Constructions Connections

All connections part of Constructions.

19th century shopping arcades WHS that include 19th century shopping arcades. 4
Acropolis WHS containing locations which are internationally described (i.e Not merely in the Greek language) as being "Acropoleis". ".. from akros or akron, "highest", "topmost", "outermost" and polis, "city"; plural in English: acropoles, acropoleis or acropolises) is a settlement, especially a citadel, built upon an area of elevated ground - frequently a hill with precipitous sides, chosen for purposes of defense. In many parts of the world, acropoleis became the nuclei of large cities of classical antiquity .......The word acropolis literally means in Greek "upper city," and though associated primarily with the Greek cities ......may be applied generically to all such citadels" (Wiki) 13
Aqueduct 51
Asklepieion WHS containing a temple to Asklepius the Greek god of medicine - "These healing temples were a place where patients would visit to receive either treatment or some sort of healing, whether it was spiritual or physical." (Wiki - see ) 8
Astronomical clocks An astronomical clock is a clock with special mechanisms and dials to display astronomical information, such as the relative positions of the sun, moon, zodiacal constellations, and sometimes major planets. 17
Badgir Traditional Persian wind tower. 4
Bandstand A bandstand is a circular or semicircular structure set in a park, garden, pier, or indoor space, designed to accommodate musical bands performing concerts. A simple construction, it both creates an ornamental focal point and also serves acoustic requirements while providing shelter for the changeable weather, if outdoors. (Wiki) 23
Baths Baths and spas, not being total ruins. 99
Bazaars and Market Halls Monumental covered / permanent enclosed markets (opposite to market places in the open air). 31
Beehive tombs A beehive tomb, also known as the tholos tomb (plural tholoi), is a burial structure characterised by its false dome created by the superposition of successively smaller rings of mudbricks or, more often, stones. The resulting structure resembles a beehive and hence the traditional English name. 7
Bixi Bixi is a stone tortoise, used as a pedestal for a stele or tablet. Tortoise-mounted stelae have been traditionally used in the funerary complexes of Chinese emperors and other dignitaries. Later, they have also been used to commemorate an important event, such as an emperor's visit or the anniversary of World War II victory. Besides China, they can be found in Vietnam, Mongolia, Korea, and even the Russian Far East. (wiki) 10
Bouleuterion WHS where remains of a "Bouleuterion" can be seen

