Vatnajökull National Park

Vatnajökull National Park

Vatnajökull National Park has a wide variety of tectonic, volcanic and glaciovolcanic features.

Vatnajökull is the largest glacier in Europe and one of the largest in the world. It is situated on large and active tectonic rift systems. The park comprises 14% of the territory of Iceland.

Map of Vatnajökull National Park

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Visit August 2020

Vatnajökull National Park only exists since 2008 and therefore the areas included may not be commonly known under this name. However, it is one of the most deserving WHS that have been added in the past 10 years. Its IUCN evaluation upon inscription was full of superlatives and the site comes across as highly unique. The park covers a complex interplay of a large ice sheet with the largest glacier in continental Europe, moving tectonic plates and ten volcanoes. So far on this website it has achieved a very high 4.36 out of 5 rating by 28 voters.

I started my visit at Skaftafell, the park's westernmost visitor center. I got there at about 3pm and was surprised by the crowds. There is a very large parking lot for what really only is a starting point of a few hikes. The shortest and most popular hike is the one to Svartifoss - the "black waterfall" surrounded by columns of black basalt. It is only a half an hour walk, steeply uphill. I didn't like it much, neither the walk nor was I impressed by the waterfall itself.

I found a more pleasant short hike behind my hotel, Hotel Skaftafell. Here you walk on a path through the bushes to yet another glacier tongue. Apparently so few visitors come here that the birds jumped in panic when I walked past ‘their’ bushes. The walk ends at a small lake, from where you can continue to one of the trails in Skaftafell.

The next day I drove about 60 kilometers east for Jökulsarlon, the glacial lake. Along the way you’ll encounter several typical Icelandic picnic areas from where you can take good pictures of the lake. I started at the last parking spot before the bridge where the water and ice from the glacial lake flow into the ocean. The weather generally was sunny, but the icy water left a mist cloud hanging over the lake. I sat on the moraine for a while and saw the clouds gradually fade away. It would be a matter of patience before I could see the entire glacial lake.

I decided to await that moment at the other side of the bridge, where you have the best overview of the whole lake and the icebergs floating in it. I noticed a couple of seals also having a great time in the lake. I enjoyed the spectacle from a quiet spot. As with Skaftafell the day before, Jökulsarlon is very busy with tourists; but most of them don't walk far past the parking lot.

After an hour all clouds had cleared and I got a full view of the lake and the enormous glacier wall looming in the distance. This wall used to be right at the ocean, but due to the melting of the glaciers the lake is getting bigger. The glacier now lies 1.5 kilometers from the coast.

Unfortunately one can only get to the edges of Vatnajökull National Park, but you keep looking at that large ice mass. From the Ring Road you can see the enormous ice cap and several glaciers for dozens of kilometers. For me the glacial lake Jökulsarlon was the highlight. And don’t forget: it’s all Free Entrance!

Community Reviews

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Ireland - 09-Jul-22 -

Vatnajökull National Park by Digits

We visited the very edge of Vatnajökull National Park in the summer of 2013 during our lap of the Iceland ring road.  We arrived at the Jökulsarlon Ice Lagoon early in the morning driving from Hofn, after accidentally flirting with danger on the infamous Road 939 in our rickety Toyota Yaris the evening before.

We had booked a 1 hour rib boat tour, but unfortunately when we arrived, a deep fog had descended. This meant we couldn’t see the glacial lake and that the tour couldn’t go up to the glacier edge, but it did add an ethereal mystical quality to floating among the multicoloured or even clear icebergs (our first such experience).

The boats went every 30-60 minutes, although I note the price has almost doubled in the near-decade since our trip. The experience may be more worthwhile for the glacier-novice than the glacier-enthusiast.

Afterwards, we drove past the Fjallsarlon Lagoon on our way to Vik, where we snapped a photo that, subsequently, we had blown up and now is pride of place in our living room. I’m not sure a glacier can be good-looking, but the beauty of the glacier overspilling here has an pleasingly almost-symmetrical quality to it that, in my view, tops the various other glaciers we have seen on our travels.

We visited but a fraction of the site, so it is debatable whether one could even comment on its universal value, but the whole park’s uniqueness seems unquestionable. On a non-WHS side note, we thoroughly enjoyed the visceral video representations of the interaction between fire and ice represented by this World Heritage Site at the Eyjafjallajokull Visitor Centre and also at the Volcano House in Reykjavik.

