Geography Connections

All connections part of Geography.

Adriatic Sea Sites located directly at the coasts of the Adriatic Sea (within 10km). The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula.

See also
Aegean Sea WHS located on the shores of the Aegean Sea. 5
Alps 15
Amazon Basin WHS located within the Amazon Basin, the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries. See map. 12
Andes WHS located within the Andes Mountains. 23
Antipodes points WHS which are situated approximately (within 2 degrees of latitude and longitude) opposite each other on the globe. 22
Archipelagos WHS which are archipelagos or consist of more than one island from within an larger archipelago. Archipelagos are groups of islands, often volcanic, forming along island arcs generated by subduction zones or hotspots, but there are many other processes involved in their construction, including erosion, deposition and land elevation. The main construction process is shown. 21
Arctic Sites that are located north of the Arctic Circle. 7
Arctic Ocean Sites bordering the Arctic Ocean.

"Marginal seas" that have their own connection take precedence over the connection with the Arctic Ocean (elsewhere the Ocean is applied)
Atlantic Forest The Atlantic Forest is a terrestrial Biome and region which extends along the Atlantic coast of Brazil from Rio Grande do Norte state in the north to Rio Grande do Sul state in the south, and inland as far as Paraguay and the Misiones Province of Argentina. (wiki) 7
Atlantic Ocean WHS related to the Atlantic Ocean, where
a. boundary of the core zone touches the Ocean coast (including the "tideway" of estuaries)
b. OUV mentions the Atlantic Ocean

"Marginal seas" that have their own connection take precedence over the connection with the Atlantic Ocean (elsewhere the Ocean is applied)
Atoll An atoll is a coral island (or islands) that encircles a lagoon partially or completely. The connection includes "Raised Atolls" which are now solid/near solid islands or at least have lost their classic lagoon form. 10
Baltic Sea Sites located directly at Baltic Sea coasts 17
Basque The Basque Country is a greater region in the western Pyrenees that spans the border between France and Spain, on the Atlantic coast. 4
Bay of Biscay WHS bordering the Bay of Biscay. 7
Black Sea 6
Caldera A caldera is a cauldron-like volcanic feature usually formed by the collapse of land following a volcanic eruption. 9
Canyons A canyon or gorge is a deep valley between cliffs often carved from the landscape by a river. 29
Cape In geography, a cape is a headland or promontory of large size extending into a body of water, usually the sea. 15
Caribbean Sea WHS bordering the Caribbean Sea. 17
Carpathians The Carpathians are a range of mountains forming an arc of roughly 1,500 km across Central and Eastern Europe. 11
Caspian Sea Sites that reach or once reached the coast line of the Caspian Sea. 4
Caucasus 13
Cirques A cirque is an amphitheatre-like valley head, formed by erosion. Cirque must be named. 18
Colorado River Basin WHS situated within the Colorado Basin 4
Congo River Basin Sites located in the Congo River Basin, as per See also this Unesco publication: 8
Contiguous National Sites WHS which "abut" each other within the same country (ie excluding "Transnational" abutting sites which already have their own "connection"). Different from "Inscribed twice or more" because the 2 sites are exclusive from each other. 15
Contiguous separate sites across national boundaries Contiguous WHS across national boundaries that are inscribed twice. 14
Coral Sea The Coral Sea is a marginal sea off the north-east coast of Australia. 3
Crater Lakes 5
Danube Sites located along the river Danube. 7
Dark-sky preserve A dark-sky preserve (DSP) is an area, usually surrounding a park or observatory, that restricts artificial light pollution. The purpose of a dark sky preserve is generally to promote astronomy. (wiki) 12
Deepest WHS with the greatest water depth within their inscribed area. Over 1000m. 5
Dependent territories 19
Desert Cultural Landscapes Cultural WHS where the OUV derives from its desert location. Sites do not have to be Cultural Landscapes per se. 10
Dinaric Alps 8
Disputed territories 24
East China Sea WHS bordering the East China Sea. 7
Elbe and its tributaries 9
English Channel Sites on the current or historic Channel coast or situated on its tidewater. 6
Equator Located on the Equator. 4
Estuary Sites that are situated in an estuary, comprise one or more estuaries or are meaningfully linked to an estuary. 23
Fjords A fjord is a long, narrow inlet with steep sides, created in a valley carved by glacial activity. 10
Former Islands WHS which, within historical memory, (rather than in the timescales of "Geological eras"!) used to be islands but are now not separated from the surrounding land 10
Formerly inhabited islands Islands or island groups where the entire site is currently uninhabited but formerly at least some parts were inhabited. 13
Ganges On the banks of the Ganges or a river within its Watershed 9
Geysers 6
Glaciers WHS currently (or at the date of inscription) containing Glaciers. 47
Guadalquivir River WHS located along the general course of the river and / or have a cultural connection with it 5
Gulf of Bothnia 3
Gulf of California 3
Gulf of Mexico WHS bordering the Gulf of Mexico 4
Highest (over 5000m) 8
Highest cultural WHS Cultural WHS (or the cultural parts of mixed WHS) that are located over 2,500 meter above sea level 20
Himalaya WHS located in the Himalaya proper, the rugged arc between the Tibetan Plateau and the Ganges Plain. Including sites that are in its foothills or where the site lays claim to specific Himalayan features for its OUV. See also this map.

