Human Activity Connections
All connections part of Human Activity.
|Aboriginal Australians||WHS where the OUV is related to Aboriginal Australians, the various indigenous peoples of Australia, and where they still live within its borders.||3|
|African Parks Network||WHS managed by the NGO African Parks Network. "The organization manages national parks and protected areas throughout Africa, in collaboration with governments and surrounding communities." (wiki)||3|
|Alpine ski areas in core zone||WHS with lifts and marked pistes for alpine skiing in their core zones.||6|
|Ancient Board Games||WHS connected to the playing of an ancient board game.||5|
|Aquaculture||Aquaculture is the farming of fish, crustaceans, molluscs, aquatic plants, algae, and other organisms. Aquaculture involves cultivating freshwater and saltwater populations under controlled conditions, and can be contrasted with commercial fishing, which is the harvesting of wild fish. (wiki)
Occurence of Aquaculture at the WHS (in the core zone) must be important enough to be described in the AB evaluation..
|Armouries||An armoury is a place where arms and ammunition are made, maintained and repaired, stored, issued to authorized users, or any combination of those. Over the centuries, this has included every variant of such a place, whether privately or publicly owned (with the latter in older royal and modern state-owned versions). (wiki)||14|
|Art Colonies||An art colony is a place where creative practitioners live and interact with one another.||8|
|Ateliers||Sites in which an Atelier is an important element or sites containing the atelier of an artist of historic importance which is available for viewing.||6|
|Boats||WHS that contain historic boats, or specific types of boats. Regular ferries etc. are excluded.||17|
|Breweries||WHS connected to Brewing.||16|
|Canopy Walkways||WHS containing Canopy Walkways.||8|
|Changing of the Guard ceremonies||WHS that are locations for routine guard change ceremonies open to the public.||14|
|Chariots||Sites displaying or depicting chariots.||12|
|Coffee||WHS where coffee is or was grown.||12|
|Company town||A company town is a town or city in which much or all real estate, buildings (both residential and commercial), utilities, hospitals, small businesses such as grocery stores and gas stations, and other necessities or luxuries of life within its borders are owned by a single company.||13|
|Contact Rock Art||Rock art scenes that depict aspects of cultural contact between indigenous groups and European settlers/colonists.||4|
|Cremation||Sites associated with the the cremation of human bodies.||9|
|Crown Jewels||The term "Crown Jewels" is commonly used for regalia items designed to lend luster to occasions such as coronations. They feature some combination of precious materials, artistic merit, and symbolic or historical value. Crown jewels may have been designated at the start of a dynasty, accumulated through many years of tradition, or sent as tangible recognition of legitimacy by some other leader. They belong to monarchs and are passed to the next sovereign to symbolize the right to rule. They may include crowns, sceptres, orbs, swords, rings and other objects. Including the jewels of both current and past dynasties. (definition and descriptions extracted from Wiki)||14|
|Cultural Routes||WHS that represent a Cultural Route.||9|
|Cuzco School of Painting||The works of the Cuzco School of Painting were painted by the indigenous people of Peru who had been taught by such Spanish masters as Loyola.||5|
|Erotic art||WHS where overtly sexual depictions or symbols can be seen.||28|
|Famous Archaeological Trenches||WHS containing a "famous" trench dug during archaeological excavations and still visible today. Many archaeological trenches are "back filled" or else disappear because of the later removal of surrounding material. Some however are so large/deep that they remain. Such trenches reflect 19th or early 20th C archaeological practices which aimed at digging as deep over as wide an area as possible without full consideration of the likelihood of future improved practices and the need to record provenance by stratigraphic layer and fully to extract value from the excavated spoil.||3|
|Festivals||WHS within which a culturally significant festival is or has in recent times been regularly held.||54|
|Forced labour during WWII||WHS where forced labour from civilians or prisoners of war was used during WWII.||11|
|Frescoes or murals by famous painters||34|
|Geoglyphs||A Geoglyph is a large scale image or design formed on the ground by the arrangement or movement/removal of stones, earth, structures, streets etc within a landscape. Includes Leucippotomy and Gigantonomy.||7|
|Gilded Lacquer or Urushi||WHS which significantly used gold or silver lacquer art for architectural decoration, this connection is only for gild painting with japanned surface. Gilded Lacquer is known as Maki-e, Haku-e or Chin-kin in Japanese depend on decorative techniques.||14|
|Golf Courses||WHS with (parts of) Golf Courses within the core area.||8|
|Grand Cascade||A cascade is a variety of the artistic presentation of running water. In a cascade, water falls down a series of steps. As a rule, three elements receive artistic treatment: the inlet at the top, the outlet at the bottom
and the water stairs with its channels and branches.
