Individual People Connections
All connections part of Individual People.
|Alexander the Great||Alexander III of Macedon ( 20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon. He spent most of his ruling years on an unprecedented military campaign through western Asia and northeast Africa, and by the age of thirty, he had created one of the largest empires of the ancient world. (wiki)
The connection focuses on Alexander's life and sites that he visited in person (in contrast to those 'only' conquered by his army).
|Alfonso de Albuquerque||Alfonso de Albuquerque (1453-1515): "A Portuguese fidalgo, or nobleman, a naval general officer whose military and administrative activities conquered and established the Portuguese colonial empire in the Indian ocean. Generally considered as a world conquest military genius by means of his successful strategy, he was created first "Duke of Goa" by king Manuel I of Portugal shortly before his death, being the first Portuguese duke not of the royal family" ...||3|
|André Malraux||WHS connected with André Malraux (1901-76): French intellectual, writer, adventurer and politician||3|
|Attila the Hun||Sites connected with Attila the Hun (406-453).||4|
|Aurel Stein||Sir Marc Aurel Stein (26 November 1862 - 26 October 1943) was a Hungarian-British archaeologist, primarily known for his explorations and archaeological discoveries in Central Asia. He was also a professor at various Indian universities. (wiki)||4|
|Baha’u’llah||The founder of the Bahai Faith.||4|
|Baibars||Baibars (1223 - July 1, 1277, Damascus), was a Mamluk Sultan of Egypt. He was one of the commanders of the forces which inflicted a devastating defeat on the Seventh Crusade of King Louis IX of France and he led the vanguard of the Egyptian army at the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260, which marked the first substantial defeat of the Mongol army and is considered a turning point in history.||7|
|Captain James Cook||12|
|Caravaggio||Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, (29 September 1571-18 July 1610) was an Italian artist active in Rome, Naples, Malta and Sicily between 1593 and 1610. He was the first great representative of the Baroque school of painting, noted for his intensely emotional canvases and dramatic use of lighting. He is widely considered one of the greatest painters in European history.
NB: This connection excludes his works in museums (Louvre, Uffizi, Hermitage etc.)
|Carl Linnaeus||Carl Linnaeus was a Swedish botanist, physician, and zoologist, who laid the foundations for the modern biological naming scheme of binomial nomenclature. He is known as the father of modern taxonomy. (wiki)||5|
|Cecil John Rhodes||The Rt Hon Cecil John Rhodes DCL (5 July 1853 - 26 March 1902) was a British businessman, mining magnate, and politician in South Africa. An ardent believer in British Colonialism, Rhodes was the founder of the southern African territory of Rhodesia, which was named after him in 1895. (Wiki - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cecil_Rhodes#South_Africa/||3|
|Charlemagne||Charlemagne, also known as Charles the Great or Charles I, was the King of the Franks from 768, the King of Italy from 774, and from 800 the first emperor in western Europe since the collapse of the Western Roman Empire three centuries earlier. The expanded Frankish state he founded is called the Carolingian Empire. (wiki)||10|
|Charles Darwin||WHS that are strongly connected to Darwin's personal life or his theories, or have been visited by him on his travels.||19|
|Charles Montagu Doughty||Charles Montagu Doughty (1843-1926) was an English poet, writer and traveller famed for his travels in Arabia openly as a Christian about which he wrote a 2 volume book "Travels in Arabia Deserta". "The book is a vast recounting of Doughty s treks through the Arabian deserts, and his discoveries there. It is written in an extravagant and mannered style, largely based on the King James Bible, but constantly surprising with verbal turns and odd inventiveness" which "became a kind of touchstone of ambitious travel writing, one valued as much for its language as for its content" (Wiki). It has been said that one needs to know Chaucerian and Elizabethean English together with Latin and Arabic and have encylopaedic knowledge of the Old Testament to be able to understand it!
