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King Kongmin's tomb (photo provided by Paul Tanner)

The Historic Monuments and Sites in Kaesong represent the ruling base of the Koryo dynasty (918-1392) with their associated tombs. The Koryo unified the country. During their reign Confucianism began to prevail over Buddhism. The city was developed in a geomantic setting, using the surrounding mountain tops as markers.

Kaesong was their capital and flourished as a commercial city. The designated area covers the 12 remaining Koryo monuments and sites. They are:

- 5 sections of the city walls

- Manwoldae Palace and Chomsongdae

- Namdae Gate

- Koryo Songgyungwan

- Sungyang Sowon

- Sonjuk Bridge and Phyochung Monuments

- Mausoleum of King Wang Kon with associated Seven Tombs Cluster and Myongrung Tombs Cluster

- Mausoleum of King Kongmin

Kaesong is the southernmost city of North Korea. It used to be one of only two locations in North Korea accessible from the south (until May 2010).

Map of Kaesong


  • Cultural

Community Reviews

AC - 28-Apr-16

We were taken on a whirlwind tour of Kaesong city. Within less than two hours we got to see the Sonjuk Bridge, the Namdaemum, the Koryo Museum and the tomb of King Wang Gon. Most visitors I think get to see the museum. The bridge was thrown in because we had lunch at the nearby restaurant (which I discovered to my surprise was within the core zone) and some of us asked to see it. That particular tomb was chosen instead Kongmin's, I cannot help but suspect, because Wang Gon was the founder of the Koryo and credited with unifying the Korean nation. And we drove by the Namdaemun twice, when entering and leaving the city.

We found out that the tomb of Wang Gon could be entered at a lovely price of 100 euros per person.

I am not quite sure what to think of what I had seen. There was hardly any time to absorb anything and the guides were bent on ensuring that we could get back to Pyongyang in time that same day to see the birthplace of the eternal chairman. But I guess I should be grateful that I even got to see four sites.

Solivagant UK - 26-Jun-08 -

Kaesong by Solivagant

A row of tourist faces looked out over the locked gate of their hotel compound in Kaesong. Beyond it North Koreans passed by, walking or cycling their way to work – but their gaze was fixedly averted away from the tourists. A policeman "directed" the non existent motor traffic. On the other side of the T junction the rows of attractive stone houses with low tiled roofs receded into the distance. But all thought of communication with the locals or wandering along those streets was useless – we were “imprisoned” in our hotel as this was tourism North Korean style!

But, if you go to DPRK you just have to accept these restrictions, you may try to break or just stretch them but you probably don’t want to get your guide into trouble – ours was a lady who was certainly no party hack but just someone trying to make a living in this very strange society – naïve and propagandised yes but also intelligent, not “pushy” of the party line and generally very pleasant and “nice”.

I wonder how ICOMOS will view Kaesong’s application for inscription? I am still rather amused at the recommendation after its visit to the Koguryo Tombs which were inscribed in 2004 that a “Visitor’s Management Plan” should be produced. For goodness sake - visitors here are the most “managed” anywhere in the world!!!! No one (foreigners or locals) goes to see ANYTHING in an uncontrolled way! ICOMOS/UNESCO seemed prepared then to overlook even matters of authenticity (“These (tombs) are certainly new, but are part of the presentation and interpretation of the sites – not pretending to be an authentic element, nor compromising the cultural values”) Oh yes – tell that to Dresden with its new bridge!! And UNESCO bent over backwards to solve the political problem between DPRK and China re “ownership” of the Koguryo heritage. So it would appear that UNESCO wants to try very hard (probably justifiably) to bring DPRK inside the world wide “Heritage Family”. If that is so then Kaesong is likely to receive a “fair wind” in July 2008.