Hot Springs 18
In former GDR 14
Indian Ocean Sites bordering the Indian Ocean.

"Marginal seas" that have their own connection take precedence over the connection with the Indian Ocean (elsewhere the Ocean is applied)
Isostatic Rebound WHS showing significant and visible signs of Isostatic ("Post Glacial") Rebound. 8
Isthmo Colombian Area The Isthmo-Colombian (or Intermediate) Area is defined as a cultural area encompassing those territories occupied predominantly by speakers of the Chibchan languages at the time of European contact. It includes portions of eastern Honduras, Caribbean Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, and northern Colombia. 3
Kings Highway A trade route of the Ancient Middle East. It begun in Egypt at Heliopolis, crossed the Sinai to Aqaba, turned north to Damascus and finished at Resafa at the Euphrates. Parts were rebuilt by the Romans as the "Via Traiana Nova" and it figured in Christian and Moslem pilgrimage routes. Mentioned in the Old Testament - Numbers 20 17-21.
Kurdistan Kurdistan is a geo-cultural region wherein the Kurdish people form a prominent majority population. It consists of parts of Turkey, Iraq, Iran and Syria. 9
Lakes located in Rift Valleys 7
Lapland 3
Largest area WHS with the greatest inscribed surface area (Excluding Buffer Zones but including marine areas) - over 100,000 sq kms. 5
Linear inscriptions Cultural WHS whose core property is in linear form which has a "a start and end point, a considerable length and limited width". The linear aspects are man made, such as canals, roads/routes, railways etc

This type of site became recognised within the operational guidelines as a "Linear Cultural Landscape" from around 1995 - "The possibility of designating long linear areas which represent culturally significant transport and communication networks should not be excluded." . However, not all "Cultural Routes" are inscribed "Linearly" (see ) and sometimes it is not absolutely clear whether the finally inscribed site is "linear" or "point". Where a site is inscribed primarily in "point" form but also contains some linear stretches within an overall linear concept it is included. Where there is uncertainty the words used in the Nomination file/AB Evaluation are adopted.

Excluding sites which, inter alia, merely contain such a network within a wider inscription (e.g Kii Mountains) or include a lot of areas some distance away from the line.
Located at an 'extreme point' of Latitude or Longitude WHS whose boundaries include the Northern/Southern/Eastern or Westernmost points of the State Party nominating it. Excluding separate "Dependent Territories" and "rocks", reefs etc . See 7
Located in a Capital City 91
Located in a microstate A microstate is a sovereign state having a very small population or very small land area, but usually both. The connection is restricted to sovereign states with an area less than 1000 km2 and fewer than a million people. 18
Lowest (below sea level) Sites with parts below mean sea level (not counting mines/tunnels etc). 7
Maars A maar is a broad, low-relief volcanic crater that is caused by a phreatomagmatic eruption, which is an explosion caused by groundwater coming into contact with hot lava or magma. A maar characteristically fills with water to form a relatively shallow crater lake. (wiki) 4
Macaronesia Macaronesia is the collective name for several groups of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean near Europe and North Africa: Azores (Portugal), Canary Islands (Spain), Cape Verde (Cape Verde), Madeira, including Desertas Islands (Portugal), Savage Islands (Portugal).