Randi Thomsen

Norway - 12-Aug-20 -

Vatnajökull National Park by Randi Thomsen

This is a marvelous park! The national park is the largest in Europe and it’s mostly covered by the second largest glacier in Europe. What is the best way to visit such a huge park, with such a harsh nature of fire and ice? As a normal visitor its only possible to scratch at the edges.

The best way to visit is with your own car along the ring road nr 1 as we did. The plan was to first visit Skaftafell area which is supposed to be the best place to go hiking and it is easy accessible. Then on an impulse, after a morning visit to the canyon Fjadrarglufjur, we decided to drive to the Laki area.  Laki is a volcanic fissure in the western part of the national park not covered with ice. The drive was an adventure itself. You will need a 4x4 vehicle. The road is a rough one, 45 km and includes several river crossings. Our rental was a Nissan Qashqai and it (barely) did the job. We stopped to see Fagrifoss,  a beautiful waterfall. The scenery and nature along the route is really different from what we are familiar with. It’s a variation of lava and rocks, but still colorful.  At the parking lot next to the mountain Laki a park ranger met us, a nice surprise. He gave us information about the national park, Laki area and “rules” for driving on islandic gravel roads. Inside the national park there is circle route with three designated stops. First we hiked up the mountain Laki , 818 moh, easy hike 1/2 h. From the top there was an excellent view of the Lakigigar, crater row from the 1783-84 eruptions, the lava fields, the Vatnajökul glacier and the Katla glacier. The summer of 1783 several fissures opened up and formed 135 craters in a row which in turn erupted a vast amount of molten rocks and gasses for eight months. The Laki eruptions caused a severe impact on Iceland, but also to the northern hemisphere with drop in temperature and crop failure. We also hiked through one the craters and checked out another crater with a lake.  The drive through lavafields overgrown by green moss is almost surreal. It turned out to be a day-trip, but well worth the effort getting there.

Later, on the way to our guest house, we went to a couple of glacier lagoons (Svinafellsjökull, Fjallsarlon and Jökulsarlon) with plenty of small icebergs. The road to Svinafellsjökull was only 2 km, but really bad with potholes, Fjallsarlon was the best stop, Jökulsarlon very touristy. The next day we went on a guided half-day glacier tour on the Breidamerkurjökull . It was an interesting trip. The summer glacier is dirty and not very photogenic. The dirt is lava emerging from melting ice. The glacier looks smooth from a distance, but it’s not. There a plenty of big holes and cracks from melting water and tiny “caves” with some blue ice. The ice-cap is melting fast, disturbingly fast due to climate changes. And by the way, entering ice caves wih deep blue ice are for winter visits only.

Along the ring road there are several glacier tongues to be seen. From Höfn you have a great view to seven of them at once. In the north we also visited Jökulsárgljúfur and Dettifoss/Selfoss. Actually, this part of the national park did not end up inscribed, but it still worth a visit.

We really enjoyed Vatnajökull, it is full of elements from vulcanos, craters, lavafields, glaciers, lagoons, alpine flowers, to roaring waterfall, but you will need to give it some time.

Ralf Regele

Germany - 11-Sep-18 -

Vatnajökull National Park by Ralf Regele

The Vatnajökull National Park area is a bit unusual, as it includes the Jökulsargljufur National Park, which has no borders to the rest of the park, creating a second location for the site. Having just visited this exclave, I can highly recommend it. It features some of the most spectacular scenery in a country overflowing with great landscapes. The glacier-fed river Jökulsa a Fjöllum (which orginates a long way down south in the main park area) is cutting through a landscape formed by raw volcanic rock. It creates a large canyon and tumbles down a series of waterfalls, including the mighty Dettifoss waterfall. It's a gripping display of raw elementary powers, with hardly any plant life or greenery in sight. Getting there is not too tough if you have a car, although the east side road is a bit rough (though probably a bit more rewarding). No 4x4 is needed, at least in summer. However, getting there as a day trip from Reykyavik is definitely out of the question. Most people do it as part of an Iceland round trip on the ring road 1, where the 2-3 hour detour is certainly worth it. Visiting in early autumn, there was no lack of tourists, but the large scale landscape could cope with it pretty well. Further north lies the Asbyrgi canyon, which is more fertile but less spectacular, but still highly enjoyable.
For the Skaftafell section in the south, I had good luck with the Jökulsarlon glacier lagoon, as there were lots of colorful icebergs floating right next to the car park, with a boat ride not really needed. There were lots of clouds and fog in the higher glacier regions, though, so the whole travel experience here relies a good bit on luck.
All in all, the Vatnajökull National Park is so large and so full of marvelous landscapes that a WHS designation seems quite deserved. Iceland has so far no natural WHS that covers its amazing landscape, so it's about time.
Visited in September 2018.
Importance 3/5 Beauty 5/5 Uniqueness 5/5 Environment 4/5 Experience 5/5


