Krzemionki prehistoric flint mines
The Krzemionki prehistoric striped flint mining region is a group of 4 mining sites dating back to from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age.
There are more than 4000 mine shafts known with depths of 9 meters deep with wells measuring from four to twelve metres in diameter. The striped flint was used mainly for axe-making: its products have been found as far as 660km away.
Community Perspective: Guided tours are the only way to enter, and they are conducted well (also in German and English). The museum has only signs in Polish though. Solivagant provides a comparison between Krzemionki and that other flint WHS, Spiennes. Jarek has shared details on how to visit on public transport (it’s ‘in the middle of nowhere’).
Map of Krzemionki prehistoric flint minesLoad map
First things first, it's Q3 2021 and the tunnel is open again. With it the site is fully accessible for visitors. I had waited for more than a year to complete Poland again; Covid travel restrictions may have also played a role.
The tunnel links multiple mines and follows the flint stone layer upwards, giving you a good understanding of the spread and rather limited depth of flint stones. It's assumed that the flint stones formed as a ground layer of a lake, so the flint stone layer tilt upwards. Supposedly, the deeper layers are of better quality. Side note: Flint stone mining was a temporary activitiy. The soil of the area was too bad for permanent habitation.
While technically, you can tick the site by roaming around the premises or the other locations (many open pits remain and are visible), you would be missing out on the key feature of the site: The small painting of a woman giving birth (?!). I am not sold on the giving birth part, but it sure was nice to see down in the tunnel.
In comparison to Spiennes which gives you an idea of the narrowness of a flint stone mine, Krzemionki feels more explorable and gives you a better overview, especially in combination with the onsite museum, consisting of a multi media part and an outdoor museeum.
I came by car with a friend, but had investigated public transport options as a fallback. The main town with connections across Poland (some direct trains, and more direct busses) is Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski. The main train line between Warsaw and Cracow runs further west past Skarżysko-Kamienna and Kielce. Google maps has some weird connections, and you should also consult en.e-podroznik.pl.
From Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski you can catch a bus the visitor center every 2h (according to google). Or walk in roughly the same time you would have to wait for the bus.
You can reserve online (and I had a reservation). But it's not too strict. We came two hours early, one more person than reserved and it wasn't a big issue to change the tickets. Only problem was that the tour was in Polish, but luckily my friend did the translation.
I think overall they try to provide some context and use reconstructions to make the experience more tangible than e.g. Spiennes. No objections here. Having a better offer for non Polish visitors would have been nice. And the multimedia exposition was a bit over the top. Unfortunately, it was the first part of our visit, so we couldn't simply skip it.
While You Are There
The site is in the middle of nowhere. I think this will always be a stopover moving from Warsaw to Cracow.
I visited this WHS in August 2020. Due to the works being carried out till 2021 to upgrade the Krzemionki tourist route underground experience and make it more accessible, I couldn't 'enjoy' the full experience, but based on photos, videos and other reviews, the only value added I missed when compared to the Spiennes WHS, was the pictogram/rock art, used as the museum's logo.
Thanks to Martina and Ivan's previous visit and help, and to avoid a forecast thunderstorm in the Zamosc area, I decided to go ahead and try to have a look at what's on offer at all 4 locations. The GPS coordinates on the official UNESCO website are precise although you'll have to zoom in and out of your GPS to make sure you avoid unpaved roads, pathways or non-existant roads. I started with the Krzemionki Museum and Archaeological Reserve which is a well-developed gateway to just one of the 4000 prehistoric mines of striped flint near Ostrowiec Swiezokrzyski. The WHS is unique mostly due to the well-preserved mining waste piles and shaft depressions, which despite thousands of years remained almost unchanged, even though most is covered by fast growing overgrowth, so much so that near the museum is a nature reserve with boardwalks.
In Krzemionki, all the techniques of obtaining flint can be observed, from the simplest cavities to large sophisticated mines, i.e. sophisticated for Neolithic and Early Bronze Age times. This complex of mines was only discovered in 1922 by a geologist and contains some 4000 mines, the largest of which have a depth of nine metres. Of all these mines, only the 500 metres underground tourist route is accessible.
