Underground Boundaries

WHS whose core underground boundaries extend beyond those at ground level. (The underground areas extend beyond the surface boundaries such that the land above the inscribed areas is not a part of the inscribed site core area (though it may be a part of a buffer zone). Thus it is possible to stand somewhere at ground level OUTSIDE the WHS whilst land some distance underneath is INSIDE the inscribed core boundary.)

Connected Sites

Site Rationale Link
Babylon • " In response, the State Party submitted a new, three-dimensional boundary concept on 25 February 2019. In this revised delimitation, the outer boundaries remain identical while a number of 20th century constructions have been excluded above-ground – thereby becoming islands of buffer zone within the property – while potential or known archaeological resources below these remain explicitly within the property. Excluded are numerous areas including the three artificial hills with Saddam Hussein’s palace located on the westernmost side, the contemporary village housing located within the property, individual government buildings such as the police headquarters and conference centre, as well as manifold others..." (Advisory Body Evaluation, 2019)
Champagne The UNESCO Maps of Reims and Epernay show the inscribed areas as pink for overground and a blue line for underground (The "Caves"). The latter sometimes extend beyond the former – but are always within the buffer zone (Orange)
Lower German Limes Most of the sites are buried, with possible reconstructions above ground not included in the core zone.
Mining Cultural Landscape Erzgebirge Beyond the boundaries of the inscribed surface areas there are numerous underground elements some of which are not even included in the surface buffer zone. See (link) which show dotted lines for "Nominated property underground" extending way beyond any inscribed overground zone. E.g the entire element of Dippoldiswalde Mediaeval Silver Mine (1-DE) and the Freiberg location (4-DE). The Nomination file states - "On the Saxon side, in some cases, for linear elements a standardised buffer zone between 5 and 10 meters in width was determined. Structures located underground were only allocated with a buffer zone when these are reflected by function-specific installations or archaeological remains above ground. Otherwise, above ground (construction) measures will have no effect on these mostly very deep-lying structures."
Tarnowskie Góry Lead-Silver-Zinc Mine See UNESCO Map with solid lines for "Surface Nominated property" and dotted lines, extending way beyond these, for "Underground Nominated property (Protected at surface)". (It is not clear whether this "protected at surface" means that the surface is an "official" (UNESCO) buffer zone)
The Slate Landscape of Northwest Wales See Nomination maps for "Nominated property underground" in blue extending beyond the boundaries at the surface
Wieliczka and Bochnia Royal Salt Mines Both have mainly underground boundaries


Do you know of another WHS we could connect to Underground Boundaries?

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A connection should:

  1. Not be "self evident"
  2. Link at least 3 different sites
  3. Not duplicate or merely subdivide the "Category" assignment already identified on this site.
  4. Add some knowledge or insight (whether significant or trivial!) about WHS for the users of this site
  5. Be explained, with reference to a source