Destroyed during invasion

WHS (or significant parts thereof) that were destroyed or severely damaged during invasion. This excludes wars since 1914 as they already have their own Connection.

Connected Sites

Site Rationale Link
Al Qal'a of Beni Hammad destroyed by the Almohads in 1152.
Al Zubarah The attack on Zubarah in 1811 was followed by a short period of abandonment.
Ancient Merv Destroyed by the Mongols in 1221
Angkor Thai Invasion in 1431
Ani The Mongols unsuccessfully besieged Ani in 1226, but in 1236 they captured and sacked the city, massacring large numbers of its population (wiki)
Anuradhapura Chola invasion in 1017
Ashur Destroyed by the Medes in 614 BC
Ayutthaya By Burmese Army in 1767
Babylon Babylon was severely damaged during the 2003 invasion of Iraq and the occupation by military units of the Coalition Forces: "The use of Babylon as a military base was a grave encroachment on this internationally known archeological site".
Baekje Historic Areas Mireuksa Temple, “The findings indicated that the temple was established in the early 7th century during the reign of King Mu and was demolished around the time of the Japanese invasion of Korea in 1592.” - Nomination File
Belfries The Belfry and city hall of Binche were burnt down by the troops of the French king Henry II in 1554 when taking the city. (Nomination file, p. 4) One of the first versions of the belfry of Bergues was destroyed by the invading troops of the French king Charles VI in 1383. (Nomination file, p. 31)
Berat and Gjirokastra Berat: sacked and burned by the Romans
Berlin Modernism Housing Estates Russian attack on Berlin in 1945
Biblical Tells Megiddo, Hatzor
Carthage Third Punic War in 146 BC
Changdeokgung Palace Complex Korea's Changdeokgung and Jongmyo Shrine by Japanese Invasion in 1592
Chankillo Archaeoastronomical Complex Chankillo and other structures of the Casma/Sechin culture were partially destroyed and their use abandoned in an apparent conflict about 100 BCE. (Wiki)
Cidade Velha Ruínas da Catedral da Ribeira Grande de Santiago - destroyed during "a major attack carried out by the French privateer, Jacques Cassard, in 1712".
Colonia del Sacramento By Spain in 1704/5
Costiera Amalfitana Scala was destroyed by the Pisans in the 12th Century.
Curonian Spit Kaup was destroyed by the Crusades
Danube Limes "One of the most significant periods of crisis in the history of the (...) Danube Limes was the time of the Marcomannic Wars (166–180 AD). Many fortifications and especially the civilian hinterland (...) were attacked, raided or even destroyed several times by barbarian tribes. Destruction levels have been identified on many sites in the Danube Limes provinces." (Nomination text, p. 99-100) Enns-Lauriacum (ID 14) was destroyed several times by Germanic tribes (Juthungi, Alemanni) in the third century, but it was the passage of the Huns in the fifth century that meant the end of the settlement.
El Fuerte de Samaipata Wiki: "Guarani warriors conquered the plains and valleys of Santa Cruz and destroyed Samaipata."
Ferrara Comacchio was destroyed by the Venetians in 854
Grand Place, Brussels "On August 13, 1695, a 70,000-strong French army under Marshal Fran?ois de Neufville, Duke of Villeroy began a bombardment of Brussels in an effort to draw the League of Augsburg's forces away from their siege on French-held Namur in what is now southern Belgium. The French launched a massive bombardment of the mostly defenseless city centre with cannons and mortars, setting it on fire and flattening the majority of the Grand Place and the surrounding city. Only the stone shell of the town hall and a few fragments of other buildings remained standing. That the town hall survived at all is ironic, as it was the principal target of the artillery fire."
Great Smoky Mountains Oconaluftee, the Cherokee capital within the park area was probably destroyed in 1776 by the army of General Griffith Rutherford during the American Revolution.
Gyeongju "Hwangnyongsa - This group consists of two ruined temples, Hwangnyongsa and Punhwangsa. Hwangnyongsa, built to the order of King Chinhung (540-76) was the largest temple ever built in Korea, covering some 72,500m2. An 80m high nine-storey pagoda was added in 645. The entire complex was destroyed by Mongol invaders in 1238." - AB Document
Hatra Destroyed by the Sassanids in 241
Hedeby and Danevirke Hedeby was destroyed by the Slavs in 1066.
