Old City of Jerusalem
The Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls has high religious value as a holy city for Judaism, Christianity and Islam.
The UNESCO needed an extraordinary session to discuss this entry. The proposal to put Jerusalem on the list was made by Jordan (Israel was no member at the time), and the accompanying letter claimed that Jordan is not using this Committee or your deliberations as a vehicle for political claims. Jordan wanted Jerusalem on the list for the value that Jerusalem represents for the three religions of Judaism, Christianity and Islam.
Old quarters and city walls is a general description for 226 monuments from all 3 major religions. Most important monument for the Jews is the Western Wall, for the Christians it is the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and for the Muslims the Dome of the Rock.
In 1982, the site was put on the List of Worldheritages in Danger. Besides political and religious violence, the site is also threatened by the rapid urbanization of its surroundings and the daily visits of masses of tourists.
Map of Old City of Jerusalem
- ●● Cultural
Visit August 2000
All was relatively quiet then, that week in August when I visited this magnificent site. Highlights were the Dome of the Rock, the Armenian quarter including St. James Cathedral and the weird Church of the Holy Sepulchre.
The hundreds of bigger and smaller historical and religious remains are piled up in an area with a size of only 1 square km. That means that sometimes you have to look very well for something your travelguide names as a top attraction. And maybe you discover something much more beautiful on your way ...
Jay T USA 19-Feb-17
O Jerusalem -- a city revered and fought over through the centuries by armies from three faiths, and which struggles today to find peace and stability amongst its diverse residents. This is a holy city, a city of pilgrimage, and it was one I had longed to visit since I was young. I finally had my opportunity in February 2015, and it was all I hoped it would be. As I think back on it now, I remember Jerusalem in a series of vignettes. An Orthodox Jew with a long grey beard praying as he walked down a narrow staircase in the Old City. Two older Arab men playing chess in front of the Dome of the Rock, ignoring background vocal protests. Crowds of pilgrims lined up inside the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, a building maintained by several denominations. Israeli soldiers carrying supplies out through the Zion Gate. The views of the old city from the Mount of Olives after a storm. The quiet, reflective sites of the Garden of Gethsemane and the Garden Tomb, the latter frequented by Protestants. The lively underground markets in the well-preserved Roman Cardo. The well-secured and sobering Wailing Wall. There is so much to see in Jerusalem, and I wish I'd had more than two days, but I am glad for the time I had, and would love to return.
Logistics: The Old City of Jerusalem is easy to walk around; however, there are security checkpoints, and some sites may temporarily close depending on current events.
I have lived there when there wher no roads and many buildings that are there in this beautiful city where not there, i was back there this year from 10th Sept 2013 to 10 Oct 2013 and today it is a thriving city with so much to see and do, it makes you proud to be a Jew when you visit your routes, as i said i have beenthere many times and it never ceases to thrill me.
Would recommend the night life there especially Darna Restaurant and Ben Yahuda Street on a Saturday night. you will love it.
Clyde Malta 07-Sep-12
So many historical and religious sites to visit but my thoughts and prayers went to those who are really suffering because of the disgraceful concrete walls in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. I promised myself I won't be visiting these WHS again before these wall are demolished once and for all.
Eric Lurio USA 17-Jul-12
Jerusalem is too damn holy for it’s own good. I’m not saying everyone who lives there is nuts, that’s obviously not the case, but it just seems that way. But then, I mostly hung out with tourists. They’re definitely nuts.
When I was last there a short time ago, I stayed in a youth hostel near the Jaffa Gate, and the first person I met after the people at the reception desk was a guy who claimed to be Jesus Christ. I later learned that he wasn’t the first guest that month to have made that claim. But one has to expect that sort of thing.
It’s called “Jerusalem syndrome.” You think you’re God, or Jesus or Moses or angels are telling you to convert the Catholics to Christianity or something like that.
There are two Jerusalems: the first is the capitol of Israel. This isn’t a particularly interesting place. Some decent bars and restaurants, and aside from the big museums, there’s nothing really there, but then for the most part nobody goes to see this Jerusalem, there’s no reason to unless you’re a lobbyist or a film fan. Everybody comes to see the other one, that place where religion lives. Holyland-land.