|Charles V||Holy Roman Emperor from 1519 to 1556.||17|
|Christopher Columbus||Christopher Columbus (between 25 August and 31 October 1451 – 20 May 1506) was an Italian explorer and navigator who completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean, opening the way for European exploration and colonization of the Americas. (wiki)||13|
|Da Cunha Family||Family of Portuguese Explorers and Naval/Army commanders noteable in the early 16th Century.||3|
|David Chipperfield||WHS whose inscribed area contains buildings designed by the contemporary British architect David Chipperfield (b 1953 London). Completed or under construction and developed after inscription.||3|
|David Livingstone||David Livingstone was a Scottish pioneer medical missionary and explorer in central Africa.||4|
|Designed by Paul Landowski||WHS that include works designed by Paul Maximilien Landowski (1 June 1875 – 31 March 1961) was a French monument sculptor of Polish descent.||3|
|Diana, Princess of Wales||WHS connected to the life and death of Diana, Princess of Wales (1961-1997)||3|
|Earls of Elgin||There have been 11 Earls of Elgin between 1633 when the title was created and 2009. The holder is hereditary Chief of the Clan Bruce and they trace their line back to Edward Bruce King of Ireland and Robert the Bruce King of Scotland. Their long role in Britsh history has been chequered and has included some controversial actions.||3|
|Edward I||Edward I (1239-1307), King of England from 1272-1307||5|
|Ekai Kawaguchi||Ekai Kawaguchi (1866-1945). A Japanese monk who travelled to Nepal and Tibet between 1899-1915 being the first person from Japan to visit those countries. Studied in a Zen monastery in Kyoto (not inscribed). Early advocate of pan-Asianism and initiator of Nepali-Japanese cooperation. Has appeared on a Nepalese stamp (Dec 2002). At the time of "The Great Game" his visits to Tibet were "of interest" from an espionage point of view and he became friends with the British spy Sarat Chandra Das.||5|
|Elias Burton Holmes||WHS photographed or filmed by Elias Burton Holmes (1870–1958), an American traveler, photographer and filmmaker, who coined the term "travelogue".||57|
|Emperor Ashoka||Ashoka was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from 273 BC to 232 BC.||5|
|Emperor Hadrian||Hadrian was emperor of Rome from 117 to 138 AD||10|
|Emperor Justininian||Justinian I (11 May 482 – 14 November 565), also known as Justinian the Great, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565. (wiki)||3|
|Emperor Nero||Nero ruled the Roman Empire from 54 to 68.||4|
|Emperor Trajan||Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus, commonly known as Trajan (18 September 53 - 8 August 117), was Roman emperor from AD 98 to 117. Regarded by Gibbon as one of the "Five Good Emperors". Notable for his public building program and expansion of the Roman Empire to its greatest extent with campaigns in Dacia, Armenia and Mesopotamia.||7|
|Erich von Däniken||Sites connected to theories / hypotheses on extraterrestial influences on earth, as developed by the Swiss author Erich von Däniken.||19|
|Ernest Hemingway||Ernest Hemingway (July 21, 1899 - July 2, 1961) was an American writer and journalist.||5|
|Female Archaeologists||WHS whose excavation/investigation significantly involved a female archaeologist (Cut off at 20th Century).||11|
|Frederick II||Frederick II of Hohenstaufen (December 26, 1194 - December 13, 1250) was Holy Roman Emperor from his papal coronation in 1220 until his death.||8|
|Galileo Galilei||Galileo di Vincenzo Bonaiuti de' Galilei (15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642) was an Italian astronomer, physicist and engineer, sometimes described as a polymath, from Pisa. (wiki)||4|
|Galla Placidia||Aelia Galla Placidia (392 - November 27, 450) was the Empress consort of Constantius III, Western Roman Emperor. She also was the daughter of Roman Emperor Theodosius I and his second wife Galla. She herself was a fervant Christian and was involved in the building and restoration of various churches throughout her period of influence.||3|
|Garibaldi||Giuseppe Garibaldi (July 4, 1807 - June 2, 1882) was an Italian military and political figure, and considered a national hero.||3|
|General Gordon||Major General Charles George Gordon. 1833-85 British soldier and administrator. A "maverick" and all-round Victorian hero as "Chinese Gordon" in life and "Gordon of Khartoum" in death.||4|
|Genghis Khan||Genghis Khan (ca. 1162-1227) was the founder and ruler of the Mongol Empire, the largest contiguous empire in history.||6|
|Geoffrey Chaucer||English poet known as "The Father of English Literature" and regarded as "a crucial figure in developing the legitimacy of the vernacular, Middle English, at a time when the dominant literary languages in England were French and Latin" (Wiki - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geoffrey_Chaucer )||4|
|Georgia O'Keeffe||Georgia O'Keeffe was one of the pre-eminent American artists of the 20th century, known primarily for her paintings of flowers and the landscapes of New Mexico. She also painted buildings and landscapes from her travels, which include World Heritage Sites.||4|
|Gertrude Bell||WHS photographed during her travels||40|
|Giacomo Casanova||Giacomo Girolamo Casanova was an Italian adventurer and author from the Republic of Venice.||5|
|Giosafat Barbaro||Giosafat Barbaro (also Giosaphat or Josaphat) (1413–1494) was a member of the Venetian Barbaro family. He was a diplomat, merchant, explorer and travel writer. (wiki)||7|
|Giovanni Belzoni||WHS connected with Giovanni Belzoni (1778-1823).
