Built in the 12th century

WHS whose OUV derives entirely or significantly from 12th century constructions. Where construction straddles the centuries the date of conception/commencement is used i.e which century does the site really "belong" to in spirit.

Connected Sites

Site Rationale Link
Aleppo "Aleppo is an outstanding example of an Ayyubid 12th century city"
Ancient ksours The trans-Saharan caravan system began in the 11th C and, although all these oasis towns towns had earlier incarnations, their significance as in the OUV first occurred at the height of Almoravid power in early 12th C. E.g AB eval - Ouadane founded 1141 and Chinguetti 12th C. Their relative wealth however varied according to later shifts in trade routes (E.g Oualata benefitted from the invasion of Timbuctou by Touraegs in 1446). In general however their prosperity continued through the 14th -18th centuries
Arab-Norman Palermo The chapel was founded by Roger II immediately after his crowning in 1130. In 1131 he also founded Cefalù Cathedral, intended by him to be his own dynastic mausoleum. Civil projects from this era included the seven-arched Admiral’s Bridge, built about 1132 (AB ev)
Bahla Fort Major part of the construction dates from the Banu Nabhan (middle 12th century - end 15th) (AB)
Bourges Cathedral Construction on Bourges Cathedral began on in 1195, the same time as Chartres Cathedral
Caceres seized by the Arabs and made into a fortified city
Causses and Cévennes The fundamental changes to the landscape that can still be perceived today took place between the 12th and 14th centuries when several monastic orders, including Benedictines, Hospitaliers and Knights Templars gained control of extensive lands (AB ev)
Chartres Cathedral mostly constructed between 1193 and 1250
Cistercian Abbey of Fontenay founded 1118
Convent of Christ in Tomar built around 1160
Crac des Chevaliers The Crac des Chevaliers was built by the Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem from 1142 to 1271
Cuenca "Alfonso VIII of castille captured the town in 1177 and Cuenca entered a new phase of its history as a "Royal town" and an episcopal see. The Christian town was built over the Moorish one" (AB ev)
Gelati Monastery Monastery dates from 1106
Ghadames The settlement at Ghadames goes back at least 5000 years.The first historical information is from 19 BCE when the Romans named it Cydamus. It owed its later significance to its location on one of the major routes of trans-Saharan trade from the Niger area which grew in size based on use of the camel from c300ad and the Islamisation of both Ghadames and on into W Africa during the 7th/8th centuries. This trade continued through to the 19th century. The town's original mosque is said to have been dated from 666AD. The architecture and layout of Ghadames will have developed organically over that period. The Libyan People's Bureau places the age of the current town at 800 years.
Great Burkhan Khaldun Mountain At the end of the 12th century Chinggis Khan formally established worship of the Burkhan Khaldun Mountain, along with other sacred mountains in his empire - AB ev
Guimarães The early history of Guimaraes is closely associated with the establishment of Portuguese national identity and the Portuguese language in the 12th century
Gusuku of Ryukyu Katsuren Castle, built in the 12th-13th centuries, is the earliest among this group of castles.
Jewish-Medieval heritage of Erfurt Synagogue: "Four different phases of construction have been identified: firstly around 1100 CE and then in the early 12th century, the third phase around 1270, and then an expansion around 1300." (AB ev)
Kotor OUV for its medieval monuments, cathedral dates from 1166, from 1186 to 1371 it was a free city of medieval Serbia
Lalibela built during the reign of Gebre Mesqel Lalibela 1181-1221
Maulbronn Monastery Monastery started by Cistercians in 1147, church dates from 1178 (AB ev)
Mesa Verde Start of the cliff dwellings ("late 1190s")
Minaret of Jam An inscription gives the date of construction as 1174 (AB)
Mining Cultural Landscape Erzgebirge shaped by 800 years of almost continuous polymetallic mining, from the 12th to 20th centuries (AB ev)
Modena 12th-century cathedral
Monastery of Alcobaça The building of the monastery began in 1178
Notre-Dame Cathedral in Tournai The building of the Cathedral of Tournai lasted from 1146 until 1325
Old City of Acre Crusader period: "the city gained international significance from 1104 to 1291 as the capital of the Crusader kingdom of Jerusalem "
Old City of Berne founded in 1191