Holyland-land, or more properly, the Old City is not really a city at all, but a tiny walled village about one kilometer square. Going all the way around the city walls will take no more than half an hour at most, and within one will find just souvenir shops, churches and synagogues…. and those two huge and decorous mosques that denominate everything.
Had Jesus been French all these people would be in Paris. But no, Jesus was Jewish and this is Holyland-land, where all things religious took place thousands of years ago, even though you can still feel it. That’s what drives people mad. Why only the other day a bunch of monks got into a fistfight in the Church of the Holy Sepulcher, Each wanted a better place in a procession. Some things will never change.
I visited and indeed lived and worked in Israel off and on between 1996 and 2000. The one thing I have always recommended to those going to Israel is to spend a few days walking around the Old City. Take in the smells, sights and sounds as you wander around, particularly the busy Arab Quarter. One one of caution and it's a personal view but the "rejuvenated" Jewish quarter has, in my opinion, lost much of its character and is far too sanitised in comparison with the other parts.
I have been to Israel 2 times and i love the country
and especially the Old City. I would invite anyone to
go there....its a wonderful experience to visit there.
and to visit with the people, very kind and helpful..
The only plane i would travel there would be from
New York to Israel would be El El.........its the safest
and they check everything and make sure everyone is safe
if i would go again , and again....someday i would love
to live there......wonderful and beautiful City. AMEN!
Assif Israel 21-Oct-08
The Old City of Jerusalem is truly exceptional, not only for its history and architecture, but also (and for me mainly) for its unique mixture of people incomparable to anywhere elso in the world. Numerous Jewish, Christian and Muslim groups have their share in Jerusalem. The number of languages you hear on the street is puzzling (exclduing those spoken by tourists). Among the tradtional inhabitants are Palestinians, Jews, Gypsies, African Muslims from Sudan and Chad, Armenians and Greeks.
Visiting Jerusalem is not a simple matter since many of its attractions are hidden and not well adopted for tourism.
An interesting fact about Jerusalem's sacral monuments is that most of them are surprisingly quite new. Within its walls there are as far as I know only four old mosques (Al Aqsa, Dome of the Rock, Umar and the Tankasiyya Madrasa), four old churches (The Holy Sepulcher, Armenian Cathedral, Syriac church and St. Anna) and two old synagogues (Ramban and Karaite Synagogue). The rest is mostly from the time 1850-1930, which is remarkable for such an old city. All of these sacral buidlings are possible to visit with the exception of Umar. Many of the secular houses, however, are much older (a fine example is the Tunshuq Palace).
The Armenian Cathedral has very limited visiting times (15-15.30 daily). In order to enter the Ramban synagogue you more or less need to pretend you are about to pray there but then you can just take a fast glimpse of the building and disappear. Nearby you can find the Hurva Synagogue which is now being restored. At St Anna Church you can also visit some Roman archaeological excavations just outside the church. Not all of the above mentioned sacral monuments are found on the official maps so try to find out ahead where you would like to go.
There are several interesting archaeological museums and sites in the old city most of which situated in the Jewish Quarter or around it and are closed on Saturdays: the Burnt House (only with a guide - come till 1600), Wohl Museum - Herodian Quarter (until 1600 too), the Western Wall Tunnels (reservation required), City of David - Siluan, Davidson Archaeological Park (the Ophel) - Robinson's Arch, the Cardo (always open), the Israelite Tower (now under reconstruction), The Tower of David and the remains of Jerusalem from the time of the First Temple (always open). Just outside the old city be sure to visit the Rockefeller Museum, Zidkiya Cave and the Tomb of the Kings (in possession of France - reservation required). The Khadiyya Library is unfortunately closed for visitors at the moment but will probably be reopened next year. The historical markets are impressive (the Cotton Market and Muristan are among the most beautiful ones). Don't miss them. Some interesting monuments are located on the slopes of Mount of Olives (Kidron Valley) including Yad Avshalom and Rehabam's Tomb which is exceptionally beautiful. They are well worth a visit.
Jerusalem is known for its political tentions so make sure you look like tourists when visiting the city. Don't hang around on your own in the darkness or in small isolated alleys with noone around you. Don't go where policemen tell you not to go.