The name Macronesia comes from the Greek for "fortunate islands", a term used by Ancient Greek geographers for islands to the west of the Straits of Gibraltar. The islands of Macaronesia are volcanic in origin, and are thought to be the product of several geologic hotspots.
Manchuria Historical region, now Northeast China (Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning) and part of northeastern Inner Mongolia 4
Marine sites Sites which are predominantly "marine" - defined as the marine (M) area being greater than the terrestrial (T) area of the site. 22
Mediterranean shore Sites currently or historically located on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. Excluding sites located in the following "marginal seas" of the Mediterranean which have their own Connection - Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, Black Sea, Tyrhennian Sea. 36
Mekong The Mekong River is one of the major rivers in the world. From the Tibetan Plateau it runs through Yunnan province (China), Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam. 4
Melanesia A subregion of Oceania extending from the western end of the Pacific Ocean to the Arafura Sea, and eastward to Fiji. The region comprises most of the islands immediately north and northeast of Australia. 6
Micronesia Micronesia is a subregion of Oceania, comprising thousands of small islands in the western Pacific Ocean. 4
Mid-Atlantic Ridge The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is a mostly underwater mountain range in the Atlantic Ocean.

See more at
Named after a Lake WHS named after a lake (or lakes) within the inscribed area. 9
Named after a Mountain WHS whose official title includes the name of a mountain (or mountains) within the inscribed area. 71
Named after a River WHS whose official title includes the name of a river (or rivers") which flow through it. 51
New islands New islands are islands which have been created recently (since 20th century), whether by means of volcanism, erosion, glacial retreat, or other mechanisms. 3
Nile Sites along the river Nile. 7
North Sea Sites on the current or historic North Sea coast or situated on its tidewaters. 11
Notable lakes Sites including notable lakes, or on the banks thereof. 25
Offshore of a major city WHS which are situated on an island situated offshore from a major city. Must be possible to reach by ferry from the major city. 8
On a Continental Border 5
On National Border WHS that are located on national borders (but are not transboundary). "Nation" here refers to one of the 203 sovereign states as named in List of Sovereign States. 58
Pacific Ocean WHS related to the Pacific Ocean, where
a. boundary of the core zone touches the Ocean coast (including the "tideway" of estuaries)
b. OUV mentions the Pacific Ocean

"Marginal seas" that have their own connection take precedence over the connection with the Pacific Ocean (elsewhere the Ocean is applied)
Pacific Ring of Fire The Pacific Ring of Fire is an area where large numbers of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur in the basin of the Pacific Ocean. 11
Pan-American Highway WHS located along the Pan-American Highway. 18
Pareidolia Pareidolia is a psychological phenomenon involving a stimulus (an image or a sound) wherein the mind perceives a familiar pattern of something where none actually exists.
Common examples are perceived images of animals, faces, or objects in cloud formations or rocks.
Patagonia Patagonia is a geographic region containing the southernmost portion of South America. 5
Peninsula WHS which completely or significantly (>50%) occupy a peninsula, or are specifically linked to one. 6
Persian Gulf WHS bordering the Persian Gulf 4
Polynesia WHS within the geographical area defined as "Polynesia" and/or including Polynesian archaeological remains 10
Pyrenees 7
Recently Active Volcanoes A volcano which has erupted Lava, pyroclastic material or gases as a significant event in the Twentieth Century. With date of last eruption. Fumaroles, mud pots, hot springs and other continuing "minor" geothermal "extrusions" are excluded.

"Decade Volcanoes" are 16 which have been identified by the International association of Volcanology and chemistery of the Earth's Interior (IAVCEI) as being worthy of particular study in light of their history of large, destructive eruptions and proximity to populated areas.
Rhine Sites located along the river Rhine. 8
Rhone Sites located along the river Rhone 6
River deltas 28
Roof of the World Roof of the World is a metaphoric description of the highest region in the world, also known as "High Asia", the mountainous interior of Asia.

