ShUM cities of Speyer, Worms and Mainz
ShUM cities of Speyer, Worms and Mainz is part of the Tentative list of Germany in order to qualify for inclusion in the World Heritage List.
The ShUM cities of Speyer, Worms and Mainz refers to the cluster of three Jewish communities in the 11th century: Shpira (Sh), Warmaisa (W=U), and Magenza (M). The three cities were centres of Jewish scholarship and of great importance for Ashkenazi Judaism. The specific customs and legal principles that developed there are still effective for Orthodox Judaism today. The cemetery in Worms and the ritual baths in Speyer and Worms have largely been preserved in their original form. The other components are the remains of the synagogue in Speyer and the cemetery in Mainz and the synagogue in Worms, which was reconstructed after World War II.
Map of ShUM cities of Speyer, Worms and MainzLoad map
The coordinates shown for all tentative sites were produced as a community effort. They are not official and may change on inscription.
The ShUM cities of Speyer, Worms and Mainz will probably be up for nomination in 2021 – I write “probably” as we have no idea how the schedule of new nominations will be after the postponement of this year’s WHC session. When I visited Worms last Friday the city seemed to be more preoccupied with the 500th anniversary of Luther’s appearance at the Diet of Worms than with the upcoming World Heritage (Worms has a UNESCO Memory of the World listing for Luther already). I of course focused on the 2 locations included in this TWHS: the former Synagogue Compound in the Jewish quarter and Old Jewish 'Heiliger Sand' Cemetery of Worms.
Every Friday at 11 am there is a guided tour of the Heiliger Sand cemetery. I aimed my arrival in Worms to be in time to participate, which meant that I left my home already at 5 am! An 8 EUR ticket has to be bought beforehand at the Tourist Information in the city center, the tour starts at the entrance of the cemetery just outside it. Upon buying my ticket I was told that the tour would start half an hour later today. I arrived around 11.15 and noticed rightaway an official looking group with people in neat clothes including one or two who could pass for specialists on Jewish heritage. My guide later on confirmed my first impression: these were UNESCO / ICOMOS members and specialists on a site visit related to the appraisal of the WH nomination.
For my tour 13 people showed up (15 is the maximum). The tour is conducted in German only. The guide managed to fill almost 2 hours – it was her first tour post-Covid and maybe she got a bit carried away. The cemetery certainly isn’t large and half an hour would be enough when you’re on your own. But I was glad that I joined the tour as lots of little details were pointed out. The cemetery lies outside the medieval city walls of Worms and within its own enclosed area (it is locked during the night, but I noticed no other obvious security measures). A lot of new research on it has been done to strengthen the world heritage nomination dossier.
The cemetery is located at the site of a former quarry. The lower part near the entrance has the oldest tombstones. They all have long inscriptions in ancient Hebrew. The 2 most famous stones date from the late 13th century and are those of the Maharam of Rothenburg and Alexander ben Salomon Wimpfen. The first was a Rabbi who was captured by the German king while fleeing from his tax regime. Alexander eventually paid up to have the rabbi’s remains released, on the premise that he himself would be buried beside him. Visitors now leave pebbles on their stones as a memorial.
Higher up lie the dead of later centuries. The Jews in Worms at that time were more assimilated into the German mainstream. The texts on the grave stones were written in German instead of Hebrew, the Christian calendar was used to display the year of death instead of the Hebrew one. The shape of the headstones became more similar to Christian gravestones as well. But still here are a few interesting grave traditions to see, such as the use of a broken column to represent a young man's life cut short.
At the other end of the Worms city center lies the former Jewish quarter, centered around the Judengasse. Here the synagogue complex can be found – with the male and female sections, the ritual bath (now closed for renovation) and the small Jewish museum. It all felt a bit over-restored and clinical. The museum display especially seemed to showcase a far and distant culture instead of a once flourishing local community and the neighbours of the grandparents of today's citizens of Worms.