|Grand Tour||Frequent destinations of the traditional travel around Europe made by upper class young men (17th-19th centuries)||31|
|Hand Paintings or Hand Prints||Hand paintings are commonly depicted in rock art around the world from a wide variety of historic periods and cultures. According to Wiki "The most common rock art element found around the world, the human hand, exemplifies several pictography types. A technique used since the Neolithic is spraying around a hand, resulting in a negative image. The more common positive print was often made with pigment applied to the hand and transferred to the rock." See also http://www.bradshawfoundation.com/hands/||11|
|Hermitage Museum||Original Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg and its dependencies.||4|
|Historical bullrings||Bullrings that are part of the Unión de Plazas de Toros Históricas (UPTH).||3|
|Historical Financial Institutions||10|
|Historical Graffiti||Pre-20th century inscriptions, figure drawings, etc. that have been scratched into walls and which can be identified and seen today.||50|
|Human Migration||Process of mass migration of people.||14|
|Human Sacrifice||Sites where some evidence of possible human sacrifce has been found (as opposed to mere rumour, conjecture, myth).||19|
|Hunter-gatherers||WHS where the OUV is linked to hunter-gatherers. Only sites from after the Agricultural Revolution are included.||22|
|Hunting Lodge or Castle||16|
|Hunting or harvesting of Birds||WHS where the hunting/harvesting of birds by man has been particularly significant.||4|
|Indigenous groups expelled||WHS where, in the name of "Protection" (i.e excluding expulsions as a result of pure conquest), Governments have used (or acquiesced in) physical/legal force or "unequal" treaties to expel indigenous groups or otherwise deprive them of their historical access rights. The deprivation may have taken place many years ago at the time of original creation of a Reserve or National Park, in the immediate run up to nomination or even after inscription.
A number of quotations referencing the WHS in this Connection are taken from common sources. To avoid repeating these unnecessarily they have been identified by initials as follows -
a. USNP-IP "The Establishment of the US National Parks and the eviction of Indigenous People" - link.
b. WHS-IPR "World Heritage Sites and Indigenous Peoples' Rights" produced by the "International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs" (IWGIA). See - this link.
|Inscribed significantly for a Work of Fine Art by a single artist||WHS whose OUV relates primarily/significantly to one/several "Works of Art" (Defined as a painting/mural/statue etc. Architecture is excluded) by a single known (even if anonymous) artist contained within/located outside a structure or ensemble rather than to the structure/ensemble itself. The "Work" or "Works" need to be mentioned in the title and or description of the site's OUV/Criteria.||8|
|Invention of sweets and pastries||WHS connected to the 'invention' of a specific sweet or pastry:
1. They must be sweets (candy), sweet pastries or sweet desserts
2. They are believed to have originated in a specific place within the core zone of WHS.
3. They are widely available elsewhere as well, not only at their place of origin, or well-known enough to attract visitors to sample it as a local delicacy.
|Irrigation and drainage||Sites related to man-made constructions for water supply (for agriculture or drinking water) or removal of water.||109|
|Language isolate||WHS associated with a language isolate: a language isolate is a language who cannot be shown to belong to any language family. See glottolog.org for further reference.
Unattested languages such as Harappan are excluded, as well as Korean (due to the large number of related sites).
