Tatars are a Turkic ethnic group numbering 6 to 7 million in the late 20th century. The majority live in Russia, while the original Tatars inhabited the north-eastern Gobi in the 5th century and, after subjugation in the 9th century by the Khitans, migrated southward. In the 13th century, they were subjugated by the Mongol Empire under Genghis Khan. Under the leadership of his grandson Batu Khan, they moved westwards, driving with them many of the Turkic peoples toward the plains of Russia.
|raided it in the 13th Century
|"Following incursions by the Tatars in 1241, the fortified settlement on City Hill was reinforced with walls, guarded by towers" AB
|Spissky Hrad and Levoca
|raided at the beginning of the 13th Century
|... to convey his royal power and the power of Orthodoxy to the Tatars (AB ev)
|"The only surviving remains from the earliest period are therefore the walls, some sections of which survive beneath the defences built in 1503-22 against Tatar incursions" (AB)
|White Monuments of Vladimir and Suzdal
|invaded in the 13th Century
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