Painted Churches in the Troödos Region Among the most significant cycles is that of Panagia Phorbiotissa of Nikitari, which was traced back to 1105-06 thanks to a written dedication, and that of Panagia tou Arakou in Lagoudera, which was executed during the last six months of 1192 (Unesco).
Paquimé Earliest adobe structures date from the 12th century: "It developed slowly until the mid 12th century, when it underwent a dramatic expansion and cultural shift. The pit dwellings were replaced by more elaborate above-ground adobe structures on a complex layout." (AB ev)
Paris, Banks of the Seine Notre Dame and the mediaeval aspects of Ile de la Cite
Poblet Monastery Criterion I: Poblet is a unique artistic achievement and one of the most perfect expressions of Cistercian style in the 12th, 13th and 14th centuries. (AB ev)
Polonnaruva built during the reign of Parakrama Bahu I 1153-1186
Portovenere, Cinque Terre, and the Islands The cultivation terraces that typify much of the Cinque Terre landscape were mainly built in the 12th century (AB ev)
Provins Fairs were held from 1120
Rapa Nui the moai, for which Easter Island is world-famous, were carved from 1100-1680 CE (wiki), while estimated dates of initial settlement of Easter Island range from 300 to 1200 CE
Regensburg St. Emmeram´s Monastery: church rebuilt in 1166 & Benedictine Monastery of St Jacob´s .. Its church, dating from the 12th century, is one of the most important High Romanesque buildings in southern Germany. (AB ev) & The Goldene Turm (12th century)
Roskilde Cathedral In the mid-12th century brickmaking was introduced into Denmark by craftsmen from Lombardy, and Bishop Absalom decided around 1170 to rebuild his cathedral in this new material
Sacred Ensembles of the Hoysala "The Hoysala style was initially formed in the early 12th century, as represented by the Channakeshava and Hoysalesvara temples, and reached its mature stage in the mid-13th century" (AB ev)
ShUM Sites The oldest remaining buildings (the mikveh in Speyer (1128) and Worms synagogue) date from the 12th century (AB ev)
Stećci ... were created in the period from the second half of the 12th century to the 16th century (AB ev)
Studenica Monastery Built in 1183, though the earliest murals date from the 13th century (AB ev))
Studley Royal Park Fountains Abbey - Founded 1132 "its construction lasted from 12th to 16th century"
Tokaji Wine Region "The most characteristic structures in Tokaj are the wine cellars: that of King Kalman in Tarcal is known to have been in existence as early as 1110" and "Vineyards had been established in Tokaj from at least as early as the 12th century" (AB ev)
Trebic OUV lies in the cultural coexistence between Christians and Jews over many centuries: "A Benedictine Monastery was founded in a strategic position at the crossing of Jihlava River, in 1101. Its existence stimulated the establishment of a market, which brought traders and amongst them also Jews."
Tyre Crusader city: castle walls and cathedral; "was captured by the Crusaders in 1124, becoming one of the most important cities of the Kingdom of Jerusalem" (wiki)
Upper Svaneti Cultural flowering, including its architecture (AB ev)
Urnes Stave Church rebuilt towards the mid-12th century (AB)
Vall de Boi "The Vall de Boi..bears unique witness to an indigenous cultural tradition which has survived since the 11th century.. The churches...were consecrated during the 11th and 12th centuries. The exceptional number of Romanesque churches.....is attributed to the fact that large quantities of silver came into the region, especially in the first decades of the 12th century. The group of...churches constitute a unique example of the cultural tradition which flourished in 12th century Catalonia (AB) - it could be 11C but the majority of the churches seem to be 12C and that was the period of "flourishing" rather than "commencing"
Vézelay the current abbey dates from 1104
Walled City of Baku "The Inner City (Icheri Sheher) has preserved much of its 12th-century defensive walls. The 12th-century Maiden Tower (Giz Galasy..." (AB ev)
White Monuments of Vladimir and Suzdal Vladimir, founded in 1108; The Cathedral of the Assumption (1158); style that came to characterize above all else the 12th century architecture of Vladimir (AB ev)


Do you know of another WHS we could connect to Built in the 12th century?

Send it to me!

A connection should:

  1. Not be "self evident"
  2. Link at least 3 different sites
  3. Not duplicate or merely subdivide the "Category" assignment already identified on this site.
  4. Add some knowledge or insight (whether significant or trivial!) about WHS for the users of this site
  5. Be explained, with reference to a source