Villages with Fortified Churches
The Villages with Fortified Churches in Transylvania are examples of defensive vernacular architecture made by Saxon settlers.
They date from the 13th to the 16th century. Transylvanian villages were often organised around a fortified church, to protect them from invading Mongols and Turks.
The following six former Saxon and one Székely villages comprise this WHS:
- Valea Viilor
Map of Villages with Fortified ChurchesLoad map
Visit September 2010
There are 200-250 villages with fortified churches in Transylvania. You'll pass several of them on your way to one of the 7 WHS designated villages. They are scattered along the main roads between Sibiu and Sighisoara, and Sighisoara and Brasov. Every village has the typical small, brightly coloured houses and a bulky and sometimes oddly shaped church. The names of the towns are posted in German too. It's a pleasure just driving around and looking out for them.
First I visited Valea Viilor (Wurmloch). There's a big sign to it from the main road. Four km along a winding country road took me to this town, original in its Saxon lay-out with one long street ending at the church. Construction workers were busy with the tower. Their head man doubled as museum/church keeper (or is he the keeper who needed to oversee the reconstruction?) and welcomed me in German. There's an oval compound here within the walls (6-7 m high). There's lots of room for storage behind these walls. The interior of this church is relatively simple. All Biblical quotes displayed are in German.
Biertan is the best known of these villages, and the one originally inscribed in 1993. It's also the most popular with tourists; it has souvenir stalls and a book shop. Entrance is 6 Lei (1.5 EUR). The structure here is large, like a citadel. You enter via a long wooden staircase. At the top of the hill there are a number of towers, each with its own design and function. The church here has a more elaborate interior, including a prize piece altar. Lovely site, with good views over the surrounding countryside!
P.S., in answer to Paul Tanner's observations from 1999 below: the horse drawn carts are still a common sight here but all the main roads are paved now.
Both this site and the city of Sighișoara owe much of their existence to King Géza II of Hungary who, in the 12th Century, invited Saxon settlers to migrate to the southern edge of his realm to solidify his territorial claims in what is now Transylvania. The churches of these villages were fortified in the wake of the Mongol invasions in 1241-42 and repeated Ottoman Turkish incursions from 1395 until as late as the 18th Century. Seven of these villages with fortified churches built by the Saxons are inscribed on the WHS list (Biertan, Câlnic, Dârjiu, Prejmer-Tartlau, Saschiz-Keisd, Valea Viilor, and Viscri) but there are around 150 villages with fortified churches in various states of repair in the region. Many Saxons converted to Lutheranism during the Reformation like their Germanic brethren, forming an exclave of Protestantism inside the Catholic lands of what would become the Habsburg Austro-Hungarian Empire but the Saxons retained their ancient status as a privileged class of merchants and craftsmen until the 19th Century. Following World War I, the Treaty of Trianon transferred Transylvania to the Kingdom of Romania. When Romania joined the Axis powers in World War II, local Saxons signed up or were conscripted into the Nazi military and, after their defeat, many survivors fled to Germany as Romania joined the Soviet Bloc. Under the Ceaușescu regime, there was a scheme with the West German government by which Transylvanian Saxons were allowed to emigrate in exchange for money to the Romanian government. The return of freedom of movement after the fall of the Iron Curtain led to a further exodus and, today, there are only an estimated 12,000 Saxons left in Transylvania compared to 240,000 or so in 1910.
Today, these villages are mostly populated by ethnic Romanians or Hungarians with a sizable Romani minority. As I remember from my time there in the early 2010s, the main roads through the area of a good standard but the surface quality varies quite significantly once inside the villages themselves. The villages follow a similar pattern with rows of coloured houses, behind which stretch long gardens, along the streets that converge on a central church. Historically, the churches served not only as defensive structures and places of worship but also as the centre of cultural life in the village, with the walled complex often also housing the village hall and school. In modern times, some of the churches still function whilst others are well-preserved tourist attractions – of the inscribed churches, I have only been to Viscri (picture attached) but imagine the rest are of a similarly good state of conservation. I cannot comment on the best way to reach the site, having been driven there by minibus after spending the day directing traffic for a cycle race stood outside another (unlisted) fortified church in the village of Meșendorf. I was rewarded for my efforts with an entire spit-roast bull and small concert in Viscri along with the rest of the race organisers and contestants. Whilst there I visited the fortified church for a small fee, I think about 10 lei (~€2). This granted access to the courtyard, where there was a small museum with some local crafts on display, and the chapel, which featured an organ, chandelier, and various frescoes and paintings. I also took the opportunity to climb the tower, which was a precarious affair up steep rickety wooden stairs and ladders but offers an excellent view of the church complex and surrounding village.