The term is also used for parts of this region, for
- the Pamirs,
- the Himalayas
- Tibet
- Mt. Everest

The name was first applied to the Pamirs. (wiki)
Sahara 15
Sahel The Sahel is the ecoclimatic and biogeographic zone of transition between the Sahara desert in the North and the Sudanian savannas in the south. 12
Scheldt WHS located along the river Scheldt (within 500m) or one of its tributaries. 4
Sea of Japan The Sea of Japan is a marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean, between the Asian mainland, the Japanese archipelago and Sakhalin. A controversy exists about the sea name, with South Korea promoting the appellation East Sea. Each property is either located directly on or within sight of the coast. 5
Seamount A seamount is a mountain rising from the ocean seafloor that does not reach to the water's surface (sea level), and thus is not an island. These are typically formed from extinct volcanoes, that rise abruptly. 3
Siberia Geographic region of Siberia 5
Situated in one of the SIDS In Jun 1992 the UN Conference on Environment and Development recognised a distinct group of developing countries which it termed "Small Island Developing States (SIDS). In 1994 the "Barbados Program of Action" was produced to assist such countries in their sustainable development efforts. Currently the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs lists 52 such states. Some of these are "Territories" or otherwise not full UNESCO members. For current list see

The 2005 Durban WHC adopted a "World Heritage Program for SIDS which "coordinates and develops World Heritage activities on islands of the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans". See
Situated on a Continental Divide A continental divide is a drainage divide on a continent such that the drainage basin on one side of the divide feeds into one ocean or sea, and the basin on the other side either feeds into a different ocean or sea, or else is endoorheic, not connected to the open sea. (wiki) 11
South China Sea WHS bordering the South China Sea. 7
Southernmost The 5 Southernmost WHS. 5
Spice Route Trade network spanning several continents in reach for the Spice Islands in South East Asia 9
Straits A strait is a narrow, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger, navigable bodies of water. 15
Subantarctic WHS located in the Subantarctic, " immediately north of the Antarctic region. This translates roughly to a latitude of between 46° and 60° south of the Equator" (wiki) 4
Submerged continent WHS located on a Submerged continent. 8
Swahili culture Swahili culture is the culture of the Swahili people inhabiting the Swahili Coast. This littoral area encompasses Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda and Mozambique, as well as the adjacent islands of Zanzibar and Comoros and some parts of the Democratic Republic of Congo. (wiki) 6
Tagus Sites located along the river Tagus 3
Territorial Highest points Inscribed sites which contain the highest point within the jurisdiction of the "State Party" (and thus within its ability to nominate). This includes therefore such points in territories or autonomous zones where these are higher than the highest point in the "main unit" of the country. In some cases exact heights vary in different sources.

For more info see: Peakbagger and Wikipedia list of countries by highest point
Type of volcanic eruptions WHS or parts thereof that have had a type of volcanic eruption named after it. 4
Tyrhennian Sea WHS currently or historically located on the shores of the Tyrhennian Sea. For boundaries of the Sea - 4
Under control of ISIS WHS that are (or have been) under control of the so-called Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS). 4
Uninhabited islands Sites that are islands or island groups, without permanent population on the entire site (except for the odd scientist or park ranger). 16
Vistula The Vistula is the longest river in Poland. 5
Volcanic Cone Volcanic cones are among the simplest volcanic formations. They are built by ejecta from a volcanic vent, piling up around the vent in the shape of a cone with a central crater. 10
Volcanic plugs A volcanic plug is a volcanic landform created when magma hardens within a vent on an active volcano. 11
Volga Basin WHS situated along the Volga or in its basin. 9
World's Highest Topographically isolated summits 4. World's Highest Topographically isolated summits
WHS containing one of the World's 40 most isolated summits. (Isolation in kms/Ht in m)
"The topographic isolation of a summit is the Great Circle distance to the nearest point of equal elevation. Topographic isolation represents a radius of dominance in which the summit is the highest point." (Wiki). See here.
Isolation Map - link.
World's most prominent mountains WHS containing one of the world's 40 most "Prominent" mountains.

"In topography, prominence, also known as autonomous height, relative height, shoulder drop (in North America), or prime factor (in Europe), categorizes the height of the mountain's.. summit by the elevation between it and the lowest contour line encircling it and no higher summit. It is a measure of the independence of a summit" and "The prominence of a peak is the minimum height of climb to the summit on any route from a higher peak...The lowest point on that route is the col." (Wiki). Showing
a. the "Prominence height" above the "col". Prominence Height = height above the relevant contour or Mean Sea Level (MSL) if the nearest higher peak is not on same land mass.
b. The "Col" height used
c. The "Parent Peak" used

For a discussion on meanings and alternative definitions of "Prominence", "Parent Peak" etc see
Prominence Map - link
Yellow Sea WHS bordering the Yellow Sea. 3
Zambezi basin 4