UK - 02-Jun-18 -

Vatnajökull National Park by Solivagant

When we booked a late-availability and heavily discounted expedition cruise from Scotland to Greenland in June 2010 it included a number of organised "tourist" side trips in the Faeroes and Iceland. Argo's review below, and with it the realisation that we may soon gain an extra "visit tick" from the potential inscription of Vatnajokull NP, have led me to re-evaluate our visit there. It turns out that 2 of the Icelandic trips did indeed go inside the current boundaries of Vatnajokull NP - first, a self-drive snowmobile ride up on the glacier and second, a boat trip on (Lake) Jökulsárlón (Here is a map of the 2017 NP extension which brought the southern part of Jökulsárlón and Highway 1 which goes past it, “inside” the NP and hence “inside” the nominated area).

I accept that we normally tend to be too “penny pinching” for our own good when travelling! This particularly applies for what might be termed “optional costs” such as commercially run tours. So, “HOW MUCH!!??” is our usual first response when discovering their cost - probably followed by us walking away, having decided that it just wouldn’t be worth it (we don’t normally “enjoy” the group aspect of organised tours anyway)! I have just checked the current price of a similar snowmobile trip to ours - this is c EUR 200/£178 per person for 3 hours including a drive up from Highway 1 and back, kitting/de-kitting time etc – so only 1 hour out on the ice. There is NO way we would "optionally" have paid that so, looking back, it was lucky that it was “hidden” from us in the overall cost because, both at the time and in retrospect, it proved a "memorable" experience!

From our ship in the port of Hofn we were driven to Jöklasel up Route F985. This is a dirt road for 4 x 4s etc which climbs through impressive scenery from near sea level on Iceland’s circle highway No 1 up to 815m on the edge of Vatnajokull at 64.255339, -15.864050 . The NP map shows the car park and the various tourist buildings to be situated on the very boundary of the park (Google puts them inside!). Mrs Solivagant and I were allocated our shared snowmobile (even these prices are only per person sharing a machine!), and, kitted up with helmets and special suits, we set out onto the ice and into the park (Photo). We followed the trails of previous snowmobiles and were accompanied by those of our shipmates who had opted for this rather than the more passive “Glacier bus trip”. I can’t claim that we ventured that far but occasionally found ourselves “alone on the glacier” as the mist rolled in and out, the base buildings “disappeared” and the group broke up as various of us swapped driver/passenger, ran into snowdrifts or fell off when turning too sharply! I note that anyone wanting to drive now has to show a car driving license. We were not asked for this and I am not sure it is very relevant anyway! Of course it was all rather “tame” really - and didn’t enable us properly to cover the natural/geolgoical values of Vatnajokull but it was still "good fun"! (though whether it was "Eur 200 per person's worth" of "good fun" is another matter!)

I cannot report the same enthusiasm for the boat trip on Jökulsárlón. This, in all honesty, was a bit “dull”. You climb onto an amphibious truck (current cost c£41 or Eur 46) which then trundles into the lake and slowly navigates between the “icebergs”. Perhaps we were too “blasé” about icebergs, having already been to the Antarctic and Spitzbergen where we travelled on, the far more "fun", zodiacs, but these "icebergs" really were hardly worth the name! The pictures in the tour company's web site above, show reasonably interesting shapes of a reasonable size - but ours were more like those shown in Argo's photo below! If this might be the only time you will ever be able to "navigate" among "lumps" of ice then your judgement might (justifiably) be different but I am not sure we gained much over just viewing the lake, its "icebergs" and the glacier behind it from the land. So, if we were ever to return to Iceland (2 visits already so “unlikely”), we would try to invest our time on some trekking within the NP rather than such a relatively expensive "joy ride".


France - 19-May-18 -

Vatnajökull National Park by Argo

Having read that Iceland would propose this site for 2019, I crossed check the detailed map of the nomination file (that can be downloaded from the National Park website) with my notes and pictures from our June 2008 trip to Iceland.