Pioneering figure in Egyptology, born in Italy, emigrated to Britain (via the Netherlands) and first visited Egypt in 1815. Spent much of his time collecting artifacts for his patron Henry Salt, the British Consul General in Cairo. Operated before the age of scientific archaeology and often caused irreparable damage. Despite his "tomb robbing" reputation many of his discoveries were groundbreaking.
|Goethe||Johann Wolfgang von Goethe was a German writer (1749-1832).||20|
|Gustav Klimt||WHS where works of Gustav Klimt can be seen or that have influenced his work.||4|
|Heinrich Schliemann||Schliemann was a German archaeologist and an advocate of the historical reality of places mentioned in the works of Homer.||4|
|Helen of Constantinople||Mother of Emperor Constantine who appointed her as "Augusta" (a title of veneration) and gave her unlimited access to the imperial treasury in order to locate the relics of Judeo-Christian tradition. As a result she made a journey commencing around 326 AD to Jerusalem.||6|
|Hendrick Hamel||Hendrick Hamel (1630 in Gorinchem - February 12, 1692 in Gorinchem) was the first Westerner to write about the Joseon Dynasty era in Korea (1666). Hendrick Hamel was a bookkeeper with the Dutch East India Company (the VOC). In 1653, while heading for Japan on the ship 'De Sperwer' (the Sparrowhawk), he was shipwrecked on Jeju Island off the southern coast of Korea along with thirty-five of his crewmates. 36 of the 64 members of the crew survived the shipwreck, and the men were promptly taken into custody and sent to Seoul. They were forbidden to leave the country, but they were given some freedom to move and mix with the different classes of Korean society. After thirteen years, Hamel and seven of his crewmates managed to escape to Japan, and from there to the Netherlands. In 1666, three different publishers published his report, describing their improbable adventure and giving the first detailed and accurate description of Korea to Europe.||5|
|Henry Morton Stanley||Stanley was a British journalist and explorer famous for his exploration of Africa and his search for David Livingstone.||5|
|Hernán Cortés||Spanish conquistador||8|
|Hitler was here||WHS outside the current borders of Germany to which Hitler made a historically or personally significant visit.||10|
|Homer B. Hulbert||Homer B. Hulbert (1863-1949) was an American missionary, journalist and political activist who advocated for the independence of Korea. Hulbert's tombstone reads "I would rather be buried in Korea than in Westminster Abbey." He is interred at Yanghwajin Foreigners' Cemetery in Seoul. He was the recipient of the Order of Merit for National Foundation by the Korean Government. He is occasionally referred to in Korean as a "Freedom Fighter". He was reported to have been a close personal friend of King Kojong."- wiki (side note) The Passing of Korea (1905) is one of many accounts of Korea written by Hulbert during his nearly twenty years spent there, the book can be accessed online with google books.||7|
|Ibn Battuta||Ibn Battuta was a 14th century traveler and explorer.||41|
|Ibn Khaldun||WHS connected to Ibn Khaldoun
North African polymath 1332-1406 whose experiences in the service of various rulers, and his knowledge of history in general, led him to develop radical (for their time) views on the nature of society, economics, politics and history. Has been dubbed the "Father of Sociology". Hear about him on http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00qckbw.