|LGBTQ culture||WHS that have a significant LGBTQ aspect.||8|
|Literature||WHS where references to literature are part of its OUV.||11|
|Locations for playing sport||Sites which were constructed for sporting purposes. Three common groups of these are: Roman amphitheatres (for gladiator fights), Roman circuses (for chariot racing) and Pre-Columbian Ball courts (for the Mesoamerican ballgame).||80|
|Man-made Terraces||Notable terraces laid out in gardens and parks, or for agricultural use.||65|
|Maroonage||Maroons (from the Latin American Spanish word cimarrón: "feral animal, fugitive, runaway") were African refugees who escaped from slavery in the Americas and formed independent settlements.||5|
|Masks||WHS connected to famous / notable masks, or traditions involving masks||11|
|Memories of recent conflicts||Sites associated with Memories of recent conflicts, as defined in this ICOMOS study and later detailed in this study.||8|
|Mints||A mint is an industrial facility which manufactures coins for currency.||14|
|Mummies||Mummies found or displayed within WHS||22|
|Museum History||WHS containing locations that have been important in international museum history.||10|
|Natural sites with indigenous human population||Natural WHS where indigenous communities inhabit the core zone.||50|
|New Towns||New Towns which are specifically included in the nomination.||6|
|Oldest companies||WHS connected with "Oldest Companies". Cut-off for commencement of company is pre 1500 and maintaining existence through to at least late 20th Century. Must have been connected with the WHS location from before the commencement cut off date (rather than moving there later as e.g Barovier & Toso at Murano ) and demonstate a continous line of existence even allowing for take-overs/mergers etc. "Company" is defined as including any form of "trading entity" primarily concerned with offering products and/or services in return for money
|Ongoing Archaeological digs||WHS within which there are active archaeological digs (= Operational seasons within last 2 years. ). Specify the Institution performing the dig and, where possible, a web site or link to up-to-date information. Sites where only the evaluation of previous excavated finds has been taking place are excluded||15|
|Paintings by Venetian Vedutisti||Sites represented in paintings by Venetian Vedutisti. Venice, by the mid-18th century, became renowned as the centre of the vedutisti - painters of highly detailed, usually large-scale paintings of a cityscape or some other vista||12|
|Palm Groves||WHS where the growing of palms is a significant aspect of the OUV.||6|
|Paper Manufacture||WHS related to the process of paper making.||4|
|Pastoralism||Pastoralism or pastoral farming is the branch of agriculture concerned with the raising of livestock. It is animal husbandry: the care, tending and use of animals such as camels, goats, cattle, yaks, llamas, and sheep. It may have a mobile aspect, moving the herds in search of fresh pasture and water. Pastoralism is found in many variations throughout the world. (wiki)
OUV of the WHS must have a direct link with pastoral farming.
|Pearling||WHS connected to the practice of diving for pearls.||3|
|Petrosomatoglyphs||Man-made or naturally-occurring representations of human or animal body parts incised in rock (i.e not full body representations).||21|
|Polders||A polder is a low-lying tract of land enclosed by embankments known as dikes, that forms an artificial hydrological entity, meaning it has no connection with outside water other than through manually-operated devices.||8|
|Protective engineering works against flooding||13|
|Pygmy Peoples||See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pygmy_peoples||7|
|Re-routed rivers||WHS connected with Rivers having undergone major man-made changes to their original location.||5|
|Residential burials||WHS containing examples of "Residential burials" Residential Burial is a cultural practice by which burial takes place at or under a family residence as opposed to in e.g caves or other separate specifically identified locations such as cemeteries, hypogea, shrines etc. In order for a site to qualify, the practice should be widely adopted within the culture and not merely be present in the form of tombs within the Palaces of rulers. There should also be archaeological evidence/agreement of the continued use of the building as an active "residence" after any burials rather than as a "shrine" or other "ritual" structure.||4|
|Rice cultivation||WHS where the growing of rice is part of its OUV, or otherwise prominent enough to be described in the AB evaluation.||8|
|River Ports||Ports along rivers which are not accesible to seagoing ships.||9|
|Rock Cut Art||'Relief carving': - (Low ('bas'), Sunken and High) of rock which remains 'in situ'. Where the representation consists of 'line' drawings, patterns or characters scratched, pecked or etched into the rock this has been categorised under an alternative connection - 'Petroglyphs'). Where such carving exists as part of a rock cut architecture ensemble it is only represented under that 'Connection'.||9|
|Royal Hunting Grounds||A number of natural sites have only survived in a relatively unspoiled state because their use was once reserved to local Royalty for the purpose of hunting. WHS inscribed on Natural Criteria which were once "Royal Hunting Grounds".||10|
|Seal Hunting||Sites where commercial seal hunting has taken or still takes place.||5|
|Self-portraits||WHS containing immovable self-portraits of artists.||7|
|Shipyards||Sites where ships were constructed and repaired, which contain significant remains of historic shipyard infrastructure within the inscribed area.||7|
|Significant masonic lodges||WHS that include significant examples of masonic lodges, the basic organisational unit of Freemasonry.t||7|
|Slavery||Sites connected to Slavery. Maroonage and Forced Labour do have their own connections, and are excluded here.||49|
|Stone Quarries||WHS in which stone quarrying is a significant element ie Where Quarrying has been carried out on an industrial scale in relation to the technology of the period or has particular cultural or associative value. Thus excluding small village/town etc quarries.