The centre of Arab Jerusalem is just outside the Damascus Gate. For the centre of Jewish Jerusalem go to Nahlat Shivaa. Don't miss the Chagall Windows at the Ein Karem Hospital, the Knesset, Yad VaShem Holocaust Memorial Museum and Israel Museum with the Shrine of the Book where th Dead Sea Scrolls are exhibited. Most monasteries in Jerusalem are not open to visitors. The Monastery of the Cross which was built by the Georgians in the Middle Ages is an exception and it feauteres some nice murals.
DAB Canada 28-Jul-08
Jerusalem is amazing. superb, fantastic, incredible. none of these words accurately describe just how great Jerusalem is. one of the most important cities on the planet (holy to three religions), Jerusalem is also 3500 years old. the walls that currently encircle Jerusalem were built in the time of the ottoman turks; however, there has been a wall around Jerusalem since it began. as well as the old city; which is a maze of narrow alleys, with overhead arches, and old beautifully, stone buildings mostly in , what i believe is, Romanesque and Islamic styles, there are a wealth of archaeological sites around Jerusalem's old city. i visited the city of David, one of the oldest parts of the Jerusalem. this is a great archaeological site, and very interesting, it where King David built his city, 3000 years ago. pillars, houses, stairs; are the remains which one will find here.
although many people consider Jerusalem unsafe due to terrorists, as long as you don't take the bus, you will probably be fine. The terrorists generally don't target tourists.
in conclusion Jerusalem is worth a journey of a thousand miles, or more. it is the greatest site in Israel, and an absolute, no excuses, must see when you are in that country.
NOTE: i recommend the bagels and spice that are sold everywhere by street vendors it Jerusalem. they area very tasty snack.
Christer Sundberg Sweden 04-Jun-06
The magnificent Jerusalem - for many years the centre point of the world, and for many people it still is. As a town, equally important for the Christians, Muslims and Jews it is actually a miracle that it still stands, despite its history of destruction and violence and different leaderships throughout its history.
To those just remotely interested in history and religion it must be mine and any other traveller’s strongest recommendation to take your time with this city. Allow at least a week to visit the different parts of the old town - the Christian, Jewish and Muslim areas as well as the neighbouring areas, Mount Zion and Mount of Olives as well as the modern town of Jerusalem. There is so much to see and one must also allow time to just wonder around the Old Town with it’s bazaars, shops, cafés and restaurants.
It its also worth mentioning that the layout of Jerusalem is not a walk in the park. There are many steep hills and ups and downs so a taxi could sometimes come in handy if you need to cross over one of the many valleys.
Jerusalem was a true experience, maybe only comparable to Rome or any other major historic city that provides you with a piece of world history at any corner you turn…
Solivagant UK 27-Jun-05
The Old City of Jerusalem holds special memories for me – not for religious reasons but as my first non European/N American travel destination as long ago as 1964. Those with long memories or knowledge of history will remember that the city was “part” of Jordan in those pre “6 Day War” days. I had crossed the Med on a Turkish passenger boat from Naples to Beirut, hitched to Jerusalem via Damascus and would hitch back all the way home to the UK via Turkey - a “travel apprenticeship”!
My diary lists a few “important” (semi!) Arabic phrases like “La Feloose” (“No money”)! It also contains a few scribbled names and addresses from Arab “friends” made along the way – I wonder how the troubles of the intervening years have treated them? The diary notes a trip up to the Temple Mount and also a visit to the Mandelbaum Gate – the only crossing between the 2 parts of the divided city and that only for UN officials, diplomats and certain “1 way only” transfers.
My second visit was in 1982 – this time I approached from Tel Aviv. The Mandelbaum Gate was no more – totally demolished as the hated symbol of a previously divided city. Significant parts of the old city (i.e. people’s houses) had been cleared to open up the Wailing Wall. Yet again I visited the Temple Mount. Perhaps 1982 was a relatively relaxed time to visit as I remember no great issues of security other than those to get on an El Al plane.
Those 41 years cannot be said to have treated the region kindly. I take no sides on the matters and remember friendliness from all I met, whether the site was in Israel or Jordan. But I have no wish to return for a third visit. Partly I suppose for personal security reasons but also because there just seems too much hatred around now and even visiting the Temple Mount is tied up with bureaucracy and security. Indeed I wonder if some religious sites are just too “potent” to be inscribed as WHS (viz the current disputes in India over inscription of the Golden Temple in Amritsar).
