WHS related to the history and current traditions of the San peoples, distinct groups of indigenous people living in southern Africa.

"The San peoples (also Saan), or Bushmen, are the members of any of the indigenous hunter-gatherer cultures of southern Africa, and the oldest surviving cultures of the region. Their recent ancestral territories span Botswana, Namibia, Angola, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Lesotho and South Africa...The San refer to themselves as their individual nations, such as ǃKung (also spelled ǃXuun, including the Juǀʼhoansi), ǀXam, Nǁnǂe (part of the ǂKhomani), Kxoe (Khwe and ǁAni), Haiǁom, Ncoakhoe, Tshuwau, Gǁana and Gǀui (ǀGwi), etc......The term Basarwa (singular Mosarwa) is used for the San collectively in Botswana." (Wiki)

Connected Sites

Site Rationale Link
Maloti-Drakensberg Park "This spectacular natural site contains many caves and rock-shelters with the largest and most concentrated group of paintings in Africa south of the Sahara. They represent the spiritual life of the San people, who lived in this area over a period of 4,000 years." (UNESCO)
Okavango Delta Nom file: "The Okavango delta (panhandle) in Botswana have indigenous peoples who have inhabited the areas surrounding the delta over hundreds of years and they include the Khwe (//Anikhwe, Bugakhwe) communities." It goes on to list a series of San sacred, camping and hunting sites within the core area. IUCN also notes that it had "received representations from some San indigenous groups concerned about forced evictions should the property become a World Heritage site". See link for details from March 2024
Tsodilo "its water holes and hills are revered as a sacred cultural landscape, by the Hambukushu and San communities" (OUV)
Twyfelfontein "All the rock engravings and rock paintings within the core area are without doubt the authentic work of San hunter-gatherers who lived in the region long before the influx of Damara herders and European colonists" (AB ev)
ǂKhomani Cultural Landscape "The landscape includes landmarks of the history, migration, livelihoods, memory and resources of the ǂKhomani and related San people" (OUV)


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A connection should:

  1. Not be "self evident"
  2. Link at least 3 different sites
  3. Not duplicate or merely subdivide the "Category" assignment already identified on this site.
  4. Add some knowledge or insight (whether significant or trivial!) about WHS for the users of this site
  5. Be explained, with reference to a source