The Cultural Landscape of Hawraman/Uramanat comprises agricultural villages and their lands in two valleys in the Zagros mountains.
The semi-nomadic inhabitants perform steep-slope agriculture with the use of traditional dry-stone terracing and water management practices. Hawraman/Uramanat is located in the mountainous Kurdistan Province of Iran.
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- Full Name
- Cultural Landscape of Hawraman/Uramanat
- Unesco ID
- Cultural Landscape - Continuing
- By ID
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Cave dwellings: "Archaeological excavation in rock shelters and caves located in the Sirvan river valley of Kurdistan Province have led to the discovery of evidence belonging to stone-age hunters and early cave dwellers." (Nomination file, p. 37) "A total of 45 caves and cliff shelters have been identified in Hawraman/Uramanat. Most of these caves are natural but a few have been altered due to human intervention. (...) it can be strongly claimed that cave-dwelling in Hawraman/Uramanat has a long history whether permanent or temporary." (Nomination file, p. 130)
Vernacular architecture: "The cultural landscape made up of villages of steep-slope vernacular architecture" (AB Ev – ICOMOS)
Cemeteries: "Archaeological findings dating back about 40,000 years, caves and rock shelters, ancient paths and ways along the valleys, motifs and inscriptions, cemeteries, mounds, castles, settlements, and other historical evidence attest to the continuity of life in the Hawraman/Uramanat region from the Paleolithic to the present time". (Official desription)
Petroglyphs: "tangible features include caves, archaeological sites, mounds, citadels, historic cemeteries, rock carvings and petroglyphs, historic roads, villages, and Havars" (AB Ev – ICOMOS) "Carved patterns (...) can be divided into four groups of humans, animals, geometrical (symbolic) and hybrid (human-animal) shapes". (Nomination file, p. 42)
Bears: "Among animals found in the region are: (...) bears" (Nomination file, p. 35) Brown bears in the Kosalan and Shahu Protected Areas (Nomination file, p. 223)
Critically endangered fauna species: The property "overlaps with the range of at least one Critically Endangered species on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, the Kurdistan Newt (Neurergus microspilotus)." (AB Ev – IUCN) (it's a salamander)
Steppe: "In addition to the valleys, high mountain ridges, steep-sided valleys, and rivers, the nominated property includes many other natural values, such as chestnut forests, scrubby woodland, and steppe habitats." (AB Ev – IUCN)
Turtles and tortoises: "Among animals found in the region are: (...) various kinds of turtles and snakes" (Nomination file, p. 35)
Neolithic age: The vertical migration pattern in Hawraman/Uramanat is among the oldest types of migration, dating to the early Neolithic. (AB ev)
Achaemenid Empire: "As part of the Achaemenid territory (the Medes Satrapy) Hawraman/Uramanat region also enjoyed a relative tranquillity until the demise of the Achaemenid empire." (Nomination file, p. 134)
Assyrian Empire: "(...) the region was occupied by the Assyrians during their military campaigns into the Zagros." "(...) in an inscription found in Palangan Village, the Assyrian invasion and conquest of the region has been fully described showing that the region was vulnerable to direct attack from alien or neighboring forces making a strong effect on the architectural structure of villages." (Nomination file, p. 37, 82)
Bronze Age: Central-Eastern Valley: "The earliest archaeological findings show than man settlements in these area date back to the late Bronze and Iron Ages." (Nomination file, p. 102)
Sassanid Empire: "Construction of several bridges as well as expansion of local roads particularly under the Sassanid dynasty are expressive of the significance of the region in historical times. There are so many sites in the region which can confirm this." (Nomination file, p. 135)
Pastoralism: The property is therefore said to present important evidence in the context of the history of pastoral migration. (AB ev)
Irrigation and drainage: "The Hawrami people's endeavors, exquisite and skillful agricultural technology, and ecological world-view taken from ancestral practices have successfully created a smart, efficient, fair, harmonious, and sustainable agricultural system that manages water and irrigation and pinpoints proper dwelling spaces." (AB Ev – ICOMOS) "(...) irrigation and optimal water management in Hawraman/Uramanat gardening is quite creative and shows signs of the development of human knowledge in exploiting limited natural resources of Hawraman/Uramanat." (Nomination file, p. 72-73)
Man-made Terraces: "Among major ancient innovations in Hawraman/Uramanat is the clever technical terracing in mountain slopes. The intelligent method of setting up these terraces and their creative architecture shows wisely observance of structural, architectural and scientific principles beside an innovate construction of water drainage system and foundation. Some of these terraces dates back to hundreds of years ago but they are still intact and functioning." (Nomination file, p. 73)
Religion and Belief
Sufism: "Tekyehs and Khaneqahs as places of praying and worshipping for dervishes and Sufis enjoy a high rate of local popularity. (...) Among well-known Tekyehs and Khaneqahs which can also be regarded as Sufi monasteries, are sheikh Ahmad Khaneqah in Abbas Abad village, Sheikh Hadi Tekyeh in Doulab Village and Shamsolarefin Khaneqah dating from over 150 years ago in Najar village." (Nomination file, p. 51)
Zoroastrianism: "(...) based on Persian literature it can be concluded that Hawraman/Uramanat was a land in which sun-worshippers lived and as we know during the reign of the Achaemenid empire, Zoroastrianism was popular in the area." (Nomination file, p. 49) "Some scholars believe that the name Hawraman or Huraman has strong connections to the ancient Zoroastrian faith and claim that the name may have originated from Ahuraman or Ahura Mazda. (...) Many areas in the Avroman region are believed to have been pilgrimage sites for Zoroastrians prior to the advent of Islam."
Built in the 7th millennium BC: The vertical migration pattern in Hawraman/Uramanat is among the oldest types of migration, dating to the early Neolithic. (AB ev) Late Neolithic (c. 7000–5000 BCE). (wiki)
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