Hwaseong Fortress North Korean invasion of South Korea in 1950. "Considerable damage was caused to some parts of the Fortress during the Korean War. The Changanmun and Ch'angyongmun Gates were completely destroyed, and sections of the walls were demolished." - AB Document
Ibiza By Vandals, 5th century
Jongmyo Shrine By Japanese Invasion in 1592
Kaesong "Koryo Songgyungwan was burnt down by Japanese invaders in 1592; rebuilt over nine years from 1602." - nomination file
Kernavė Destroyed by the Teutonic Order in the late 14th century
Khami Ruins 1683
Koguryo Kingdom "Koguryo directly bordered the Kingdom of Wei, with which it often conflicted. General Wu Qi~ujian of Wei attacked Koguryo. The construction of palaces of Wandu Mountain City was damaged. King Dongchuanwang moved the capital to Guonei City (209AD) and started the first round of construction of the city." - Nomination File
Kunya-Urgench Genghis Khan 1221
Luang Prabang Black Haw Invasion in 1887 destroyed most of temples and palaces
Mbanza Kongo by the Portuguese in 1665
Minaret of Jam The city of Firuzkuh where it was located was apparently destroyed by the Mongols
Old City of Jerusalem By the Roman Army (70 A.D.)
Palenque towards the end of the 12th Century by coastal peoples
Paseo del Prado and Buen Retiro Most of the Retiro palace and its gardens were destroyed during the Peninsular War (1807–1814) when the troops of the First French Empire built the Citadel of Madrid in its grounds.
Persepolis Alexander the Great 330BC
Polonnaruva Kalinga invasion in 1214
Quebrada de Humahuaca The Pucara at Tilcara was destroyed by the Spaniards and its inhabitants exiled.
Rila Monastery Destroyed by the Ottomans in the middle of the 15th Century
Roman Walls of Lugo A section of the wall was destroyed in 984, during the siege of the town by Almanzor. (Nomination file, p. 75)
Royal Palaces of Abomey Abomey - destroyed during the French invasion in 1892
Røros Røros was burned to the ground in 1678 and 1679 by the Swedish Army during the Scanian War.
Santa Ana de los Rios de Cuenca In late 1531 or early 1532, Atahualpa and his generals forced the city Tumebamba to surrender and had it destroyed. Tumebamba is the Inca city that was on the present site of Cuenca, Ecuador
Santiago de Compostela "Taken and laid waste to in 997 by Al Mansour, the city was rebuilt during the 11th century around the apostle's tomb which had gone unviolated." (AB Ev)
Seokguram Grotto and Bulguksa Temple "During the Imjin wars, the wooden buildings were burned to the ground. After 1604, reconstruction and expansion of Bulguksa started." -wiki
Shakhrisyabz Destroyed by the Emir of Bukhara in the 16th century
Speyer Cathedral Speyer Cathedral during the Nine Years' War (Palatinate War of Succession 1688?97) by French troops
Stari Ras and Sopocani During one of the raids, in 1689, the Ottoman Turks set fire to the monastery and carried off the lead from the church roof. The brotherhood escaped and the monastery remained deserted for over two hundred years, until the 20th century. The church slowly decayed: its vaults caved in, its dome fell down, and the remains of the surrounding buildings were covered with rubble and earth.
Summer Palace Lord Elgin 1860
Susa In 1218, the city was razed by invading Mongols (wiki)
Timgad After the Vandal invasion of 430, Timgad was destroyed at the end of the 5th century by montagnards of the Aurès. The Byzantine Reconquest revived some activities in the city (...). The Arab invasion brought about the final ruin of Thamugadi which ceased to be inhabited after the 8th century. (Unesco website)
Troy Trojan War
Turaif Quarter From Wiki "....led to the Ottoman-Saudi War of 1811?1818 and an invasion of Arabia by Ottoman and Egyptian forces brought the Saudi state to an end in 1818, with Diriyah capitulating after a nearly-year-long siege. The leader of the invading force, Ibrahim Pasha, ordered the destruction of Diriyah. However, when a member of the local nobility tried to revive the Wahhabi state in Diriyah, Ibrahim ordered his troops to destroy the town even further and set whatever was left of it on fire. When the Saudis revived their fortunes in 1824 and again in 1902, they made their capital further south in Riyadh, which remained their capital ever since.
White Monuments of Vladimir and Suzdal Bogolyubovo by Mongols during the 1230's


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