blegny-Mine colliery (destructed)
Museumsinsel (Museum Island) Neues Museum: In the bombardments on 23 November 1943, the central stairway and its frescos were burned, along with other great treasures of human history. In February 1945, Allied bombs destroyed the northwest wing as well as the connection to the Altes Museum and damaged the southwest wing as well as the south-east façade (wiki)
Muskauer Park Both castles and the bridges were severely damaged, other constructions were totally flattened and never rebuilt
Naples Convent of Santa Chiara almost entirely destroyed bt Allied bombings in WWII
Nice "Despite aerial bombardments in 1944, only a few buildings were destroyed during the Second World War." The casino de la Jetée promenade was destroyed and never rebuilt. (Ab Ev) (Nomination file, p. 288-289)
Novgorod German troop destroyed Nereditsa church.
Odesa "The city also suffered some severe damages and many casualties during the Second World War." (AB ev)
Padua’s fourteenth-century fresco cycles most of Mantegna'a frescoes at the Ovetari Chapel (Eremitani)
Papahanaumokuakea damaged by Japanese and US forces during the Battle of Midway in June 1942
Piazza del Duomo (Pisa) Campo Santo: on 27 July 1944 incendiary bombs dropped by Allied aircraft set the roof on fire and covered them in molten lead, all but destroying the tombs and their frescoes (wiki)
Plantin-Moretus Museum damaged in 1944 bij a german V2-rocket
Pompei Hit by Allied bombs in Nov 1943
Prague Neo-Gothic part of the Old City town hall entirely blown up by the Nazis
Quanzhou Luoyang Bridge was destroyed during the Sino-Japanese War.
Regensburg Despite having the Messerschmidt factory nearby, which was heavily bombed, the old town escaped damage. Except for the historic "Steinerne Brücke" (Stone Bridge) of 1145, one pier of which was blown up by the Nazis in an attempt to stop the US armies!!
Rhodes German-occupied medieval city bombed by British in 1944
Rietveld Schröderhuis "During World War II a lorry carrying ammunition exploded on the ring road not far from the house. All the windows were shattered and cracks appeared in the masonry of the south wall. The windows were repaired, but with some differences compared to the originals. (AB ev)
Riga By the end of the war, Riga's historical centre was heavily damaged because of constant bombing. One of the damaged buildings was St. Peter's Church, which lost its wooden tower after a fire caused by the Wehrmacht. Another example is The House of the Blackheads, which was completely destroyed. Its ruins were subsequently demolished and a facsimile was constructed in 1995.
Rjukan / Notodden Germany took over Rjukan’s facilities during WWII and built installations to produce heavy water shipped to Germany for use in controlling nuclear fission. Rjukan consequently became the focus of sabotage attacks by the Allies (AB ev)
Salzburg Allied bombing destroyed 7,600 houses and killed 550 inhabitants. A total of 15 strikes destroyed 46 percent of the city's buildings
San Gimignano San Gimignano was bombarded during ten days by the Americans. The bell of the Torre Grossa was destroyed, a house on the central square and part of the cathedral collapsed. Some people were also killed.
Santa Maria delle Grazie Much of the refectory was destroyed in 1943, but some walls survived, including the one that holds the Last Supper
Schönbrunn central wing and gloriette
Sites of Japan's Meiji Industrial Revolution Likely several components, but specifically the Bombing of Yawata Steel Works - mostly a failure but at least one bomb hit the site: "These photos showed that only a single bomb had landed within the Imperial Iron and Steel Works complex, and it had hit a power house 3,700 feet (1,100 m) from the nearest coke oven."
