Cultural sites closely connected to volcanoes

These cultural sites are characterized by the significant presence of a volcano in the central area or on the horizon. This volcanic presence contributes to the universal value of the property. Mixed sites are excluded.

Connected Sites

Site Rationale Link
Angra do Heroismo The historic centre of Angra, is located along the southern coast, encompassing the medieval city and fortified citadel that forms the volcanic cone of Monte Brasil. (wiki)
Antigua Guatemala Three large volcanoes dominate the horizon around Antigua. The most commanding, to the south of the city, is the Volcán de Agua or "Volcano of Water", some 3,766 metres (12,356 ft) high. (wiki)
Arequipa at the foot of three snow-covered volcanoes, ... With its buildings built mostly in white or pink volcanic rock (sillar) (OUV statement)
Bali Subak system Batur
Budj Bim Cultural Landscape The property also includes Budj Bim, a Gunditjmara Ancestral Being and volcano that is the source of the lava flow on which the aquaculture system is constructed. (AB ev)
Chief Roi Mata's Domain The traditions associated with Roi Mata are particularly rich in their portrait of the man and stories of the flight to Efate after the eruption of Kuwae volcano. (AB ev)
Edinburgh Edinburgh Castle: The castle stands upon the plug of an extinct volcano, which is estimated to have risen about 350 million years ago during the lower Carboniferous period. The Castle Rock is the remains of a volcanic pipe, which cut through the surrounding sedimentary rock before cooling to form very hard dolerite, a type of basalt. (wiki)
Ellora Caves Ellora occupies a relatively flat rocky region of the Western Ghats, where ancient volcanic activity had created multilayered basalt formations, known as the Deccan Traps. The volcanic activity that formed the west-facing cliff that houses the Ellora caves occurred during the Cretaceous period. (wiki)
Frontiers of the Roman Empire Whin Sill
Fujisan Fujisan is a solitary strato-volcano (OUV statement)
Göreme NP Located on the central Anatolia plateau within a volcanic landscape sculpted by erosion (OUV statement)
Joya de Ceren The eruption of the Loma Caldera volcano caused 10 meters of pyroclastic debris to settle over the site (wiki)
Le Morne The mountain has a naturally dramatic form, its crumpled extinct volcano clashing brutally with the tranquillity of the low foothills and lagoons at its base (AB ev)
Levuka Levuka Historical Port Town is set amongst coconut and mango trees along the beach front of Ovalau Island against the forested slopes of the island’s extinct volcano. (OUV statement)
Nan Madol Carbon dating indicates that megalithic construction at Nan Madol began around 1180 AD when large basalt stones were taken from a volcanic plug on the opposite side of Pohnpei. (wiki)
Naples "the outline of Mount Vesuvius in the background" (AB ev)
Pico Island spectacular coastal setting of the viniculture landscape sits at the foothills of Pico Mountain, a volcano that dominates the topography of the island (AB ev)
Pompei Eruption of Vesuvius on 24 August AD 79
Popocatepetl monasteries Popocatepetl volcano
Puebla At the foot of the Popocatepetl volcano
Quito the city of Quito is spread along the slopes of the Pichincha Volcano (OUV statement)
Rapa Nui Poike, Rano Kau and Terevaka volcanoes
Risco Caido Gran Canaria is of volcanic origin, "A second cycle of volcanic eruptions, known as the "Roque Nublo cycle", took place between 4.5 and 3.4 million years ago. ... Most of the inland peaks were formed by erosion from these materials. This period also started with fissural basalts, but ended with violent eruptions of pyroclastic flows." (wiki)
Ruins of León Viejo Overlooked and partially destroyed by Momotombo (1578)
St. George, Bermuda The city is built on a volcanic island.
Takht-e Soleyman it contains a volcano and an artesian lake as essential elements of the site (Unesco website)
Taputapuātea On a volcanic island
Tequila foothills of the Tequila Volcano
Thingvellir Þingvellir National Park is located in an active volcanic area
Tierradentro hypogea—which were carved in the volcanic tuff below hilltops and mountain ridges (OUV statement)
Val di Noto "Catania could be affected by volcanic eruption from Mount Etna" (AB ev)
Yogyakarta "Yogyakarta is located in close proximity to the active volcano of Mount Merapi, which had its last major eruption in 2010, which created ash rain and flooding in the city" (ab ev)


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A connection should:

  1. Not be "self evident"
  2. Link at least 3 different sites
  3. Not duplicate or merely subdivide the "Category" assignment already identified on this site.
  4. Add some knowledge or insight (whether significant or trivial!) about WHS for the users of this site
  5. Be explained, with reference to a source