Reintroduced Species

WHS whose animal "wildlife" includes reintroduced species following extinction (or near extinction) of the natural population, thus resulting in a significant "non-natural" (human introduced) element in the gene pool. Such re-introductions are now strictly controlled and monitored - though that was not always the case All the Oryx in the Arabian Oryx Sanctuary (delisted in 2007) were from re-introduced stock - originally from San Diego Wildlife Park. The connection is limited to sites where reintroductions have taken place, although plans exist in other WHS such as for Wolves in Olympic NP.

Connected Sites

Site Rationale Link
'Uruq Bani Ma'arid Arabian Oryx (1993), "Today, 150 Oryx are present" (AB ev). The Arabian Sand Gazelle (Gazella marica), also assessed as Vulnerable, and the Endangered Mountain Gazelle (Gazella gazella) have also been reintroduced to the site since 1995.
Białowieża Forest The European Bison: "In 1919 the last European bison in the BF was killed by poachers. Ten years later, a breeding program was set up to conserve the species and to bring it back into the wild. In 1952 the first two individuals were released into forest and two years later the group of 16 bison was reintroduced into the BF" .. "Beavers were reintroduced in 1956." (nom file 2014)
Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks Elk/Wapiti were thought to be "extinct" in Banff by the early 20th century and a number were brought in from Yellowstone - the numbers of elk are now a problem! Similarly in Jasper NP.
Causses and Cévennes Causse Méjan: Przewalski's horse
Dolomites Ibex ibex reintroduced in the 1980s, Brown bear
Dong Phayayen Siamese Crocodile - "The Department of National Parks, Wildlife and Plant Conservation (DNPWPC) is currently implementing a scientifically controlled crocodile re-introduction programme in Pang Sida NP" (AB evaluation)
Galapagos Islands 39 Espanola tortoises have been introduced to Pinta. They are regarded as being the closest genetic match to the Pinta tortoise - of which only "Lonesome George" remains. Whilst there remains a slight hope that George might father hybrid offspring with captive Espanola tortoises, those released are sterile. If they survive, and no hybrid emerges, it is the intention to release fertile creatures with the objective of re-engineering a full "ecosystem" of which a tortoise presence of some sort is an essential element.
Great Smoky Mountains "In 1991, two pairs were reintroduced into the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, where the last known red wolf was killed in 1905. Despite some early success, the wolves were relocated to North Carolina in 1998, ending the effort to reintroduce the species to the Park." (wiki) - the red wolf now is a critically endangered species
Niokolo-Koba National Park "The elephants are a recent reintroduction, after an earlier herd of several hundred was killed off." from IUCN
Western Caucasus Caucasian Wisent
Yellowstone "Fearing the demise of the wild herd, the U.S. Army brought 21 bison from two private herds to Yellowstone in 1902. These animals were protected and managed in Mammoth at first, and then at the Buffalo Ranch in the Lamar Valley. Meanwhile, the original herd slowly increased. In several different stages during the first half of the 20th century, the captive bison began to mix with the wild bison. The ranching operation was phased out by 1952." (NP Web site)
Yosemite National Park Bighorn sheep: Bighorn were first reintroduced to Yosemite National Park in 1986. These small herds still persist, and can sometimes be seen summering along the Sierra crest, on such peaks as Mount Dana and Mount Gibbs. However, the areas inhabited today represent only a fraction of the bighorn sheep's former range, and until a more robust population is established, one of Yosemite's greatest wilderness icons will remain at risk. Between March 26 and March 29, 2015, nine ewes (females) and three rams (males) were moved from the Inyo National Forest and Sequoia National Park to the Cathedral Range in Yosemite National Park. In addition, seven ewes were moved to the Laurel Creek area of Sequoia National Park; the CDFW will attempt to move an additional three rams to that area on March 30.
iSimangaliso Wetland Park "In 2001 Elephant was introduced into the wetlands system and this has brought this area closer to "big five" status and has re-introduced a key ecological vector". And "Wild dogs, last seen in the northern parts of KwaZulu Natal more than 75 years ago, were reintroduced into South Africa's Greater St. Lucia Wetlands Park on May 5, 2005"


Do you know of another WHS we could connect to Reintroduced Species?

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A connection should:

  1. Not be "self evident"
  2. Link at least 3 different sites
  3. Not duplicate or merely subdivide the "Category" assignment already identified on this site.
  4. Add some knowledge or insight (whether significant or trivial!) about WHS for the users of this site
  5. Be explained, with reference to a source