|Isabella Bird||Sites connected with Isabella Bird where there is a published account of her 19th Century visits
Isabella L Bird 1834-1905 - Archetypal intrepid Victorian English lady explorer, writer, and a natural historian. In 1892 was the first female to be elected a member of the Royal Geographic Society.
|Ivan the Terrible||Ivan the Terrible was Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 until his death. His long reign saw the conquest of the Khanates of Kazan, Astrakhan, and Siberia, transforming Russia into a multiethnic and multiconfessional state spanning almost one billion acres. (wiki)||5|
|James Bruce||James Bruce of Kinnaird (1730–1794) was a Scottish traveller and travel writer who spent more than a dozen years in North Africa and Ethiopia. (Wikipedia)||6|
|Joan of Arc||Buildings visited by Joan of Arc which are now WHS.||4|
|Johann Ludwig Burckhardt||Sites connected with the Swiss-born traveller and Orientalist Johann Ludwig Burckhardt (aka Sheikh Ibrahim Ibn Abdallah). Web editions of his travel journals are available as follows :-
"Travels in Syria and the Holy land" http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/b/burckhardt/john_lewis/syria/
"Travel in Nubia" http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/b/burckhardt/john_lewis/nubia/
Dates of visits are from these journals together with links to the correct book/chapter. A shorter narration of his travels is in http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/196705/shaikh.burckhardt.explorer.htm
|Johannes Kepler||Johannes Kepler was a German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer, and key figure in the 17th century Scientific revolution.||4|
|John D Rockefeller Jr||WHS connected to John D Rockefeller Jr (1874-1960) via gifts or other forms of activity involving him personally. Activities in his name by his various Foundations are included up to the date of his death.
|John Muir||John Muir (21 April 1838||7|
|King Charles III||Sites connected to the life of British King Charles III, in his days as heir apparent and king. Excluding sites he merely visited.||7|
|King Chulalongkorn of Siam (Rama V)||WHS related to King Chulalongkorn of Siam (Rama V)'s 1897 trip to Europe, the first monarch from far east asia who made state visits to many European countries.||38|
|King Solomon||King Solomon is a figure described in the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) and the Quran.||9|
|Lawrence of Arabia||9|
|Leakey Family||Three generations of the Leakey Family devote(d) themselves to the study of the origins of humans. They are Louis, Mary, Richard, Meave and Louise Leakey.||8|
|Lenin||Associations with VI Lenin personally or representations of him still in situ within WHS - excluding museum objects and small plaques.||4|
|Leo Africanus||WHS connected with the life of Leo Africanus, an Arab traveller, diplomat and author. Born al-Hasan ibn Muhammad al-Wazzan al-Fasi c1490, he later took the name Joannes Leo Africanus.||6|
|Leonardo da Vinci||WHS connected to life and/or work of Leonardo da Vinci.||12|
|Liechtenstein Family||The Liechtenstein dynasty, from which the Principality takes its name (rather than vice-versa), is the princely family of Liechtenstein.||5|
|Life of Mozart||Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (27 January 1756 – 5 December 1791) was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical period. (wiki)||11|
|Lord Byron||English poet and leading figure in the European Romantic Movement whose life was full of affairs and scandals (1788-1824). He was involved in revolutionary struggles in Italy and Greece.||5|
|Lord Curzon||George Nathaniel Curzon (1859-1925). British politician/Statesman. Between 1888-94 he travelled widely in Asia (Russian Cetnral Asia, Persia, Afghanistan, Tibet, Japan, Korea, Indo-China). Was Viceroy of India 1899-1905 and became Britain's most widely travelled Foreign Secretary - but failed in his greatest ambition of becoming Prime Minister. Despite that he played a major part in British policy making from 1898 through to 1923 His actions as Viceroy were and are controversial but Nehru said of him "After every other Viceroy has been forgotten, Curzon will be remembered because he restored all that was beautiful in India". Inter alia he ensured proper funding of the ASI and appointed Marshall (who was later to discover the "Indus Valley Civilisation") as Director General. See - wiki||5|