We were eventually allowed out of our hotel (The Kaesong Folk hotel which is designed to look like an authentic street of Korean houses) for the c13km drive to King Kongmin’s Tomb. DPRK “majors” on tombs (as well as sites said to be connected to the “Great” and “Dear” Leaders – though these may well have to wait until 2108 to be inscribed as illustrating “a significant stage in human history”, viz One-party charismatic rule – unless of course the worst has happened and everyone lives in such a state by that time!). This tomb is attractively situated on a hill side (photo 1) and the journey there was as interesting as the visit itself as it passed through an active farming area full of “brigades” of workers harvesting with hand tools – enabling some surreptitious photos to be taken from the coach windows! King Kongmin was the 31st king of the Koryo dynasty and ruled from 1352-1374. His tomb is mentioned in this nomination among various sites in and around Kaesong, which was Koryo’s capital from 918-1392. How authentic it is I know not but it was interesting enough and this era of Korean history is not represented on S Korea’s list either, though the earlier Shilla (Gyeongju) and the subsequent Chosun (Changdeokgung) dynasties are. So it is a gap which should be filled.

The main reason tourists are taken to Kaesong is to visit the DMZ. This we did after the Kongmun tomb visit and then returned to Kaesong for our lunch. Unfortunately we were never given a chance to visit the old town. Instead we were taken “unto a high place” to view (yet another) enormous gold statue of the “Great Leader” and numerous stones carved with his sayings. This was set in a pleasant park above the town. We dispersed like an opened can of worms away from our guide hoping to get to somewhere more interesting – but to no avail. A cliff barred our descent to the old town and I had to make do with a few photos of what looked to be an interesting area (photo 2) of old looking buildings (though all are probably post Korean War as Kaesong exchanged hands several times during that conflict). Then it was back to Pyongyang on a 3 hour drive along the 4 lane but totally deserted highway – another surreal experience in this amazing country.

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Community Rating

Community Rating 2.63. Based on 4 votes.

Site Info

Full name: Historic Monuments and Sites in Kaesong

Unesco ID: 1278

Inscribed: 2013

Type: Cultural

Criteria: 2   3  

Link: By Name By ID

Site History

  • 2013 - Inscribed 
  • 2012 - Incomplete - not examined 
  • 2008 - Deferred Reconsider sites to hold significant and representative examples of the Koryo Dynasty


The site has 8 locations.

  • Kaesong: Kaesong Chomsongdae
  • Kaesong: Kaesong Namdae Gate
  • Kaesong: Kaesong Walls
  • Kaesong: Koryo Songgyungwan
  • Kaesong: Manwoldae
  • Kaesong: Mausoleum of King Wang Kon
  • Kaesong: Sonjuk Bridge & Phyochung Monuments
  • Kaesong: Sungyang Sowon


The site has 24 connections.


  • Feng Shui: "Construction on the palace began in 919, at the beginning of the Goryeo dynasty; it was built south of the Songak mountains for good feng shui." - wiki


  • Stelae: commemorative steles
  • Mausolea: Mausoleum of King Wang Kon, Mausoleum of King Kongmin
  • Dynastic Burial Places: Goryeo Dynasty
  • Notable Bridges: Sonjuk Bridge (built in 1290, location of infamous assassination)
  • Bixi: Phyochung Monuments - "The monuments comprise large turtle-shaped granite plinths weighing over ten tons, supporting black marble stelae inscribed with poems commemorating Jong Mong Ju, and topped by pavilion-style hipped-gable caps carved from granite with dragon reliefs." - nomination file
  • Universities: Koryo Songgyungwan University
  • Famous Bells: Yonbuk Bell, housed in Namdae Gate are both National Treasures of the DPRK "The gate houses the Yŏnbok Bell cast in 1346 and weighing 14 tonnes. Recovered from Yŏnbok Temple when it was destroyed by fire in 1563, the bell was used to call out the hours until the early 20th century." wiki
  • Tombs: associated Seven Tombs Cluster and Myongrung Tombs Cluster