"A bouleuterion (Greek: βουλευτήριον, bouleutērion), also translated as council house, assembly house, and senate house, was a building in ancient Greece which housed the council of citizens (βουλή, boulē) of a democratic city state. These representatives assembled at the bouleteurion to confer and decide about public affairs. There are several extant bouleuteria around Greece and its former colonies. It should not be confused with the Prytaneion, which housed the executive council of the assembly and often served as the boule's mess hall." (Wiki -
Canals 51
Caravanserai A caravanserai or khan was a roadside inn where travelers could rest and recover from the day's journey. Caravanserais supported the flow of commerce, information, and people across the network of trade routes covering Asia, North Africa, and South-Eastern Europe. 28
Carillons A carillon is a musical instrument that is usually housed in a free-standing bell tower, or the belfry of a church or other municipal building. The instrument consists of at least 23 cast bronze cup-shaped bells, which are played serially to play a melody, or sounded together to play a chord. A carillon is played by striking a keyboard. 11
Casemates A casemate is a fortified gun emplacement or armored structure from which guns are fired. 5
Catacombs WHS containing underground subterranean passages called "Catacombs". Originally the word was applied to such structures used for burial purposes from Roman times onward, but has come to be used for passages beneath towns existing for other reasons. Show the use of the word for the WHS. 13
Cemeteries 97
Cenotaph A cenotaph is an "empty tomb" or a monument erected in honour of a person or group of people whose remains are elsewhere. It can also be the initial tomb for a person who has since been interred elsewhere. Although the vast majority of cenotaphs are erected in honour of individuals, many of the best-known cenotaphs are instead dedicated to the memories of groups of individuals, such as the lost soldiers of one country or empire. (wiki) 18
Chairs WHS closely linked to or identified with to a specific/iconic chair design. 6
Cisterns Significant historic "cisterns" (Large Covered Reservoirs) where they can be visited. 51
Clock Tower A clock tower is a tower specifically built with one or more (often four) clock faces. Clock towers can be either freestanding or part of a church or municipal building such as a town hall. 42
Columbarium WHS including a significant Columbarium - a purpose built structure for the storage of cinerary urns (holding cremated remains). From the Latin for dove because of the "niches" resembling dovecote entrances. 4
Cryptoporticus In Ancient Roman architecture a cryptoporticus is a covered corridor or passageway. 4
Cultural sites connected to Cliffs Cultural sites where the OUV fully or partly derives from being constructed in / on a cliff. 30
Cycoliths (Stone circles) Multiple stones (ie not "monoliths") erected in an approximate circle and never covered by earth (ie not "dolmens") 10
Dog statues WHS containing a statue of a dog. Indicate what the significance is of the dog(s) to the site. Movable statues inside buildings are excluded as are Chinese mythical "Lion Dogs" etc. 5
Dovecotes 10
Dynastic Burial Places Burial sites of Ruling Dynasties, containing the graves of several family members and stretching over decades/centuries 48
Elevators Sites (or significant elements thereof) where an elevator is currently used to transport visitors vertically (ie excluding funiculars and cable cars). 21
Equestrian Statues WHS containing equestrian statuary (a person seated on a horse). With date and historical background. 43
Falun Red WHS where the use of the colour Falun Red is a significant feature in the decoration of its constructions. It's about the use of this particular kind of paint or hue of red (not about specifically paints made in Falun paint factory).

Famous Bells Named bells linked physically or historically to a WHS. 19
Freestanding Bell Tower A freestanding tower or building for bell hanging. The bell is rung to signify the time, to call people to worship, for special events such as weddings and funerals, or historically to sound a civil defense or fire alarm. Strictly excluding the bell tower attached to the church building. 44
Frontier walls Defensive Walls/Ramparts which marked the boundaries/frontier of an Empire or Kingdom (as opposed to "City Walls" around a town/city). 11
Funiculars A funicular is a type of self-contained cable railway in which a cable attached to a pair of tram-like vehicles on rails moves them up and down a very steep slope, the ascending and descending vehicles counterbalancing each other. 21
Gates depicting Lions 20
Giant Buddha statues WHS that hold unusual large Buddha Statues (over 10 meters in height or width). 14
Glass floored Skywalks WHS containing Bridges, Platforms or Walkways with glass floors which provide vertical downward views. 4
Granaries WHS containing a historical granary. A granary is a storehouse or room in a barn for threshed grain or animal feed. 22
Greenhouse WHS that include a larger greenhouse: a building in which plants are grown. 6
Harem WHS which include a "Harem" - An area within a building/complex set aside for the female members of the family and forbidden to men. Also known as a "Zenana" 10
Historic Cinemas WHS containing historic "purpose built" cinemas (i.e Not converted theatres etc). Defined as pre-1950. The cinema doesn't have to be currently operational but must preserve the majority of the original structure. 11
Historic Military Parade Grounds WHS containing a surviving open area once used primarily as a Military Parade Ground = "A large area of firm ground, formerly usually adjacent to fortifications.......where soldiers present(ed) themselves for inspection ("parade") and practice(d) marching and close-order drills". Excluding areas within forts/castles and city streets/squares used occasionally for ceremonial parades. 7
Historic Pharmacies 21
Historical Cafés Prominent cafés established before WWI that still exist within the borders of a WHS. 13
Historical Organs Significant historical organs. 11
Historical Zoos 12
Horse Stables 43
Hospitals WHS that include (former) Hospitals, institutions offering medical treatment, of historic value.