Speicherstadt and Kontorhaus District "About half of the Speicherstadt was damaged or destroyed during the Second World War. Warehouse blocks A, B, C, J, K, M, and the eastern part of block O were almost completely destroyed. No attempt was made to rebuild blocks A, B, C, and J (in their place, outside the nominated property, is the modern Hanseatic Trade Center). Only the façade of block M was saved. The damage to blocks D, E, and L was less extensive. Architect Werner Kallmorgen oversaw reconstruction of Speicherstadt in the 1950s and 1960s. Some damaged buildings were rebuilt – with varying empathy for the original designs – while others were replaced with modern buildings. The most recent construction (2003-2004) was a multi-storey car park that has the same general dimensions as block O, on whose site it stands." (AB)
St. Petersburg Ropsha Palace (still in partial ruins)
Stralsund and Wismar Wismar - " The 80 m high tower church of St Mary ( Marienkirche) is the only remainder of the original Brick Gothic edifice, built in the first half of the 13th century. It suffered heavy damage in World War II, and was deliberately destroyed in 1960 under the E German Communist government." (wiki)
Strasbourg From 1943 the city was bombarded by Allied aircraft. In 1944 Palais Rohan was severely damaged
Syracuse Heavy destruction was caused by the Allied and the German bombings in 1943
Tallinn Tallin suffered damage during both the Nazi push east in 1941 and the Soviet return west in 43/4. There is some belief that Soviet bombing in 1944 was directed at civilians opposed to Soviet return. "The worst damage to the town was in the air raid of 1944. St Nicholas' church and the quarters surrounding it were destroyed, a total of 11% of the historical centre"
Tauric Chersonese Saint Vladimir Cathedral
The Porticoes of Bologna Municipal Library of Archiginnasio: "The building suffered considerable damage during the bombardments of the Second World War" (nom file)
Tokaji Wine Region Szerencs Bridge was destroyed by the Germans in WWII.
Tower of London Although only one bomb fell on the Tower of London in the First World War, the Second World War left a greater mark. On 23 September 1940, during the Blitz, high-explosive bombs damaged the castle, destroying several buildings and narrowly missing the White Tower. After the war, the damage was repaired and the Tower of London was reopened to the public
Trier Aula Palatina
Upper Middle Rhine Valley "Severe aerial bombardment during World War II resulted in the loss of much of the historic built heritage of Koblenz." (AB evaluation)
Val di Noto The Palazzo del Seminario dei Chierici "suffered during the bombardments of World War II, prompting the construction of a new seminary at San Giovanni la Punta, completed on 15 August 1951."
Valletta Opera House was destroyed
Vatican City Bombings of Vatican City occurred twice during World War II. The first occasion was on the evening of 5 November 1943, when a plane dropped bombs on the area south-west of Saint Peter's Basilica, causing considerable damage but no casualties. The second bombing, which affected only the outer margin of the city, was at about the same hour on 1 March 1944, and caused the death of one person and the injury of another.
Verona Because of her important strategic position as the southern gateway to the crucial Brenner route through the Alps, Verona was an important target for heavy Allied bombings and suffered considerable damage during the war.
Vicenza and the Palladian Villas Villa Valmarana in Lisiera. The villa was nearly totally destroyed during World War II, but has been rebuilt.
Vienna Many significant buidings in old city area were bombed in WWII such as Opera House, Burg Theatre, St.Stephen Cathedral etc
Villa d'Este Bombed in 1944
Vlkolinec Parts of the northern end of the village were destroyed by fire in World War II and have not been rebuilt. (AB ev)
Warsaw Late 1944, German forces dedicated an unprecedented effort to razing the city, destroying 80–90% of Warsaw's buildings, including the vast majority of museums, art galleries, theaters, churches, parks, and historical buildings such as castles and palaces. (wiki)
Wartburg Castle American artillery shooting from April 1 to April 5 1945 damaged several parts of Wartburg Castle.
Water Management System of Augsburg The only structure that was bombed was the power plant of Senkelbach/Riedinger, which in 1945 had its roof rebuilt and the generation of electricity recommenced. (AB ev)
Westminster During the Second World War (The Blitz), the Palace of Westminster was hit by bombs on fourteen separate occasions. (wiki)
Würzburg Residence As a result of a devastating air raid on 16 March 1945, the residence was almost completely burnt out and only the central building with the Vestibule, Garden Hall, Staircase, White Hall and Imperial Hall survived the inferno, their roofs destroyed. (wiki)


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