  • Destroyed during invasion: "Koryo Songgyungwan was burnt down by Japanese invaders in 1592; rebuilt over nine years from 1602." - nomination file
  • Damaged in War since WWII: Korean War "After the country's liberation in 1945, US troops attempted to bulldoze the back site of the central group of buildings to build military barracks there, but had to suspend the project owing to the local people's protest. During the Korean War (1950-1953), the stoneworks in the front part of the central group of buildings were damaged by bombing. After the war, the local people and the Korean People's Army soldiers reconstructed the damaged part over two years, between 1953 and 1954. Afterwards, Manwoldae was registered as a National Treasure Site." (Nom file) and "In 1950 the pavilion above the Namdae Gate was burnt down during US bombing" (AV)


  • Assassinations: At Sonjuk Bridge famed Confucian scholar and statesman Jeong, Mong-ju was murdered for his refusal to betray the Goryeo Dynasty. His death marks the end of the Goryeo Dynasty, and the emergence of Joseon. - wiki & nomination file
  • Goryeo : Criterion (iii): The Historic Monuments and Sites in Kaesong are exceptional testimony to the unified Koryo civilisation as Buddhism gave way to neo-Confucianism in East Asia.

Human Activity

  • Astronomy and Astrology: The monuments inscribed also include an astronomical and meteorological observatory
  • LGBTQ culture: Mausoleum of King Gongmin - "King Gongmin (1325–1374) of Goryeo is on record as having kept several wonchung ("male lovers") in his court as “little-brother attendants” (chajewhi) who served as sexual partners. After the death of his wife, King Gongmin even went so far as to create a ministry whose sole purpose was to seek out and recruit young men from all over the country to serve in his court."  Link

Individual People

  • Homer B. Hulbert: "Just outside the wall of Songdo (Kaesong), the ancient capital of Koryu (Goryeo), is shown a small stone bridge in which the loyal Chong Mong-ju was slain. He was faithful to the closing dynasty, and had to be put out of the way before the new one could be firmly established. On the central stone of this bridge is seen today a great brown blotch, which turns to a dull red in the rain, and the Koreans affirm it is the blood of that loyal man." - Homer Hulbert - "The Passing of Korea" pg. 292
  • Isabella Bird: Chapter 25 Songdo: A Royal City (Descriptions and sketches of Kaesong City Walls and Manwoldae Palace ruins) "There is a fine bronze bell with curiously involved dragons in one of the gate towers, cast five centuries ago... Outside the crowd and bustle of the city, reached by a narrow path among prosperous ginseng farms and persimmon-embowered hamlets, are the lonely remains of the Kings who reigned in Korea prior to the dynasty of which the present sovereign is the representative, and even in their forlornness they give the impression that the Korean kings were much statelier monarchs than they are now... The palace platform is intersected by massive stone foundations of halls and rooms, some of large area." Isabella Bird "Korea and Her Neighbors (pg. 292-300)

Religion and Belief

  • Confucianism: The integration of Buddhist, Confucian, Taoist and geomantic concepts is manifest (Unesco)
  • Taoism: The integration of Buddhist, Confucian, Taoist and geomantic concepts is manifest (Unesco)



  • Located in a Former Capital: capital of Korea during the Koryo Dynasty
  • Dragon: Phyochung Monuments - "The monuments comprise large turtle-shaped granite plinths weighing over ten tons, supporting black marble stelae inscribed with poems commemorating Jong Mong Ju, and topped by pavilion-style hipped-gable caps carved from granite with dragon reliefs." - nomination file
  • Guided Tour Only: A visit anywhere in North Korea is guided
  • Poetic Quotations: Transition from Goryeo to Joseon "Even if I may die, die a hundred times, Even if my skeleton may become dust and dirt, And whether my spirit may be there or not, My single-hearted loyalty to my lord will not change." - Assassination of Jong Mong-ju at Sonjuk Bridge 1392, signaling the end of the Goryeo Dynasty