To be fair this tentative site is probably best visited if you go there for trekking, and this is not what we did at that time, however we went to some easily accessible parts of the nominated area. There is only one road which goes (on a short section) through this area, that is road number 1, which is also the only road going around the island. We stopped at the place called Jokulsarlon. This is a lake created by melting ice from the glacier, directly connected to the beach and sea by a short stream. There were few visitors on that day, and the dark clouds, low light, white and blue ices with the glacier in the background created a very special and impressive atmosphere we will never forget.

Following road number one to Reikjavik, we also stopped at two more places (Skaftafell and Svinafellsokull) where ice tongues from the Vatnajokul glacier can be seen from very close. For this, you must exit the main road and drive for a few minutes on dust roads (accessible with our basic  rental car). Staying safe on the path we walked along the ice, and again these were memorable experiences. Glacier was huge and could be seen from very close. It is even more impressive when you look at the map and realize that these are only small parts of the whole glacier which lies on top of the mountain.

These places are a long drive away from the capital and we chose to do it in two days, however road number one, for being the only one, is a good road, with very low traffic. Landscape was amazing (that’s Iceland), and only stops to take pictures may cause (long) delay!

Site Info

Full Name
Vatnajökull National Park - dynamicnature of fire and ice
Unesco ID
Natural landscape - Volcanic and thermal

Site History

2019 Referred

Part of the nomination was referred: the Jökulsá á Fjöllum river corridor and the northern Dettifoss - Ásbyrgi part of Vatnajökull National Park

2019 Inscribed

2011 Revision

Includes former TWHS Skaftafell (2001) and Askja part of former TWHS Herðubreið and Askja


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ALS Adam Hancock Aidan Coohill Airpunk Akacesfan Alexander Barabanov Alfons and Riki Verstraeten Ali Zingstra AliciaLee711 Allison Vies Anonymous15788 Argo Aspasia Atila Ege AustralLights Bin Bram de Bruin Carlo Medina Carlos Caminando Carlos Garrido Catchant Chris Law Christine Schmit Christoph Chunsian01 Cjones Claire Bradshaw Clyde Ctravel Daniel C-Hazard DeanS Dennis Nicklaus DennisNL87 Dgjohansson Dibro Digits Dn1206 ELVAN YURDUSEN Eatexplore57 Echwel Eddypc07 Ellen Nielsen Els Slots Eva Kisgyorgy FS Feldhase Femke Roos Filippo Ubaldi Frederik Dawson George Evangelou Hadrianus Haining Guan Handballrama HaraldOest Harry Mitsidis Heidisaacson Hft Hyoga Itahue Ivan Rucek Izzet Ege Jan-Willem Jana and Matt Jballard650 Jeanne OGrady Jennbadgley JoStof JohanneB John Westray Join-our-journeys Jonas Kremer Jonas Martinsson Jonathanfr Joshuakirbens Judith Tanner Junwang111 Juropa KB1 Kbecq Keith90245 Kelly Rogers Kevin Padley-Knight Kinstell Kurt Lauer Kutasp LaVale Lauren Lillybett Loic Pedras Lorenzo2022 Lubos Ludvan Luis Filipe Gaspar Lukasz Palczewski Luki501 MaYumin Mahuhe Marcel staron Mardigny Martina Ruckova MaxHeAnouBen Mbeese Meeveebee Michael Ayers Michael Novins Michal Marciniak Mikko MoPython Mtlmr Nan NataliaS Nihal Ege Nikolasruffet Nykri Oldwhizzy Olli-Pekka Turunen PKalnai PabloNorte Pascal Cauliez Patphilly Paul RYKEN Peltzi Philipp Leu Philipp Peterer Pieter Dijkshoorn Polyommatus_icarus Ralf Regele Randi Thomsen RobRos Roel Sterken Roger Ourset Roman Koeln Roman Raab Rvieira Ryan09sb Sabrina Liebehentschel Samy Shijie ZHU Sibariam Simonh Sisa_p Solivagant Sophie Sschooler Stanislaw Warwas Svein Elias Swazzer30 Tasmith87 Thomas Buechler Timothy C Easton Tingmelvin Tino A Offner Tjark Tomas.zaruba Tommy W Tony0001 Travel Addicts Vicente B. Avanzado Jr. Volker1972 Walter Xtopher33 Zhenjun Liu Zizmondka Zoë Sheng