After a long drive, I reached the huge parking lot, and headed towards the public toilets area, where on the wall I saw the unique striped flint for the first time. The nature reserve seems quite small but in actual fact is some 378 hectares and a local guide is recommended to avoid getting lost if you venture away from the boardwalks. Opposite the museum, to the left of the parking lot, I walked down a one-way road. The gate was open when I visited and so I could enter to explore the area above ground which is usually covered with a guide as part of the tourist route. There's a reconstruction of a Neolithic settlement (how researchers imagine the Gawroniec Settlement looked like), a miners camp flint workshop and a sheltered shaft. Judging by the current state of this area, the lack of construction vehicles or any sign of restoration works above ground, it seems that there's no rush to start, continue or finish the upgrading works and re-open this museum before the COVID-19 crisis is over.
The term mining fields used by UNESCO to describe Krzemionki, Borownia and Korycizna is very appropriate as what you'll see at the moment is an overgrown field with mining remnant hills which in reality are waste piles or slag heaps. The UNESCO site map coordinates are precise and a metal sign has supposedly been placed at each location with a white and blue "Zabytek" (monument) logo and some information. I wrote supposedly because overgrowth seems to have literally swallowed everything, including the metal signs. Out of the 4 locations I visited, I only just managed to find the one in Borownia, which in a couple of months at most will be also covered by overgrowth. For the time being, there isn't any UNESCO sign, not even on the brown signs on the main roads.
I'm still glad I explored the area, and since Krzemionki is only around 2.5hrs-3hrs away from Warsaw or the border with Slovakia, I wouldn't mind revisiting when the the tourist route reopens. Until then, I'm very happy with the polished striped flint souvenir I bought as I always thought that all types of flint were black. Overall, especially since I only explored the area above ground, I think its inscription is justified and I agree with previous reviewers that it is not a duplicate of Spiennes but is a much more 'complete' prehistoric mining WHS.
Visited this site in August 2019 during weekend trip to Poland. Visitor center is located in lovely rural setting, however the main entrance seems to be for administrative and the cash desk is located on the lateral side. There was no English tour available, so I joined Polish tour for 18 Zloty. While waiting for the tour it is possible to browse adjacent Archaeological museum, which only has explanation in Polish. There were many illustrations of shrimps and crabs at the information stands, so afterwards it was interesting to find out myself through internet the process of flint formation, in which indeed they played leading role.
The site seems to be quite popular among locals and approximately 20 people continued to the forest with the guide. Krzemionki is on the world’s largest concentration of flint mines with more than 4,000 prehistoric mines. On the route, there are first two covered restored mines with human figures of prehistoric people followed by the most interesting part beings, underground chamber mines. These were most advanced among different mine types and reached the depth of 9 meters. The tourist route is currently 465 meters long. It is full of black flint formations embedded in the white limestone. One of the highlights is prehistoric charcoal anthropomorphic drawing of a human figure near the exit from underground tunnel. This figure serves as the logo of Krzemionki. Some researchers support the opinion that this pictogram is a forgery (made by a student during internships in the 1960s); others, however, point out that it was discovered several years before these internships took place and therefore its authenticity should not be questioned. Also, there is hypothesis that this is a depiction of a woman in childbirth, hence possibly a representation of the “Great Mother” (which is often found as figurine in pre-historic caves).
I liked the site, it has its own advantages and disadvantages compared to Spienne, but is more accessible. Of course, it would be more informative to provide English explanations in the museum.
Site visited in early 90ties and revisited shortly after inscription (July 2019).
I must say I really like this place. Comparing to Spiennes it is better preserved and much more interesting. It is also well maintained and prepared for mass tourism. All that applies to main component (Krzemionki Opatowskie) - area located between villages Sudół and Magonie (coordinates 50.971817, 21.491227). It is a place where former Krzemionki village was located, now it is only museum and archeological reserve of former flint mining.
At first glance it may not be very spectacular. These only visible remnants of mining activities are just small mounds or holes in the forest. But the real treasure lies under the ground. This is fully preserved flint mine from Neolthic period including corridors cut in the limestone and chambers. As far as I know it is the only one in world (those at Spiennes are just individual shatfs not connected each to another). The main reason for its preservation was lack of human settlement in the area after the place was abandoned in early Bronze Age (around 1600 BC).