Excluding asklepieia which have their own Connection.
Hydro Power Stations WHS containing a Hydro Power station whose presence within the site is closely related to it (as opposed to just being "present" within a city or landscape for instance). 8
Hypogea Hyopgea are underground, pre-Christian temples or tombs. 10
Icehouses WHS where the structure of an icehouse can be seen. 11
Large squares Squares starting from 10000 m2 26
Latrines Latrines at WHS which are
a. Historic or artistic
b. "On show"
c. In recognisable condition
Leaning Tower A leaning tower is a tower which, either intentionally, due to errors in design, construction or to subsequent external influence, does not stand perpendicular to the ground. 13
Lighthouses Historical or otherwise significant lighthouses that are located within the inscribed area of a WHS 52
Loggia "Loggia is the name given to an architectural feature, originally of Italian design. They are often a gallery or corridor at ground level, sometimes higher, on the facade of a building and open to the air on one side, where it is supported by columns or pierced openings in the wall." (wiki) 33
Macellum A macellum is an ancient Roman indoor market building that sold mostly provisions.

A macellum is a fairly easy building to identify from its design. A macellum provides shops arranged around a courtyard which contains a central tholos. The tholos is a round structure, usually built upon a couple of steps (a podium), with a ring of columns supporting a domed roof. A macellum is usually square in shape. (wiki)
Magic Squares Magic Squares can consist of numbers or letters (word squares). A word square consists of a set of words, all having the same number of letters as the total number of words; when the words are written out in a square grid horizontally, the same set o 8
Martyrium A martyrium is a structure built at "a site which bears witness to the Christian faith, either by referring to an event in Christ's life or Passion, or by sheltering the grave of a martyr". Martyria, mostly small, were very common after the early 4th century, when Constantine became the first emperor to make the Nicene Creed the dominant religion of the Roman Empire. Martyria had no standard architectural plan, and are found in a wide variety of designs. (wiki) 5
Mausolea A mausoleum is an external free-standing building constructed as a monument enclosing the burial chamber of a deceased person or persons. 59
Mazes 5
Medieval buildings with significant 19th century murals WHS that date from the Middle Ages and have had 19th century murals added in their original constructions. 6
Monumental Columns WHS containing a "Monumental Column". "A victory column, or monumental column or triumphal column, is a monument in the form of a column, erected in memory of a victorious battle, war, or revolution. The column typically stands on a base and is crowned with a victory symbol, such as a statue." (Wiki). Including monumental columns commemorating individuals or non military events where the form is notably "columnar" (I.e statues or plinths without "columns" are excluded). Also excluding Plague Columns which have their own Connection. Identify the date of creation, the event/person commemorated and location within the WHS. 13
Monumental Fountains 66
Monumental Monoliths Single (or originally so) pieces of stone of great weight detached (or intended to be detached) from the living rock and used for building or as monuments in their own right. Either over 100 tonnes OR otherwise 'significant' e.g. in having been given a 'name'. 15
Music Academies Sites that include a historic Music Academy or one located in a historic or iconic building.
Necropolises A necropolis is a large formal cemetery with implications of grandeur and decoration, possibly but not solely for significant people. 42
Notable Bridges Monumental bridges within the inscribed areas (not being aquaducts, that is a separate connection). Bridges must be named, and remarkable because of their length/height/way of construction/age. See also this ICOMOS-study. 81
Notable Dams WHS that include Notable Dams. Dams must be named. 4
Notable Hotels Buildings of historic or architectural interest designed and still operating as hotels. The building must be noteworthy enough for a visit on its own. 18
Notable minarets WHS that include a minaret that is remarkable for its age, size (>50m) or otherwise. Reason must be given. 16
Obelisk WHS where obelisks can be seen in the core zone. An obelisk is a tall, narrow, four-sided, tapering monument that ends in a pyramidal top. 61
Ossuary An ossuary is a chest, building, well, or site made to serve as the final resting place of human skeletal remains. 18
Passage of the Sun Archaeoastronomical "instruments" for "measuring" or demonstrating the passage of the Sun throughout the year. The Connection is limited to those structures specifically "constructed" for observing the Sun as opposed to those for observing wider astronomical bodies/phenomena. 22
Pillars 11
Pillories The pillory was a device made of a wooden or metal framework erected on a post, with holes for securing the head and hands, formerly used for punishment by public humiliation and often further physical abuse, sometimes lethal. Pillories were set up to hold petty criminals in marketplaces, crossroads, and other public places. They were often placed on platforms to increase public visibility of the offender. Often a placard detailing the crime was placed nearby; these punishments generally lasted only a few hours. (wiki)