So what’s the verdict on this TWHS? I am “sitting on the fence” on this one. The historical value of the 3 ShUM cities in the Jewish diaspora is undoubted. However there are very few original tangible remains left and what bothered me the most is that it is a dead culture, fully cut short in the 1930s. The cemetery being advocated in the nomination dossier as a pilgrimage site “for Jews from all over the world” may be a stretch – it’s not that droves of Jews visit the site on special days or so. The City of Worms, volunteers and donators should be praised for rebuilding and taking good care of these monuments, but its Jewish soul left already long time ago.
Read more from Els Slots here.
The term ShUM is an acronym from the initial letters of the medieval names of Speyer, Worms and Mainz in Hebrew: Schin (Sh) for Schpira, Waw (U) for Warmaisa und Mem (M) for Magenza. The Jewish communities in these three cities originated in the 9th and 10th centuries and had their heyday between the 11th and 14th centuries. During this period several important scholars and teachers lived in the ShUM communities. The three cities were a centre of Jewish culture, law and learning and were highly influential in the development of Ashkenazic Judaism. Their significance declined in the mid-14th century, the inexplicable outbreak of the Black Death pandemic led to pogroms throughout Europe and the Jewish quarters in the ShUM communities were burned and widely destroyed. Jews came back a few years later, but the communities never regained their former importance.
The site in Speyer is an easy catch when you visit the Cathedral, the Judenhof is just 200 metres away. The Judenhof was the centre of the medieval Jewish quarter, today you can visit the ruins of the synagogue, the ritual bath and a small museum. The synagogue dates back to the early 12th century, but only the outer walls have been preserved. The mikveh from the same period is considered the oldest of its kind in Central Europe. It has been preserved almost unchanged and has a nice Romanesque vaulting. A staircase leads through a vestibule down to the water basin ten metres below ground level. The ritual bath is worth seeing and is the most interesting part in Speyer (the lower photo shows the vestibule).
Worms is one of the oldest cities in Germany, but it was heavily damaged in WWII and only little remained of the historic structure. But with regard to the Jewish heritage Worms is probably the most interesting of the three cities. The former Jewish quarter was located in the northeast of the old town along the medieval city walls, parts of the wall are still standing. The medieval layout of the quarter is still visible, eg in the Judengasse, although most of the houses were newly built during the following centuries. The first synagogue in Worms was built in the 11th century, but it was destroyed and rebuilt several times. Like most other Jewish buildings, synagogues and stores in Germany, the synagogue in Worms was completely destroyed in the Novemberpogrom 1938. Reconstructed to its original plan after WWII (in part with the original material), it was reconsecrated in 1961 (the upper photo shows the entrance). Next to the synagogue is the ritual bath, it is very similar to the one in Speyer.
The second site in Worms is the cemetery Heiliger Sand. It is considered the oldest Jewish cemetery in Europe. In total there are more than 2000 graves, the oldest legible gravestone dates back to 1059, the most recent graves are from the early 20th century. Surprisingly, the cemetery survived the ravages of the Nazis largely unscathed. A number of important scholars are buried in Worms, their gravestones are covered all over with small slips of paper and stones, a sign of special reverence. I used to live near Worms and I visited the Jewish sites several times. I like in particular the oldest part of the cemetery, it has a special atmosphere.
In Mainz, only the Judensand cemetery is part of the nomination. It is located at the site of the medieval cemetery, but was laid out as a memorial cemetery in 1926, which means the recovered medieval gravestones have been re-erected, but not at their original location. Unfortunately, the cemetery can be visited by prior appointment only. Thus, it is not worthwhile to go to Mainz only because of the T-list site. Other remarkable sights in Mainz are the modern New Synagogue from 2010 and the stained-glass windows by Marc Chagall in St Stephan Church.
There are three sites of Jewish heritage on the German Tentative List, the ShUM cities seem to have the best chances for an inscription. The remains in Worms, Speyer and Mainz date back to the Middle Ages and are among the oldest remains of Jewish culture and religion in Central Europe. The WHS with Jewish sites, such as Prague, Krakow and Trebic are from later centuries. Moreover, the ShUM communities have historical significance, they were important for the development of Judaism in Europe.
2015 Added to Tentative List
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