Ben Pastore USA 07-Jun-05
I visited at a time of relative peace, though security was high and we happened to leave the West Bank the same night as the Israeli army. Regardless, Jerusalem reflects its cultural and religious history in every building, and whatever your persuasion, its hard avoid feeling a chill or two as you regard the sights seen by Abraham, David, and Jesus himself. Take out the technology and you'll almost feel like you could bump into any one of them in the narrow streets and charming bazaars.
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Community Rating 4.43. Based on 15 votes.
Full name: Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls
Unesco ID: 148
Inscribed: 1981 In Danger
Criteria: 2 3 6
- 2007 - Reinforced Monitoring
- 1982 - In Danger severe destruction followed by a rapid urbanization
- 1981 - Inscribed
- 1980 - Deferred Committee decided a speical approach was needed
The site has 122 connections. Show all
- Dry Stone Construction: Wailing Wall, Herodian Quarter
- Gold Surfaces: Dome of the Rock. Dome. Originally "100,000 gold dinar coins were melted down". At other times has been covered by tiles and Aluminium/Bronze alloy (1960). "In 1998 the golden dome covering was refurbished following a donation of $8.2 million by King Hussain of Jordan who sold one of his houses in London to fund the 80 kilograms of gold required"
- Romanesque: Church of St. Anne Link
- Martyrium: Church of the Holy Sepulchre & Dome of the Rock Link
- Walled cities
- Domes: Dome of the Rock- 20.37m AD 691
- Cisterns: The Herodian road which ran alongside the Temple Mount, includes ancient cisterns
- Octagons: Dome of the Rock
- Tunnels: The Western (Wailing) Wall Tunnel; and also "Hezekiah's Tunnel, or the Siloam Tunnel is a tunnel that was dug underneath the Ophel in Jerusalem about 701 BC during the reign of Hezekiah. It was probably a widening of a pre-existing cave and is mentioned in the Bible."
- Gates depicting Lions: Lions' Gate in the Old City Walls (1517). Near the gate?s crest are four figures of "lions" after which the gate is named (they actually depict panthers).
- Libraries: Khaldiyya, Gulbenkian Library
- Baths: Two bath houses at the Cotton Market
- Bazaars and Market Halls: Cotton Market, the Cardo
- Hospitals: Historical hospital at the Muristan
- Frontier walls: The wall surrounding the Old Town of Jerusalem partially served as the border between Israel and Jordan in 1948-1967
- Monumental Fountains: Ornamental fountain (19th century) at the Muristan Link
- Latrines: Archaeological park - Roman Latrinae
- Mosaic art: Herodian Quarter
- Monumental Monoliths: The 'Western Stone' which forms part of the lower portion of the Western wall. It is 13.6 meters (44.6 feet) long, 3 metres (9.8 feet) high and has an estimated width of 3.3 meters (10.8 feet). It weighs 517 tonnes.
- Prison: The area surrounding the Cotton Market was turned into a prison by the Turks during WWI.
- Cemeteries: Armenian cemetery in the Armenian Quarter
- Mausolea: Turbat Turakan Hatun Link
- Horse Stables: Solomon's Stables
- Destroyed during invasion: By the Roman Army (70 A.D.)
- Damaged in War since WWII: 6 Day War "The Mughrabi " quarter was razed three days after the Six day War in order to broaden the narrow alley leading to the Western Wall and prepare it for public access by Jews seeking to pray there." (Wiki) Link
- Terrorist Attacks: Several incidents
- 'Threatened' by Tunnels: The Western Wall Tunnel
- Destroyed or damaged by Earthquake: several Umayyad buildings south of the Temple Mount were destroyed in 749. archpark.org.il/
- On National Border: Israel - Palestine
- The Crusades
- Byzantine Empire and Civilization
- Umayyad Caliphate: Dome of the Rock
- Sieges and Battles: Assyrians 721BC (lifted), Romans 70AD, 1st Crusaders 1099, Saladin 1187
- Ottoman Empire
- Pisan colonies
- Babylonian Empire
- Ancient Roman colonies: Colonia Aelia Capitolina
- Amarna Letters
- Knights Hospitaller: Founded there in 1080 as a Christian hospital (by Amalfatians). Became a religious/military order during the First Crusade in 1099 charged with "care and defense of the Holy Land"
- Knights Templar : Founded there in 1119 by 2 veterans of the first Crusade. The Order used the Al Aqsa Mosque on Temple Mount as HQ and hence took the name "Poor Knights of Christ and the Temple of Solomon", or "Templar" knights. Initially the Order had few financial resources and consisted of only around 9 knights. Their emblem was of two knights riding on a single horse, emphasizing the Order's poverty. This rapidly changed however and, by 1129, it had become a favoured charity throughout Christendom. It ran into hositility for its wealth, power and ambition. It was disbanded by the Pope in 1307 and authority given for its assets to be seized by monarchs across Europe.