Some practicalities as of July, 2019: visit of archeological reserve and museum is possible only with a guide. Fees are not big comparing to other monuments (18 / 12 PLN normal discounted, which is approximately 4,25 / 2,8 EUR), the whole trip takes around one hour and includes 500 m underground walk. Be prepared to take some warm clothes with you as these galleries are below 10 meters below ground level. The groups could be up to 30 people (in fact in summer months, especially in weekend there are big number of people). My last visit was on Saturday 10.00 - 11.00 a.m and the group were around 30 people, previous and next were similar.
The best way to get there is by car - 8 kilometers north-east of Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski (the main town in the area). There are also intercity buses (Polish PKS Ostrowiec Świetokrzyski) - any of them going to Lipsk or Solec nad Wisłą, get off at bus stop SUDÓŁ/ 754 (KRZEMIONKI)/ 08. Timetable here.
From Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski it is also possible to take private TransKatrina bus # 110, timetable:
If it is necessary to stay overnight in the area - the best place is probably Bałtów (around 7 km from Krzemionki), where there are several farm accommodations for tourists or Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski with its hotels.
Official website of the mine (in english): http://krzemionki.pl/en/
Other inscribed places seem to be unprepared for tourism. I tried to visit Gawroniec part, coordinates 50°53'02.7"N 21°31'57.5"E but the area is inaccessible (no roads, private plots surrounding the place, no information). Maybe the place will be managed after inscription.
The Krzemionki Prehistoric Striped Flint Mining Region has been included in the List this year. ICOMOS in its evaluation had asked for a Referral, mostly because of the need for adequate protection of all its components and the implementation of the management plan. Outstanding Universal Value has been proven though, also compared to the already inscribed Flint Mines of Spiennes. So an inscription was no surprise. On my recent Pentecost trip to Eastern Poland I made a small detour between Warsaw and Zamosc to check out what Krzemionki is all about.
"Krzemionki" is the name of a former village, but not the name of the current location. The main site lies between the villages of Sudół en Magonie, 8km northeast of Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski. I drove there in 2.5 hours from Warsaw airport. Nowadays it is a wooded area, with some administration buildings and a grand parking. This Saturday afternoon though there were only a few cars. When I bought my entrance ticket (18 zloty / 4.20 EUR), an English-speaking colleague was quickly called for help by the cashier lady. He told me that a tour had just started with a Polish and German speaking guide. After confirming that German is OK for me too, and I could join them immediately.
Together with 4 Polish tourists and guide Kinga I walked further into the forest. Thousands of flint mines lie beneath the ground here. They can be recognized by small ‘dents’ in the landscape, a bit similar to bomb craters. Next to these pits are ‘hills’, the slag heaps. Everything is now overgrown with grass and trees so it is not very visible up and close.
There were 4 types of mining executed here, but they all had in common that they had to reach up to 10 meters deep to reach the veins with flint. This location has 2 veins approximately 1 meter above each other. They were formed when there was a large lake here: trenches made by animals at the bottom of the lake were filled with deposits, which eventually solidified into the rock-hard flint.
As visitors, we were allowed to go underground at the 3rd mine. We descended via an iron spiral staircase, after which we found ourselves in a cool corridor. Also in prehistoric times, the miners connected the various smaller mines with corridors. However, the ones of today have been made with 20th-century visitors in mind so they don't bump their heads.
Flint is still abundantly present in these limestone walls. It was extracted here in an almost industrial way: the flint was brought to the surface and worked there into hammers and chisels. Flint tools that were made here have been found up to 600km away.
Once back at the site entrance there still was the permanent exhibition to visit. It is not immediately obvious where it is (it is in the building marked ‘Tourist Information’), so I asked the guide to show me the way. She subsequently gave me a private tour inside - all accompanying texts are in Polish and she was sorry that I could not read them. Different types of flint from all over the world are shown here. Most of it is characteristically black, whereas the flint of Krzemionki is of the striped variety which only occurs in this region. In polished form, they make for nice souvenirs or even jewelry.