|Lord George Macartney||"WHS" visited by Lord Macartney during his "Embassy" to China (1792-4). See- Wikipedia. Described by him in his diaries and also in full detail in "An authentic Account of and Embassy from the King of Great Britain to the Emperor of China" by Sir George Staunton who accompanied Macartney and was charged with producing the offical report of the expedition. See here.||6|
|Louis XIV||Sites related to Louis XIV, also known as the Sun King. He reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.||15|
|Magellan||Ferdinand Magellan (1480 - April 27, 1521) was a Portuguese explorer. He was the first European to lead an expedition across the Pacific Ocean.||6|
|Mao was here||Mao Zedong, also translated as Mao Tse-tung, and commonly referred to as Chairman Mao (December 26, 1893 - September 9, 1976), was a Chinese Communist revolutionary, guerrilla warfare strategist, Marxist political philosopher, and leader of the Chinese Revolution. He was the architect and founding father of the People's Republic of China (PRC) from its establishment in 1949, and held control over the nation until his death in 1976. His theoretical contribution to Marxism-Leninism, along with his military strategies and brand of policies, are collectively known as Maoism. - wiki||9|
|Mapped or Illustrated by Blaeu||World Heritage Sites which are the main or significant subject of a map or illustration by Joan or Willem Blaeu (with a link to a reproduction). Willem Blaeu (1571-1638) and his son Joan Blaeu (1596-1673) were Dutch cartographers. Willem conceived of the "Atlas Maior" (originally "Atlas Nova") - a comprehensive World Atlas based on the latest knowledge.
"He published his first world atlas, the Atlantis Appendix in 1630, in association with his eldest son, Joan Blaeu (c.1599-1673)....... The atlas contained some sixty maps. This work was expanded in 1631 to contain 98 maps and bore the joint imprint of father and son with the title Appendix Theatri A.Ortelii Et Atlantis G. Mercatoris. In 1634 he commenced publication of the Theatrum or Novus Atlas. This two-volume work was larger still with up to 208 maps. ...... in 1638 Willem Janszoon Blaeu died and control of the business passed to his son, Joan. " ( http://www.jpmaps.co.uk/maps/blaeu )
The World Atlas was eventually completed by Joan and went through various versions, with the last in 1665. In its largest version it consists of 11 volumes and 594 maps. Many of the maps however were originally published separately and used again and again in subsequent versions even though they dated back originally to the early 17th Century. Some of the maps contain illustrations/plans of towns or buildings either in their own right or as vignettes or pictorial inserts. "This breathtaking atlas represents the zenith of the Golden Age of Dutch Cartography.......The "Atlas Maior" was such a symbol of status that it became the traditional state gift presented by the Dutch government, its prestige owing to the remarkable standards of production involved. In terms of the quality of engraving, beauty of ornament, coloring, typography and paper, the atlas has no equal, and the maps were on the forefront of geographical knowledge and discovery..... The atlas of America, too, occupies a singular place in the history of cartography, for its twenty-three maps helped to shape contemporary conceptions regarding the geography of the New World more than almost any other source. Included in that volume is a general map of the continent, famed for its side panels that contain costumed figures and city views" (AbeBooks) . In 1649 Joan Blaeu also produced a collection of Dutch city maps known Tooneel der Steeden (Views of Cities). Joan Blau wanted to produce a 2 part multi-volume Italian City Atlas to be called "Civitates Italiae" and "Admiranda Urbis Romae" but only managed to produce the first volume of each in 1663 before a fire destoyed his workshop in 1672. However work on publication continued with Blaeu's heirs using his plates and producing 4 volumes in 1704/5.