- Buried treasures: 264 golden coins from Heraclius' time discovered in 2008
- Habsburgs (Austrian): Austrian Hospice, built as a pilgrim house and visited in 1869 by Emperor Franz Joseph I
- Mamluk Sultanate: Al Aqsa Mosque ("added two naves and two gates to the mosque's eastern side") and several structures in the Muslim Quarter, like the Markte of the Cotton Workers
- Thomas Cook Round the World tour 1872-1873: Mar 1873 "The city of Jerusalem continues to expand in a westerly direction. The talk of a railway from Jaffa to Jerusalem is again revived but noone could tell me who was going to construct it or how the funds were to be realized"
- Eunuchs: Jerulsalem's Dome of the rock was guarded by black eunuchs (source: Eunuchs and Castrati: A Cultural History)
- Displayed on the Madaba Map: The mosaic clearly shows a number of significant structures in the Old City of Jerusalem: the Damascus Gate, the Lions' Gate, the Golden Gate, the Zion Gate, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, the New Church of the Theotokos, the Tower of David and the Cardo Maximus. (wiki)
- Oldest continuously inhabited cities: Jerusalem, 2800 BC
- Irrigation and drainage: Hizkia reservoir (drinking water supply)
- Historical Financial Institutions: Knights Templar HQ for its Euro wide financial system. "Since the monks themselves were sworn to poverty, but had the strength of a large and trusted international infrastructure behind them, nobles would occasionally use them as a kind of bank or power of attorney." Link
- Petrosomatoglyphs: Foundation Stone on the Dome of the Rock has "marks" of the footprint of Mohammed (made as he stepped upon it to mount his horse Barak when commencing his ride to Paradise), Barak's Hoofprint and the hand/finger print of Gabriel (who was holding back the rock as it tried to follow Mohammed).
- Gertrude Bell: Photo taken December 1899
- Marco Polo: He visited to pick up the holy oil following Kublai Khan's request to his father Niccolo on his own earlier trip
- King Solomon: The Temple Mount. The site, according to Biblical tradition, of the first Temple of the Jews at Jerusalem and built by Solomon
- Emperor Hadrian: Emperor Hadrian visited the, then ruined, Jerusalem in 129 AD
- Galla Placidia: She restored the Church of the Holy Sepulchre
- Helen of Constantinople: "Discovered" the "exact" site of Jesus's tomb and ordered the pulling down of a Temple to Venus which had been built there and its replacement by the "Church of the Holy Sepulchre"
- Frederick II: Came there in the 6th Crusade
- General Gordon: Visited Palestine for a year in 1882-3. The authenticity of the "Church of the Holy Sepulchre" as the traditional location of the burial and resurrection of Christ was being questioned by a number of scholars and Gordon concluded that a tomb outside the Walls (and outside the inscribed site) was the true tomb. The place became known as "Gordon's Calvary" and "The Garden Tomb". It remains a place of pilgrimage as an altrnative to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre particuarly among Protestants. Link
- Saladin: Besieged 1187
- Pompey the Great: Captured by Pompey in 63BC. After a 2 month siege in which the northern walls were breached, Pompey and his army entered the Temple itself. See "Wars of the Jews" by Flavius Josephus (chapter 7) Link
- Ibn Battuta
- Baibars: Baibars' emblem at the Lion's Gate
- Mapped or Illustrated by Blaeu: On top frieze of "Appendix Theatri A.Ortelii Et Atlantis G. Mercatoris"(1631 but map dates to 1617). Link
- Viscount Edmund Allenby: The Ottoman governor of Jerusalem surrendered to Allenby's forces on Dec 9 2017. "In deliberate contrast to the perceived arrogance of the Kaiser's entry into Jerusalem on horseback in 1898, Allenby dismounted and together with his officers, entered the city on foot through the Jaffa Gate out of respect for the status of Jerusalem as the Holy City important to Judaisim, Christianity and Islam" (Wiki)