Back in Aug 2015, our visit to Spiennes had been enhanced by a talk from a Polish academic who was assisting with the ongoing excavations there and just happened to lecturing on “Flint mines in Poland” to a gathering of specialists that afternoon in the lecture hall at the Visitor Centre. We were invited to attend and began to realise just how much there was to know about this subject! Mention was made of the flint mine at Krzemionki and I mentally “pencilled in” an intention to visit it if I ever found myself in that part of Poland…… thus it was that we were there just over 2 years later in mid Sep 2017 at opening time!
The site is situated around 8kms from the industrial city of Ostrowiec Swietokrzyski. We were travelling by car in a reasonably straight line between Bialowieza (c300kms NE) towards Krakow (still another 170kms SW) - and currently there isn’t a single WHS in this part of Poland between the 2! Apart from Warsaw and Torun, Poland’s WHS are mainly scattered around its periphery and there seems little reason for non Polish tourists to visit the area other than to “pass through”. We were somewhat surprised to find a large modern visitor centre set in this nondescript countryside. It turned out that over half the visitors to the site are Polish school children. The site also includes a “Nature Park” and a reconstructed “Stone Age Village” and is linked with an Archaeo-geological trail in the region including tetrapod tracks at Zachelmie.
But on this morning, we were the only visitors and, having paid our reduced “old fogie” entrance fee of 12 zloty pp, we were allocated our personal English speaking guide for the tour – which, in our case, lasted about 90 minutes but is normally scheduled at c75! A very different situation from that which we were to find the next day at Tarnowskie, where non Polish language tours cost extra and any group of less than 20 has to cover the standard overall total cost via extra fees with a minimum of 4 PAX per group. We were asked to wait 30 minutes until 9.30 for the “tour” to start - possibly with the hope that more would join! In the mean time the museum provided quite a good exhibition which was unfortunately captioned only in Polish.
We quickly discovered that the T List site of Krzemionki is being actively pursued for “Feb 2019”! Our guide wasn’t “expert” in the timetabling of UNESCO nominations so we suggested that this must mean a submission by the closing date of Jan 31 2019 for consideration at the 2020 WHC. And indeed this seems to be the current plan, with around 16 months preparation work remaining. It appears that the same consultant who successfully shepherded Tarnowskie Gory to inscription this year has been engaged to produce the documentation for Krzemionki (not that the ICOMOS review of that Nomination provided a strong case for doing so – it was panned in almost every respect and must have got through more on “political aspects” than on quality of argument!)
I asked how Krzemionki hoped to differentiate itself from Spiennes. The picture which emerged was that it was currently intended to present it as a “Relict Cultural Landscape” consisting of 3 flint mine areas (one of which was to be Krzemionki) together with a related Neolithic settlement. I was given the names of the extra locations as “Korycizna”, “Borownia” and “Gawroniec” (this latter being the “settlement”). I have been unable to discover much about these on the Web, though all 3 are mentioned in this (very!) academic downloadable article from 1995.
It is perhaps worth mentioning that it is thought that Neolithic peoples didn’t actually live at Krzemionki – mainly because of the lack of water. Instead their settlements were 15kms + away and the workers at the mines required a degree of “support” to keep them fed and watered in their work!
Whether this will be enough to enable Krzemionki to establish a unique “value proposition” is another matter. Spiennes includes 3 zones of mines, albeit within the same boundary, and in its “comparative analysis” the AB review refers to it being “The only mining site directly associated with a settlement characteristic of the period”. The 2 sites would then be “trading” claimed superlatives – “most ancient”, “widest range of mining techniques”, “size” etc. But Spiennes got in first and has already claimed many of these – we will see. Perhaps there should be room for multiple Flint mines as per Silver mines, Wooden Churches etc etc!