Includes similar humiliation devices such as stocks and whipping posts. Physical remains must be visible.
Plague Column 15
Prayer Labyrinth A Prayer Labyrinth has a single path to the centre and is used for prayer, ritual, initiation, and spiritual growth. 7
Prison 90
Protective Shelters Sites where a modern "shelter" (often in the form of a steel shed) has been erected over a significant part of the site to protect it from the elements. 46
Pumping Stations WHS that include Pumping Stations. Pumping stations, also called a pumphouse in situations such as drilled wells and drinking water, are facilities including pumps and equipment for pumping fluids from one place to another. They are used for a variety of infrastructure systems, such as the supply of water to canals, the drainage of low-lying land, and the removal of sewage to processing sites. (wiki) 12
Purpose Built Visitor Centre WHS which contain a purpose-built Visitor/Interpretative Centre since inscription, or in conjunction with the inscription process.

Many WHS have installed visitor centres to improve the "visit experience" and generate revenue. In many cases these have been modern purpose-built structures constructed within the core or buffer zones and have therefore been subject to strict planning considerations - with the involvement of UNESCO where the site is already inscribed or subject to AB evaluation where construction preceded inscription.

The building must have been constructed anew as a "Visitor Centre" for the site and not merely have been converted from or significantly use a pre-existing building. Provide a link describing the building, photo, architects, date of construction etc and indicate whether it is inside the core or buffer zone. (Centres beyond both are excluded). Excluding buildings at archaeological sites which were constructed purely as museums.
Pyramids Pyramidal-shaped WHS (excluding Ziggurats, which have their own connection) 43
Quadriga "A quadriga (Latin quadri-, four, and iugum, yoke) is a car or chariot drawn by four horses abreast (the Roman Empire's equivalent of Ancient Greek tethrippon). It was raced in the Ancient Olympic Games and other contests. It is represented in profile as the chariot of gods and heroes on Greek vases and in bas-relief. The quadriga was adopted in ancient Roman chariot racing. Quadrigas were emblems of triumph; Victory and Fame often are depicted as the triumphant woman driving it. In classical mythology, the quadriga is the chariot of the gods; Apollo was depicted driving his quadriga across the heavens, delivering daylight and dispersing the night. The word quadriga may refer to the chariot alone, the four horses without it, or the combination." Wiki - see 4
Railways Railway systems and train stations 63
Roland statue Statue of the legendary figure Roland, popular in the Middle Ages in Europe and symbolizing city rights. 5
Significant Follies In architecture, a folly is a building constructed primarily for decoration, either suggesting by its appearance some other purpose, or merely so extravagant that it transcends the normal range of garden ornaments or other class of building to which it belongs" (Wiki) 8
Sites of Parliament Parliaments in past and present. 30
Sphinx A sphinx is a mythical creature with a lion's body and a human head or a cat head.

The sphinx, in Greek tradition, has the haunches of a lion, the wings of a great bird, and the face of a woman. She is mythicised as treacherous and merciless. Unlike the Greek sphinx which was a woman, the Egyptian sphinx is typically shown as a man (an androsphinx). In addition, the Egyptian sphinx was viewed as benevolent in contrast to the malevolent Greek version and was thought of as a guardian often flanking the entrances to temples.