- Designed by Mimar Sinan: Damascus Gate, which was built atop a Roman gate that is still visible Link
Religion and Belief
- Islamic pilgrimage sites: In terms of the virtue of a religious site, and the value of prayers performed within it, Muslims believe that the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem is the third most virtuous mosque
- Jewish religion and culture
- Cathedrals: Basilica of Holy Sepulchre, Co-Cath of Most Holy Name of Jesus, St James Cathedral
- Holiest place: Christianity, Judaism
- Greek Orthodox churches outside Greece
- Christian Pilgrimage Sites
- Mosque: Al-Aqsa Mosque (Sunni), originating from the 8th century and rebuilt in the 11th
- Syriac Churches: monastery of Saint Mark, a Syriac Orthodox church as well as a Maronite
- Armenian Orthodox Church: Armenian Quarter: Armenian Apostolic Church
- Prophecies: Several biblical prophecies
- The Magi/Three Kings: Here they met King Herod
- Mentioned in the Bible: Numerous
- Christian Churches in non Christian countries: Holy Sepulchre (Israel 2.3%)
- Franciscans: Church of the Holy Sepulchre
- Pilgrimage route: Via Dolorosa
- 12 Apostles: while the site of the Last Supper is located outside the walled city (and the nomination boundaries) the apostles lived in Jerusalem together with Jesus.
- Karaites: Karaite Synagogue
- Ethiopian Orthodox: Has its section in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and they own a nearby monastery.
- Coptic Orthodox Church: Church of the Holy Sepulchre (shrines in and around it)
- Relics from John the Baptist: John the Baptist Church possesses one of his bones
- Eastern Catholic Churches: Melkite, Armenian Catholic
- Axis Mundi
- Sacred Mountains: Temple Mount
- Multiple Religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam. (Site of Jewish Temple, Crucification of Christ, Mohammed's "Night Journey" to Heaven)
- Tombs of Biblical Figures: Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Jesus)
- Nunneries: Ecce Homo Convent belongs to the Sisters of Notre Dame de Sion. Link
- St Paul was here: In AD 57, on his 5th visit, Paul was arrested in the Temple for defiling it by bringing in Gentiles Link
- Located in a Capital City: Jerusalem (Capital of Israel)
- Disputed territories
- Located in a Former Capital: Kingdom of Jerusalem (1099-1187)
- Discriminatory Entry Policies: Dome of the Rock and Al-Aqsa Mosque - Muslims only
- Famous Love Stories: Solomon and Queen of Sheba, David and Bathsheba
- Works by Nobel Prize winning authors: Agnon (1966) - Only Yesterday (among others)
- On Banknotes: Dome of the Rock: 20 Dinar (Jordan), 1995 and others & Saudi Arabian 50 Riyals (1984) & 1000 Iranian Riyals & Jerusalem and the Temple Mount on 50 New Israeli Shekel Link
- Minority communities: Armenian Quarter; Jerusalem's Muslim quarter is home to historic communities of Indians, Persians, Gypsies and Sub-Saharan Africans - each with its own traditional area and its own mosque.
- Gypsies: A group of 5000 Dom "gypsies" has lived in East Jerusalem for the past 800 years. They are considered to have departed from the Indian subcontinent earlier than the Romani people
- Sound and Light Show: Burnt House and Davidson Centre
- Built or owned by Germans: Muristan: center of the German colony in Jerusalem in the 19th century, rebuilt the Crusader church of St. Mary Latina as the Lutheran Church of the Redeemer (Erl?serkirche)
- Built or owned by Poles: Dom Polski
- Built or owned by French: St Anna church
- Built or owned by British: Christ Church at Jaffa Gate
- One million visitors or more: Western Wall, Temple Mount Link
- Cities of Three Cultures
- Asterix: L'Odyssée d'Astérix / Asterix and the Black Gold Link
- Not under control of the nominating state: Site nominated by Jordan (1981), but the area is administered by Israel.
WHS on Other Lists
World Heritage Process
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