|Marianne North||Victorian Naturalist, Flower painter and traveller (1830-90). Started her "world travels" as a wealthy spinster at age 41 after the death of her father. Visited and studied plants in Canada, USA, Jamaica, Japan, Borneo, Java, Ceylon, India, Seychelles. Australia, New Zealand, S Africa, Brazil, Chile, Middle East and Europe. Had 4 plant species and 1 genus named after her. Communicated on matters botanical with Charles Darwin.||9|
|Matteo Ricci||Matteo Ricci was an Italian Jesuit priest, and one of the founding figures of the Jesuit China Mission, as it existed in the 17th-18th centuries. (wiki)||6|
|Max Uhle||Max Uhle (1856 - 1944) was a German archaeologist, whose work in Peru, Chile, Ecuador and Bolivia at the turn of the Twentieth Century had a significant impact on the practice of archaeology of South America (Wiki) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Max_Uhle||6|
|Moctezuma Family||Imperial family of the Aztec empire||3|
|Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi||Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi was the king of Iran (Shah of Iran) from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow by the Islamic Revolution on 11 February 1979.||3|
|Named after Adolf Hitler||Sites (often briefly) named after Hitler.||9|
|Named after individual people||Excluding saints.||105|
|Named after Queen Victoria||WHS or parts thereof named after Queen Victoria (1819-1901), the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and the first Empress of India of the British Raj.||11|
|Napoleon was here||Visits of historical significance, with documented identifiable locations and in person||20|
|Naser ed-Din Shah||Naser al-Din Shah Qajar (16 July 1831 – 1 May 1896) was the King of Countries’ Union of Iran from 5 September 1848 to 1 May 1896. He was the first modern Iranian monarch to formally visit Europe. He wrote travelogues about his trips, that also have been translated in foreign languages.
See the English version of his diary of a trip to Europe in 1873.
|Nicolaus Copernicus||Nicolaus Copernicus (1473 - 1543) was the first astronomer to formulate a scientifically-based heliocentric cosmology that displaced the Earth from the center of the universe.||3|
|Once named after Stalin||Inside an inscribed area but outside the former USSR and excluding places named after Stalingrad.||4|
|Painted by Claude Monet||Claude Monet was one of the most well-known painters of the impressionist movement.||4|
|Painted by JMW Turner||17|
|Pausanias||Pausanias (c. 110 – c. 180) was a Greek traveler and geographer of the second century AD who lived in the time of Roman emperors Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius. He is famous for his Description of Greece, a lengthy work that describes ancient Greece from his firsthand observations. (wiki)||10|
|Peter Paul Rubens||Peter Paul Rubens was a seventeenth-century Flemish Baroque painter.||9|
|Peter the Great||Places visited by Peter the Great on his European "Embassy" 1697-8 or otherwise connected to him in a specific and documented way.||9|
|Pompey the Great||Roman General||3|
|Posidonius||Posidonius (ca. 135 BCE - 51 BCE), was a Greek Stoic philosopher, politician, astronomer, geographer, historian and teacher native to Apamea, Syria.
He was acclaimed as the greatest polymath of his age. His vast body of work exists today only in fragments. (wiki)
|Prince Henry the Navigator||Prince Henry the Navigator (1394-1460) was an important figure in the early days of the Portuguese Empire, being responsible for the beginning of the European worldwide explorations.||4|
|Prince Pückler||Prince Hermann von Pückler-Muskau (30 October 1785 - 4 February 1871) was a German nobleman, who was an excellent artist in landscape gardening and wrote widely appreciated books, mostly about his travels in Europe and Northern Africa, published under the pen name of "Semilasso".
The Prince traveled around Egypt/Sudan carving his name and monogram on the monuments - they can be seen to this day! See www.egypt-sudan-graffiti.be/puckler.htm.
|Queen Victoria slept here||WHS containing significant buildings in which Queen Victoria stayed. "Despite being head of the British Empire, which included territory on all inhabited continents, Queen Victoria never travelled outside of Europe, only travelling as far north as Golspie, southwesterly as San Sebastián, southeasterly as Florence and as far easterly as Berlin. The majority of her visits were made to the duchies and kingdoms of Germany (often via Belgium or the Netherlands) which was the home of many members of her family and the birthplace of her husband, Albert. She also made a few official visits to France and frequently holidayed there towards the end of her life and reign, once including a brief crossing into northern Spain. She also holidayed a few times in Italy and once in Switzerland. During their married life, the couple tended to make foreign trips in late summer, however from the 1870s, the widowed queen travelled during the spring".||7|
|Rabban Bar Sauma||Rabban Bar Sauma was a Turkic/Mongol monk turned diplomat of the Nestorian Christian faith. He is known for embarking on a pilgrimage from Mongol-controlled China to Jerusalem.
See his journey at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:VoyagesOfRabbanBarSauma.jpg, or read the text at http://www.aina.org/books/mokk/mokk.htm
|Radziwill Family||This family left a significant mark on Polish, Belarusian, Lithuanian and European history and culture for over five centuries.||4|
|Richard Lionheart||King of England from 6 July 1189 until his death in 1199. Named Lionheart because of his reputation as a great military leader and warrior.||7|
|Sackler Family Donation||WHS containing architectural elements donated by the Sackler Family.
