Language isolate

WHS associated with a language isolate: a language isolate is a language who cannot be shown to belong to any language family. See for further reference.

Unattested languages such as Harappan are excluded, as well as Korean (due to the large number of related sites).

Connected Sites

Site Rationale Link
Ahwar of Southern Iraq Sumerian (Ur)
Biblical Tells Sumerian dictionary has been uncovered in Tel Hazor and Sumerian is an isolate
Chan Chan Mochica (sometimes connected to some poorly attested extinct languages to form Chimuan)
Cliff of Bandiagara Bangime (formerly considered a Dogon language, now established as an isolate)
Etruscan Necropolises Etruscan
Gulf of California Isla Tiburon (Shark Island) is a part of the nomination and is owned by the Seri. Seri is a part of the proposed Hokan language family.
Hattusha While Hittite is an Indo-European language, Hattic of the Hatti people who first built Hattusa is an isolate (sometimes connected to Northwest Caucasian)
Jesuit Missions of the Chiquitos Chiquitano
Khinalig "This small group of people speaks the Khinalug language, which is an isolate within the Northeast Caucasian language family" (wiki)
Kondoa Sandawe (formerly considered a Khoisan language, now established as an isolate). The Sandawe are historically connected to the rock paintings and are mentioned in the description of the site.
Lorentz National Park Damal (Amung/Uhunduni)- According to the nomination dossier, the Damal tribe inhabits the highlands of the park. Damal is proposed as a part of Trans-Papua, but this affiliation has been rejected by Glottolog due to lack of evidence.
Meroe Meroitic (debated if it's isolate or not, sometimes connected to Afro-Asiatic)
Ngorongoro Hadza (formerly considered a Khoisan language, now established as an isolate). Hadza graze within the park.
Ngorongoro Hadza - The Hadza traditionally inhabited the Ngorongoro Crater. They now live in villages around it.
Red Bay Basque Whaling Station Basque - A whaling station operated by Basque sailors. Basque was spoken in Newfoundland until the 18th century.
Redwood Karuk (sometimes connected to many small language families of North and Mesoamerica to form the hypothetical Hokan family)
SGang Gwaay Haida (isolate is controversial, sometimes connected to Na-Dene)
Shiretoko Ainu - The Shiretoko peninsula, stretching out to the north-east of Hokkaido, the northernmost island in the Japanese archipelago, is the ancestral home of the Ainu people. Ainu has two dialects (Hokkaido and Sakhalin), which are sometimes considered separate languages.
Tchogha Zanbil Elamite (sometimes connected to the Dravidian languages of south India)
Tiwanaku It is assumed the language used by the Tiwanaku was Puquina, a language isolate that used to be spoken around Lake Titicaca.
Waterton Glacier International Peace Park Kutenai (the park is still used by the Kutenai people).
Yuso and Suso Monasteries Basque (Suso is the older of the two monasteries, and it is the site where phrases in the Spanish and Basque languages were written for the first time) (Basque is sometimes connected to Northeast Caucasian)


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A connection should:

  1. Not be "self evident"
  2. Link at least 3 different sites
  3. Not duplicate or merely subdivide the "Category" assignment already identified on this site.
  4. Add some knowledge or insight (whether significant or trivial!) about WHS for the users of this site
  5. Be explained, with reference to a source