The tour at Krzemionki consists of a trail through the 4 types of mining techniques. The simplest - “Open Pit”, is only visible in the form of depressions in the ground which can be seen from the walkway, but the other 3 (“Niche Gallery”, “Room and Pillar” and “Chamber”) are displayed in more detail. An example of the first is protected by a building and consists of a large wide pit around 5m deep, viewable solely from above, from which side galleries can be seen leading off. It is, we were told, a genuine mine, albeit with sides and edges “stabilised”. Some resin prehistoric figures were beavering away down below! The second, protected by another building, consists of a narrow vertical shaft covered by a replica wooden “tent” which archaeologists believe provided cover for those working there both underground and knapping on site at the surface - only the entrance to the shaft is visible but the guide explains the relevant factors such as the problems in supplying air underground when firebrands were used to provide some light. The third is the “speciality” of Krzemionki, and is reached by descending around 10 metres down a spiral staircase and following a tunnel of some 500 metres. At first this is totally modern, but it then breaks in to an original mine chamber. At this point the side galleries around 1m high can be seen, but a “walkway” through them has been created by deepening the original chamber to “standing height” to create a “path” leaving the original roof and galleries on either side intact. This was done when the mine was originally opened to large scale tourism in the 1980s. One wonders if it would be done today. But there appears to be no shortage of mines so I guess that partially “destroying” the integrity and authenticity of one in order to provide “education” is justified? In any case it has been done and it will be interesting to see if ICOMOS makes any comment.
The flint in the Krzemionki layers (3 of them each around 1m apart) is known as “Striped” or “Banded” because of its alternating dark/light bands and is different both from that at Spiennes and in some other flint mining areas in Poland. The underground chamber walls still contain many partially exposed, rounded whole and shattered nodules. The flint possesses a fine pattern when split/polished but was actually less good for tool making than some other types – particularly for larger axes. Today it makes fine shaped and polished jewellery but was of no use for this purpose by Neolithic man as it couldn’t be drilled. There is even a suggestion that it was prized more for use as grave goods than for working tools. We were told that burials of the period almost always included flint grave goods and examples of traded Krzemionki striped flint have been found several hundred kms away.
At one point in the walk, a “bell chamber” is entered with a narrow neck up to ground level (now securely "capped") which, in the earliest days of tourism at Krzemionki (from late 50s until the creation of the underground route), was used as the entrance to the chamber via a vertical ladder in much the same way as Spiennes is entered currently. Finally, a “unique” aspect of the Krzemionki tour is reached – a charcoal “drawing” on a pillar of what appears to be a human figure (photo). This is similar (but not the same?) to that used as the “logo” for Krzemionki but I haven’t been able to discover photos of other drawings in the mines of the area which are supposed to exist. The existence of this artefact explains the site’s concern about the potential for growth of algae etc underground and the installation of LED lights - however, unlike at Spiennes, underground photography is allowed, albeit without flash. The much larger numbers of visitors at Krzemionki must also create moisture problems - the avoidance of which is used at Spiennes as a reason for restricting the number of underground visitors.
Finally one climbs another spiral stair case to enter the last building which concentrates on the final years of mining at the site in the early Bronze Age. The site was then abandoned and “disappeared” until it was rediscovered in 1922.
So - how to compare the “visit experience” as between Krzemionki and Spiennes? At the time it was nice to walk underground, but perhaps, on reflection, the vertical ladder descent at Spiennes into the chamber which has not been developed/enlarged for viewing by tourists actually provides a better impression of what the mines were really like! Krzemionki has the pictogram to see and perhaps a better museum exhibition. The ease of getting on a tour favours Krzemionki also. Whatever - we don’t regret our visit and didn’t feel that it simply duplicated what we had heard/seen at Spiennes. We were lucky of course to get a personal tour in English and, with the background knowledge about Flint Mining already obtained at Spiennes and in follow up studies, felt that we were able to develop/consolidate our understanding of Neolithic Flint mining.
- Jarek Pokrzywnicki Małgosia Łupicka :
- Tarquinio_Superbo :
- George Gdanski Tamara Ratz Dibro :
- Philipp Peterer Stanislaw Warwas Wojciech Fedoruk Usagi1974 Remigiusz :
- Argo Els Slots Alexander Barabanov Carlos Sotelo Antonio J. :
- Thomas Buechler Szucs Tamas Clyde Hanming Walter :
- Nan Randi Thomsen Solivagant Alexander Lehmann Hubert Martina Rúčková :
- Jakob Frenzel Cezar Grozavu :
- Svein Elias :
- Zoë Sheng Ivan Rucek :
2019 Advisory Body overruled
ICOMOS advised Referral, overturned after amendment of Hungary
Successor to former TWHS Krzemionki Opatowskie. Neolithic flint mine (2002-2006)
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