The Sackler Family is "an American and British family whose members are known for founding and owning the pharmaceutical company Purdue Pharma and philanthropy in support of cultural and educational institutions. Purdue Pharma, and by extension some members of the family, have faced criticism and lawsuits amid Purdue Pharma's alleged role in the North American opioid crisis." (Wiki - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sackler_family )
|Saladin||Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb (c. 1138 - March 4, 1193), better known in the Western world as Saladin, was a Kurdish Muslim who became the Sultan of Egypt and Syria. He led Islamic opposition to the Franks and other European Crusaders in the Levant.||6|
|Sculpted by Canova||Antonio Canova (1 November 1757 - 13 October 1822) was an Italian sculptor from the Republic of Venice who became famous for his marble sculptures that delicately rendered nude flesh.
|Shah Jahan||Shah Jahan was emperor of the Mughal Empire in South Asia from 1628 until 1658. He is considered to be one of the greatest Mughals. The period of his reign was the golden age of Mughal architecture. (source: wiki)||4|
|Simone Martini||Simone Martine was an Italian painter of the 14th century (c. 1284-1344).||5|
|Sir Francis Drake||Sir Francis Drake was a 16th century English sailor, privateer, navigator and slave trader.||10|
|Sir John Marshall||WHS Connected with Sir John Marshall.
Sir John Marshall (1876-1958) - Archaeologist. Director General of the Archaeological survey of India between 1902-28. First "allowed" native Indians to take part in excavations in their own country. At the time of his appointment the post had been in abeyance for over a decade and little of India's pre-history had been investigated. He devised and initiated appropriate conservation measures and began a programme of excavations.
|Sir Richard Francis Burton||Sir Richard Francis Burton was a 19th-century English explorer, scholar, and orientalist .||10|
|Sir Robert Holmes||Sir Robert Holmes (ca. 1622 - 1692) was an English Admiral of the Restoration Navy. He took part in the 2nd and 3rd Anglo-Dutch wars, both of which he is, by some, credited with having started.... Holmes is chiefly remembered for his exploits on the cruise to Guinea (1664) for the Royal African Company, and for the so-called Holmes's Bonfire of 1666." (Wiki)||4|
|Sir Stamford Raffles||Sir Stamford Raffles was a British statesman, best known for his founding of the city of Singapore.||6|
|Sir Wilfred Thesiger||Sir Wilfred Thesiger (1910-2003). British explorer and travel writer who "specialised" in Arabia/Iraq/Abyssinia/Sudan/East Africa/Morocco. Did most of his travelling between the 1930s to the 1950s including war service in "Special Operations" during which he was involved in the liberation of Ethiopia. Was friends with rulers such as Haile Selassie and Sheikh Zayed of Abu Dhabi. Has been called "the last of the great Victorian travelers, born half a century after his time." and continued the British "Arabist" travelling tradition by bonding with the tribes whose lands he travelled through and adopting their values. His collection of photographs is held by the Pitt-Rivers museum and many are available for viewing on line. see http://www.prm.ox.ac.uk/thesiger.html
For more about his life also see http://www.bigbillkruse.com/thesiger.htm
|Sir William Matthews Flinders Petrie||Sir William Matthews Flinders Petrie (1853 -1942) "was an English Egyptologist and a pioneer of systematic methodology in archaeology and preservation of artifacts. He held the first chair of Egyptology in the United Kingdom, and excavated at many of the most important archaeological sites in Egypt" (Wiki)||3|
|Theodor Wiegand||Theodor Wiegand (1864 - 1936) - "One of the most famous German Archaeologists" (Wiki). See
|Thomas Telford||1757-1834. Scottish Architect and Civil Engineer. Noted road, bridge and canal builder.||4|
|Thor Heyerdahl||WHS playing a role in the theories and works of Thor Heyerdahl, Norwegian adventurer and ethnographer (1914-2002). The "Thor Heyerdahl Archives" were added to UNESCO's "Memory of the World" Register in 2011.||4|
|Timur||WHS conquered by Timur. Timur or Tamerlane was a 14th century Turco-Mongol conqueror of much of western and Central Asia.||10|
|Toyotomi Hideyoshi||Toyotomi Hideyoshi(1536-1598) - was a daimyo in the Sengoku period who unified the political factions of Japan. Hideyoshi is regarded as Japan's second "great unifier". (wiki)||7|
|Travels of Hyecho||Hyecho (704-787 CE) - was a Korean Buddhist monk from Silla, one of the three Korean kingdoms of the period. Hyecho studied esoteric Buddhism in Tang Dynasty China, initially under Subhakarasimha and then under the famous Indian monk Vajrabodhi who praised Hyecho as "one of six living persons who were well-trained in the five sections of the Buddhist canon."