Wiki defines a quarry as "a place from which dimension stone, rock, construction aggregate, riprap, sanf, gravel or slate has been excavated from the ground. A quarry is the same thing as an open-pit mine from which minerals are extracted. The only trivial difference between the two is that open-pit mines that produce building materials and dimension stone are commonly referred to as quarries. The word quarry can also include the underground quarrying for stone, such as Bath stone"
In Oct 2014 TICCIH ("The International Committee for the Preservation of the Industrial Heritage") produced a "Thematic study" titled "Stone Quarrying Landscapes as World Heritage sites".
"This document is offered as a draft towards establishing TICCIH/ICOMOS guidelines on identifying stone quarry landscapes with the potential to be nominated for inscription as World Heritage cultural landscapes, following discussion with European Quarry Landscapes Network delegates at Teruel (Spain) in October 2014"
In App 1 the Report lists "sites (which) are currently on the UNESCO list as cultural landscapes in which quarrying is an element". WHS which are not CLs but within which a quarry is a significant element are also within the definition of this connection
|Sugar||WHS which in which the production or trade in Sugar played a significant role.||11|
|Tea||WHS where tea is or was grown / processed.||13|
|Tea Horse Road||The Chamadao, literally translated as "Tea Horse Road" or "Tea Horse Path", was a central trade route for exchanging Tibetan horses and Chinese tea. The corridor came to play a crucial role in the communication and exchange between the cultures of present-day Yunnan, Sichuan and Tibet. There were 2 main routes - from the tea growing areas of Yunnan and Sichuan. Both "finished" in Lhasa. Currently only the former route includes sites inscribed as WHS. See http://www.cpamedia.com/trade-routes/tea-horse-road-historical-perspective/||5|
|Thanatourist destination||Thanatourism = "travel to locations wholly, or partially, motivated by the desire for actual or symbolic encounters with death, depravity or disaster". See also this site||23|
|Time Balls and Guns||WHS from which regular time signals are "sent" (or where the equipment to do so still exists). The 2 forms of signal are a ball dropped from a visible point and/or a gun fired at a specific time.||4|
|Tobacco||WHS where tobacco is or was grown.||6|
|Traditional Hunting||WHS inscribed on natural criteria where local inhabitants are allowed to hunt and kill significant protected species as part of their "way of life"||11|
|Traditional sports and games||WHS that still are the venue of traditional sports or games, primarily associated with this location.||3|
|Tramways||Active tramway passing through the inscribed area.||28|
|Transhumance||"Transhumance is the seasonal movement of people with their livestock between fixed summer and winter pastures. In montane regions (vertical transhumance), it implies movement between higher pastures in summer and lower valleys in winter. Herders have a permanent home, typically in valleys. Generally only the herds travel, with a certain number of people necessary to tend them, while the main population stays at the base. In contrast, horizontal transhumance is more susceptible to being disrupted by climatic, economic or political change.
Traditional or fixed transhumance occurs or has occurred throughout the inhabited world, particularly Europe and western Asia. It is often of high importance to pastoralist societies, as the dairy products of transhumance flocks and herds (milk, butter, yogurt and cheese) often form much of the diet of such populations......."
EXCLUDING "Full nomadism" whereby there are no permanent settlements.
|Transromanica||TRANSROMANICA unites European regions from eight countries to present their monuments from the Romanesque stylistic period which emerged around the year 1000. It was officially recognized as a "Major European Cultural Route" by the Council of Europe in August 2007.||6|
|Via Egnatia||2nd C BC Roman Road (revived after the 5th C AD as the major road of Byzantium) connecting Byzantium (Constantinople) with Dyrrachium (Durres) -from where it connected across the Adriatic with the Via Appia to Rome at Brundisium (Brindisi). See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Via_Egnatia||4|
|Writing systems||Examples of writing systems ("alphabets", hieroglyphs etc) from all over the world, visible in inscriptions or manuscripts.||40|
|Zero Meridians||A number of locations around the world have operated as "prime meridians" (ie 0.0 degrees of Longitude) for the purpose of navigation and map making. The Greenwich version was eventually chosen as the agreed "Prime Meridian" for the World in 1884 at a conference in Washington. 3 of them exist within WHS boundaries with "markers" to identify them.||4|