Chichen Itza
Gebel Berkal

World Heritage Site

for World Heritage Travellers

Destroyed during invasion

WHS (or significant parts thereof) that were destroyed or severely damaged during invasion. This excludes wars since 1914 as they already have their own Connection.

The connection belongs to Damaged connections.

Connected Sites

  • Al Qal'a of Beni Hammad: destroyed by the Almohads in 1152.
  • Al Zubarah: The attack on Zubarah in 1811 was followed by a short period of abandonment.
  • Ancient Merv: Destroyed by the Mongols in 1221
  • Angkor: Thai Invasion in 1431
  • Ani: The Mongols unsuccessfully besieged Ani in 1226, but in 1236 they captured and sacked the city, massacring large numbers of its population (wiki)
  • Anuradhapura: Chola invasion in 1017
  • Ashur: Destroyed by the Medes in 614 BC
  • Ayutthaya: By Burmese Army in 1767
  • Baekje Historic Areas: Mireuksa Temple, “The findings indicated that the temple was established in the early 7th century during the reign of King Mu and was demolished around the time of the Japanese invasion of Korea in 1592.” - Nomination File
  • Berat and Gjirokastra: Berat: sacked and burned by the Romans
  • Berlin Modernism Housing Estates: Russian attack on Berlin in 1945
  • Biblical Tells: Megiddo, Hatzor
  • Changdeokgung Palace Complex: Korea's Changdeokgung and Jongmyo Shrine by Japanese Invasion in 1592
  • Colonia del Sacramento: By Spain in 1704/5
  • Costiera Amalfitana: Scala was destroyed by the Pisans in the 12th Century.
  • Curonian Spit: Kaup was destroyed by the Crusades
  • El Fuerte de Samaipata: Wiki: "Guarani warriors conquered the plains and valleys of Santa Cruz and destroyed Samaipata."
  • Ferrara: Comacchio was destroyed by the Venetians in 854
  • Grand Place, Brussels: "On August 13, 1695, a 70,000-strong French army under Marshal Fran?ois de Neufville, Duke of Villeroy began a bombardment of Brussels in an effort to draw the League of Augsburg's forces away from their siege on French-held Namur in what is now southern Belgium. The French launched a massive bombardment of the mostly defenseless city centre with cannons and mortars, setting it on fire and flattening the majority of the Grand Place and the surrounding city. Only the stone shell of the town hall and a few fragments of other buildings remained standing. That the town hall survived at all is ironic, as it was the principal target of the artillery fire."
  • Great Smoky Mountains: Oconaluftee, the Cherokee capital within the park area was probably destroyed in 1776 by the army of General Griffith Rutherford during the American Revolution.
  • Gyeongju: "Hwangnyongsa - This group consists of two ruined temples, Hwangnyongsa and Punhwangsa. Hwangnyongsa, built to the order of King Chinhung (540-76) was the largest temple ever built in Korea, covering some 72,500m2. An 80m high nine-storey pagoda was added in 645. The entire complex was destroyed by Mongol invaders in 1238." - AB Document
  • Hatra: Destroyed by the Sassanids in 241
  • Hedeby and Danevirke: Hedeby was destroyed by the Slavs in 1066.
  • Hwaseong Fortress: North Korean invasion of South Korea in 1950. "Considerable damage was caused to some parts of the Fortress during the Korean War. The Changanmun and Ch'angyongmun Gates were completely destroyed, and sections of the walls were demolished." - AB Document
  • Ibiza: By Vandals, 5th century
  • Jongmyo Shrine: By Japanese Invasion in 1592
  • Kaesong: "Koryo Songgyungwan was burnt down by Japanese invaders in 1592; rebuilt over nine years from 1602." - nomination file
  • Kernavë: Destroyed by the Teutonic Order in the late 14th century
  • Khami Ruins: 1683
  • Koguryo Kingdom: "Koguryo directly bordered the Kingdom of Wei, with which it often conflicted. General Wu Qi~ujian of Wei attacked Koguryo. The construction of palaces of Wandu Mountain City was damaged. King Dongchuanwang moved the capital to Guonei City (209AD) and started the first round of construction of the city." - Nomination File
  • Kunya-Urgench: Genghis Khan 1221
  • Luang Prabang: Black Haw Invasion in 1887 destroyed most of temples and palaces
  • Mbanza Kongo: by the Portuguese in 1665
  • Minaret of Jam: The city of Firuzkuh where it was located was apparently destroyed by the Mongols
  • Old City of Jerusalem: By the Roman Army (70 A.D.)
  • Palenque: towards the end of the 12th Century by coastal peoples
  • Persepolis: Alexander the Great 330BC
  • Polonnaruva: Kalinga invasion in 1214
  • Quebrada de Humahuaca: The Pucara at Tilcara was destroyed by the Spaniards and its inhabitants exiled.
  • Rila Monastery: Destroyed by the Ottomans in the middle of the 15th Century
  • Royal Palaces of Abomey: Abomey - destroyed during the French invasion in 1892
  • Røros: Røros was burned to the ground in 1678 and 1679 by the Swedish Army during the Scanian War.
  • Santa Ana de los Rios de Cuenca: In late 1531 or early 1532, Atahualpa and his generals forced the city Tumebamba to surrender and had it destroyed. Tumebamba is the Inca city that was on the present site of Cuenca, Ecuador
  • Seokguram Grotto and Bulguksa Temple: "During the Imjin wars, the wooden buildings were burned to the ground. After 1604, reconstruction and expansion of Bulguksa started." -wiki
  • Shakhrisyabz: Destroyed by the Emir of Bukhara in the 16th century
  • Site of Carthage: Third Punic War in 146 BC
  • Speyer Cathedral: Speyer Cathedral during the Nine Years' War (Palatinate War of Succession 1688?97) by French troops
  • Summer Palace: Lord Elgin 1860
  • Susa: In 1218, the city was razed by invading Mongols (wiki)
  • Troy: Trojan War
  • Turaif Quarter: From Wiki "....led to the Ottoman-Saudi War of 1811?1818 and an invasion of Arabia by Ottoman and Egyptian forces brought the Saudi state to an end in 1818, with Diriyah capitulating after a nearly-year-long siege. The leader of the invading force, Ibrahim Pasha, ordered the destruction of Diriyah. However, when a member of the local nobility tried to revive the Wahhabi state in Diriyah, Ibrahim ordered his troops to destroy the town even further and set whatever was left of it on fire. When the Saudis revived their fortunes in 1824 and again in 1902, they made their capital further south in Riyadh, which remained their capital ever since.
  • White Monuments of Vladimir and Suzdal: Bogolyubovo by Mongols during the 1230's


Do you know of another WHS we could connect to Destroyed during invasion?

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A connection should:

  1. Not be "self evident"
  2. Link at least 3 different sites
  3. Not duplicate or merely subdivide the "Category" assignment already identified on this site.
  4. Add some knowledge or insight (whether significant or trivial!) about WHS for the users of this site
  5. Be explained, with reference to a source