On the advice of his Indian teachers in China, he set out for India in 723 CE to acquaint himself with the language and culture of the land of the Buddha. In his Memoir of the Pilgrimage to the Five Indian Kingdoms, Hyecho described his personal observations and experiences as well as local tales and legends that he heard while traveling some 40 countries and regions over four years.
He was the first Asian to travel across the Asian continent, from China to Arabia, by sea and land and to record his journey. The five Indian kingdoms in the work refer to West, East, North, South and Central India, but it also contains information about the Byzantine Empire (Greater Fu-lin), the Arabs, Persia and several Central Asian states. His 20,000 kilometer-long march took four years.
His record is regarded as one of the most valuable works of travel literature in the world, along with Great Tang Records on the Western Regions written by the seventh century Chinese dharma master Xuanzang, The Travels of Marco Polo of the 13th century, and The Journey by the 14th-century Muslim traveler Ibn Batutta.
(Source of information: Wikipedia and Cultural Heritage Administration of Korea (CHA))
|Tristão da Cunha||Tristão da Cunha was a Portuguese explorer and naval commander.||3|
|Tupac Inca Yupanqui||Tupac Inca Yupanqui was the tenth Sapa Inca (1471-93 CE) of the Inca Empire.||7|
|Tycho Brahe||Brahe was a Danish astronomerhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tycho_Brahe||4|
|Vasco da Gama||Vasco da Gama (c. 1460s – 24 December 1524), was a Portuguese explorer and the first European to reach India by sea.||7|
|Viscount Edmund Allenby||1861-1936, English General and British Imperial Governor. His main military role was to lead the British "Egyptian Expeditionary Force" (EEF) in the WWI campaign which advanced from Gaza to Aleppo and thus captured Palestine/Syria from the Ottoman Turks.||4|
|Visited by Alexander von Humboldt on his travels||23|
|Visited by Nicolas Hulot||Nicolas Hulot is well-known in France for his documentary show "Ushuaia" which focuses on nature and the environment. In his documentaries, he draws attention to environmental damage caused by humans and changes that need to be made to protect the planet. (wiki)||14|
|William Bligh||Vice Admiral William Bligh was an officer of the British Royal Navy and a colonial administrator. A historic mutiny occurred during his command of HMS Bounty in 1789. Fifteen years after the Bounty mutiny, he was appointed Governor of New South Wales in Australia. (wiki)||3|
|Works by David Hockney||WHS that can be seen on works by David Hockney.||5|
|Xuanzang||Sites visited by, or related to life and death of, the 7th century Chinese Buddhist monk Xuanzang, famous for his 17 year overland trip to India and back||12|
|Zheng He||Zheng He - Chinese mariner c1371- 1433. "Between 1405 and 1433, the Ming government sponsored a series of seven naval expeditions. Emperor Yongle designed them to establish a Chinese presence, impose imperial control over trade, and impress foreign peoples in the Indian Ocean basin. He also might have wanted to extend the tributary system. Zheng He was placed as the admiral in control of the huge fleet and armed forces that undertook these expeditions. Zheng He's first voyage consisted of a fleet of 317 treasure ships ...holding almost 28,000 crewmen" (Wiki). Records of the last 2 voyages were destroyed leading to speculation that he may even have passed the Cape of Good Hope into the Atlantic! After his voyages China turned away from the sea and imposed the Hai jin ("Ocean forbidden" or "Sea ban") order.
WHS to which it is reasonably certain that Zheng He paid a visit.