In European decorative art, the sphinx enjoyed a major revival during the Renaissance. (wiki)
Stelae Stelae are stones or wooden slabs, generally taller than wide, erected for funerals or commemorative purposes, most usually decorated with the names and titles of the deceased or living - inscribed, carved in relief, or painted onto the slab. Only sites with their stelae still in situ are included. 34
Stepwells WHS having architecturally or historically significant Stepwells

"Stepwells, also called bawdi or baoli (Hindi) ..... or vaav (Gujerati) are wells or ponds in which the water can be reached by descending a set of steps. They may be covered and protected, and are often of architectural significance. It can be multi-storied also in which a bullock turns the water wheel ("Rehat") to raise the water in the well to the first or second floor." (Wiki - )
Sundial A sundial is a device that measures time by the position of the Sun. 36
Suspended cable cars WHS that have suspended cable cars in their core zones. The cable car systems must be still in use for the transport of goods or people.

Cable cars are defined as aerial tramways, gondola lifts, and chairlifts, in which the vehicle is suspended in the air from a cable. This in contrast to cable railways, which have their own connection: Funiculars.
Tea Houses WHS containing a historical "Tea House" or "Tea Room" originally constructed for that purpose and where "Tea" was a major consumable even if other food and refreshments were also available. 4
Tell A tell is a mound (often found in the Middle East) over or consisting of the ruins of ancient settlements 18
Tetrapylon A tetrapylon is an ancient type of Roman monument of cubic shape, with a gate on each of the four sides: generally it was built on a crossroads. 7
Theatres Buildings consisting of or containing auditoria for artistic performances.

Amphitheatres are listed under Locations for playing sport.
Thrones WHS with notable thrones (originals, not reconstructions). 18
Timber circles In archaeology, timber circles are circular arrangements of wooden posts interpreted as being either complexes of freestandingtotem poles or as the supports for large circular buildings. An alternative generic name given to these remains is "Woodhenge" after the example at Stonehenge. 4
Tomb of the Unknown soldier WHS which include a memorial to "The Unknown soldier". See
Tombs Burial location of an individual (or at most for a small number of related people), with some sort of structure/decoration beyond a grave"" (but less grand than a ""mausoleum""!)" 84
Tower-houses A tower house is a particular type of stone structure, built for defensive purposes as well as habitation. 16
Triumphal Arches A triumphal arch is a monumental structure in the shape of an archway with one or more arched passageways, often designed to span a road. Thought to have been invented by the Romans, the triumphal arch was used to commemorate victorious generals or significant public events such as the founding of new colonies, the construction of a road or bridge, the death of a member of the imperial family or the accession of a new emperor. (wiki) 29
Tumuli A tumulus is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves. 37
Tunnels The tunnel should preferably be mentioned in the documentation or be significant""." 65
Unfinished constructions 40
Via Ferrata WHS containing a Via Ferrata. "A via ferrata (Italian for "iron road") is a mountain route which is equipped with fixed cables, stemples, ladders and bridges. The use of these allows otherwise isolated routes to be joined to create longer routes which are accessible to people with a wide range of climbing abilities" (Wiki) 12
Walled cities Cities with their city walls still (almost) complete. 72
Water Organ 4
Water wheels A water wheel is a machine for converting the energy of free-flowing or falling water into useful forms of power. A water wheel consists of a large wooden or metal wheel, with a number of blades or buckets arranged on the outside rim forming the driving surface. (wiki)

Only complete and functioning water wheels are part of this connection.
Windmills WHS that include Windmills, or ruins thereof. 12
Zero Mile or Kilometer Markers WHS within which are markers (Ancient or Modern) indicating the starting point for the measurement of distances. Known nowadays as "Zero Kilometer stones". 6
Ziggurat WHS containing the remains of an archaeological structure commonly described as a "Ziggurat" - "massive structures built in the ancient Mesopotamian valley and western Iranian Plateau, having the form of a terraced step pyramid of successively receding stories or levels" (Wiki - 4