Science and Technology Connections

All connections part of Science and Technology.

Archaeoacoustics Archaeoacoustics = The use of acoustical study as a methodological approach within archaeology. See -
Archaeological WHS which have significance for their acoustic properties. Limited to Prehistoric sites, thus excluding Greek/Roman theatres etc together with churches, cathedrals, mosques etc.

Provide a relevant link to explain the "significance"
Archaeological potential 32
Astronomy and Astrology Astronomy is a natural science that deals with the study of celestial objects (such as stars, planets, comets, nebulae, star clusters and galaxies) and phenomena that originate outside the atmosphere of Earth. Astrology consists of a number of belief systems which hold that there is a relationship between astronomical phenomena and events in the human world. 68
Botanical Gardens WHS that contain a botanical garden: a garden with a documented collection of living plants for the purpose of scientific research, conservation, display, and education. 48
Confucian Academy (Shuyuan, Seowon, Shijuku) Private Confucian educational institutes. 7
Coronelli globes Sites that contain Coronelli globes. Vincenzo Coronelli (August 16, 1650 - December 9, 1718) was a Franciscan monk, an Italian cosmographer, cartographer, publisher, and encyclopedist known in particular for his atlases and globes. 8
Cultural property cloning WHS (or parts thereof) that have been the subject of “cultural property cloning”, a proprietary technology of the Tokyo University of the Arts. "the cloning process is entirely unlike any previous conventional copying procedures, because it involves extensive analysis and research of the materials, shapes, and techniques that had been used in making the original work, 3D-printing where applicable, reproduction work for fine details by art students, and further collaboration between digital and analog techniques to fully capture the DNA of the artwork, which also involves its cultural background." 4
Digitized by Iconem WHS that are Digitized by Iconem, an innovative startup that specialises in the digitisation of endangered cultural heritage sites in 3D. See 20
Early Archaeology Archeological sites excavated before the 20th century. 6
Early cartographic representations of the Americas 4
Early Printing WHS connected to early examples of woodblock printing (China/Egypt 3th/4th century) or use of the printing press (invented in 1439). "Early" is translated as "before the 19th century", as Western printing technology then had become common and widespread around the world. 17
Excavated by American Universities 13
Excavated by Centro Scavi Torino Excavated by the Centre of Archaeological Research and Excavations of Torino ( 4
Experimental Archaeology WHS associated with examples of Experimental Archaeology - also known as "Reconstruction archaeology" see In particular by the construction of replicas, usually nearby, whose purpose is both to demonstrate and learn about the structures and the lives of those who inhabited the original sites. The reconstructions are not necessarily intended to be exact replicas. EXARC "is the international organisation of Archaeological Open Air Museums and Experimental Archaeology" See link for a list of its Institutional members

(NB Excluding "exact" replicas built because the original is too precious to allow tourists inside for which see ).
Historic Laboratories Historic laboratories that are related to the site's OUV. Laboratories must still exist. 5
Innovations in Agriculture WHS connected to innovations in the development of agricultural techniques. Excluding Irrigation and Terracing which have their own Connections. 6
International Exhibitions A world's fair, world fair, world expo, universal exposition, or international exposition (sometimes expo or Expo for short) is a large international exhibition designed to showcase achievements of nations. These exhibitions vary in character and are held in different parts of the world. .. The first era, the era of "industrialization", roughtly covered the years from 1800 to 1938. In these days, world expositions were largely focused on trade and displayed technological advances and inventions. World expositions were platforms for state-of-the-art science and technology from around the world. (wiki) 10
Libraries WHS containing historically significant libraries. Building and/or collection must still exist. 85
Mathematical Concepts WHS with a specific mathematical concept - either the site is a good example of the mathematical concept or it demonstrates development of complex mathematical concepts.

Excluded are sites with ingenious use of proportions, the golden ratio and symmetry (unless they exhibit other higher mathematical concept) as they are basic concepts in architecture.
Mines which can be visited underground WHS containing mines (excluding replicas) which can be visited underground. Indicate name/location within WHS and mineral mined. Also means of entry/exit where known. 24
Muography Muography is an imaging technique that produces a projectional image of a target volume by recording elementary particles, called muons, either electronically or chemically with materials that are sensitive to charged particles such as nuclear emulsions. It is used in Geology, Archeology and Planetary Science. 5
Recently discovered Sites or significant parts thereof that were discovered from 1970. 30
Recorded cultural discoveries Cultural WHS that were not previously known and then 'discovered', although local populations may have known about them.

- discovered before 1970 (the later ones are in a separate connection, "recently discovered")
- name of discoverer and year must be given
- the discovery must relate to the WHS itself, not to a single property or smaller zone within the area
Recorded natural discoveries Natural WHS that were not previously known and then 'discovered', although local populations may have known about them.

- discovered before 1970 (the later ones are in a separate connection, "recently discovered")
- name of discoverer and year must be given
- the discovery must relate to the WHS itself, not to a single property or smaller zone within the area
Scientific Developments WHS where significant scientific discoveries were made. Name location and scientific development/discovery. 28
Space Exploration Sites connected to The Space Race (the competition for achievements in space between the US and the USSR took place between the 1950s and 1972, when the two countries first agreed to work together on an international space mission) and later Space Exploration. 5
Steam technology 11
Uncovered using Lidar Lidar or LiDAR is a surveying method that measures distance to a target by illuminating the target with pulsed laser light and measuring the reflected pulses with a sensor. It is also used "to create high-precision digital elevation models of the ground surface beneath the vegetation cover", for example of archaeological sites. The connection includes WHS where this technique has been applied. 7
Underwater Archaeology Sites with underwater remains in the core zone. 12
Universities Sites that include a historic University or one located in a historic or iconic building. 63
University of Chicago Oriental Institute Established in 1919 by James Henry Breasted (the person who coined the term "Fertile Crescent") building on the collection of the Haskell Oriental Musuem - a Christian institute aimed at increasing knowledge of the Holy Lands . It was originally significantly funded by money from John D Rockefeller - who Breasted knew personally and who had supported the University of Chicago since 1891. It occupied its current building in 1931 and is still a prestigious centre of research into Middle Eastern archaeology but, between the wars and funded by Rockefeller dollars, it embarked on a series of massively funded and extravagently operated, excavations and studies around the Middle East and acquired from them, by means typical of the agreements of the day, a large number of artefacts. These are on show in its museum. Following Breasted's death in 1935 Rockefeller withdrew funding. The Institute is known generally as the "OI" 3
Used for astronaut training and research WHS with similar terrains to the Moon or Mars, where astronaut training has taken place. Specific test and research activities, as preparation for future missions, can also be included. 5