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World Heritage Site

for World Heritage Travellers

Ennedi Massif

Ennedi Massif

The "Ennedi Massif: Natural and Cultural Landscape" is an eroded mountain massif in the Sahara desert, containing numerous rock paintings and archaeological sites.

The sandstone plateau was sculpted by water and wind erosion, leading to scenically impressive features such as formidable rock arches.

Though lying deep in the desert, the area sees regular rain. This results in a varied flora and fauna, and notably in the surviving Nile crocodiles in the permanent pocket of water called Guelta Archei. It became a refuge also for humans, who left rock art there. Nomadic pastoralists are still visiting.

Map of Ennedi Massif


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Site Info

Full name: Ennedi Massif: Natural and Cultural Landscape

Unesco ID: 1475

Inscribed: 2016

Type: Mixed

Criteria: 3   7   9  

Link: By Name By ID

Site History

  • 2016 - Revision On T List as: Gravures et peintures rupestres de l'Ennedi et du Tibesti
  • 2016 - Inscribed 
  • 2015 - Incomplete - not examined As "Massif de l'Ennedi : paysage naturel et culturel"


The site has 1 locations.

  • Ennedi Massif


The site has 12 connections.



  • Natural Arches and Bridges: "very large concentration of rock arches, probably only exceeded by Arches National Park in the USA. With a height of 120 metres, the Aloba stone arch is reportedly the second highest .. in the world" (AB ev)
  • Crocodiles: "One of the most striking conservation features is the small population of crocodiles, estimated at around 10 individuals, which live in the Guelta Archei" (AB ev)


Human Activity

  • Iron production: some 30 bases of reduction smelters were found (AB ev)
  • Pastoralism: In the present day, local communities still practice nomadic pastoralism and a traditional way of life (AB ev)

Individual People


  • Holocene: originated in what is called the Neolithic Subpluvial or Holocene Wet Phase (wiki nl)

World Heritage Process

  • Reduced from broader TWHS: The property has been reduced during the process twice, the last time excluding the northern part (due to an oil exploration concession?) which could be a future extension.  Link


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