Some of the other churches not on the WHS list are sadly neglected and crumbling (I recall Daia as one such example) but hopefully can be revitalised with increasing interest in this unique area of Europe. Indeed, the villages of Transylvania have attracted attention from such figures as the future King of the UK, Prince Charles, who bought a house in the village of Viscri. His interest lies in the sustainable farming practices still practiced in the area as agriculture continues in a traditional manner using techniques largely unchanged since the Medieval period with the horse and cart still a regular sight on the roads. Arable farming occurs in the flat bottom of valleys around the villages with pasture and hay meadows for livestock on the sides of the valley whilst the ridges between valleys remain forested. Ploughing, planting, and harvesting are all done by hand with only basic machinery and no artificial fertilisers or pesticides, having successfully resisted attempts to make farming more industrial under Ceausescu. This non-intensive agriculture provides a haven for wildlife that is otherwise threatened in the rest of Europe, such as brown bears and a wide variety of bird, small mammal, flowering plant, and butterfly species. I saw no large mammals besides red and roe deer but did spot bear and wild boar tracks on walks in the woods. The area has been likened to England in the Middle Ages, hence the Prince of Wales’s interest, and was a fascinating place to visit, full of friendly people, good food, and a unique collection of fortified churches, each with its own idiosyncratic design.
I reached five of the villages to visit the fortified churches :
Calnic - by taxi from Sebes station
Prejmer - by train to Ilieni, returning by bus direct to Brasov
Saschiz, Viscri and Biertan - by taxi from Sighisoara
Of the five I found Viscri to be the most interesting and attractive, although I also liked the bottle glass windows of the Biertan church.
I saw three on a recent visit, and the best one was in Viscri. Although the road to the town is now paved, it is still a bit of a pain to get there. Once there, especially during the low season, one has to look for the old lady who keeps the keys to the church. Inside is fantastic: a modest church, a neat fortress layout, and a creaky tower/lookout. The hunt for the old lady was the best part as we were able to interact with locals, and she also showed a few things here and there we would have missed.
It is true that the area is littered with fortified churches. The ones listed bu UNESCO are fine, but I suggest really hiring a car and going out to explore. Copsa Mare, for example, is only 2km from Biertan, and has a creaky old church in a nice compact little town right in a middle of a small valley.
This site is strictly described as “Villages with fortified Churches” rather than purely the churches themselves. In all honesty the Churches are the main attraction although some of the villages possess a rural charm. The Fortified Churches of Transylvania are not as impressive in my opinion as the Painted Churches of Bucovina but are still well worth seeking out whilst you are in the area seeing the WHS town of Sighisoara and the Dacian Fortresses of the Orastie Mountains. (This is a great “hot spot” area for WHS! In fact Romania as a whole is greatly undervalued I feel as European destination which is full of interest and, apart from the Danube Delta possibly, its 7 WHS are relatively easily accessible).
Between Sigishoara and Sibiu there is an area which was settled by Saxons in the 12th century. Facing threats from the Turks in 15th and 16th centuries these people fortified their churches into veritable castles with high walls around them. The area in fact remained primarily Saxon until as recently as the demise of communism when many took the opportunity to emigrate to Germany and this has placed the churches in a parlous position which WHS inscription might assist.
In fact only 7 churches are actually inscribed although many more are in existence. It is part of the “fun” of a tour of the area to search them out. Many are in poor condition and seemed to be unused behind their enormous walls. Biertan (photo) is possibly the most impressive/famous and was the only one we actually managed to get inside. It is cavernous and a bit stark but there are fine views of the village and the walls from “up there”! When we were there in 1999 the village was still wonderfully rural. Its dirt track gravel streets, flanked by solid Saxon houses, were busy with horse drawn carts and waddling geese – a time warp which, no doubt, is already changing as Romania emerges from the ravages of Ceaucescu’s era and prepares for membership of the EU.
- Violeta Cezar Grozavu :
- Alex Marcean Hurrvinek :
- Roman Koeln Tevity Richard Stone FK DAB Philipp Don Irwin JobStopar Jan-Willem James Bowyer Hanming Paul Schofield Alvaro1404 Svein Elias :
- Els Slots Randi Thomsen Roman Raab Nan Lucio Gorla David Berlanda Jean Lecaillon Philipp Peterer Paolosan82 JoStof Daniel C-Hazard :
- Peter Lööv Lukasz Palczewski Aspasia Ivan Rucek Juropa Vernon Prieto Martina Ruckova Zoë Sheng :
- Solivagant DavidS :
- Gary Arndt :
Includes former TWHS L'eglise fortifie de Dirjiu
As Biertan: Bureau -pending better protection. Mission to be sent to Romania to help
The site has 7 locations
The site has 17 connections
Religion and Belief
WHS on Other Lists
World Heritage Process
189 Community Members have visited.