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World Heritage Committee Membership and History

 
Author Solivagant
Partaker
#1 | Posted: 3 Jul 2012 03:09 | Edited by: Solivagant 
As a result of events in St P we have had a few asides about "undue influence" which WHC members might be able to exercise. I have long kept a series of spreadsheets of WHCs including the committee members. It might be of interest to forum readers to see which countries have been members. I don't guarantee absolute arithmetic perfection with all my cutting and pasting but the figures do show the general situation - one of which is the almost "semi-permanent" occupation of seats by certain States!
I have also identified which WHS were inscribed when their country was on the WHC - it is an amazing number!! I will prepare and paste it later.
I didn't count the 1977 WHC as it was really a preliminary and the first inscriptions only took place in 1978. So - 84 different countries of whom 6 have been on at least 20 of the 35 sessions.

Braz 22
Fra 22
Mex 22
Oz 21
Italy 20
USA 20
Egy 19
China 18
Leb 18
Can 16
Thai 15
Colom 14
Ger 14
Greece 13
India 13
Tun 13
Cuba 12
Arg 11
Jap 11
Oman 11
Sen 11
Benin 10
Bul 10
Nigeria 10
Spain 10
Ecu 9
Jor 9
Kor 9
Moroc 9
Pak 9
Peru 9
Russ 9
Alg 8
Fin 8
Hun 8
Niger 8
Nor 8
Port 8
Swit 8
Zim 8
Iraq 7
Guin 6
Libya 6
Malta 6
Philip 6
St Luc 6
Turk 6
UK 6
Belg 5
Indon 5
Nepal 5
Sri L 5
Tanz 5
Yem 5
Bah 4
Barb 4
Kuw 4
Lith 4
NL 4
NZ 4
Pan 4
Swe 4
Camb 3
Chile 3
Est 3
Eth 3
Isr 3
Ken 3
Madag 3
Mali 3
Maurit 3
UAE 3
Yug 3
Zai 3
Iran 2
Syr 2
Cypr 1
Gha 1
Malay 1
Pol 1
Qat 1
RSA 1
Serb 1
Sud 1

Author Solivagant
Partaker
#2 | Posted: 3 Jul 2012 04:01 | Edited by: Solivagant 
Herewith the sites inscribed each year nominated by a States Party which was itself on the WHC making the decision! I note that UK, during its short period on the WHC, took advantage too! Indeed I only know of NL which made a public decision NOT to put forward sites whilst it was on the WHC - though no doubt there are other countries who didn't (or had none to put forward!).
Of course it isn't that simple
a. In the very early years relatively few countries were active in WH matters so there almost inevitably tended to be a small pool of countries involved - so Ethiopia and Bulgaria for instance were able to benefit
b. Countries establish "allies" who stay on the WHC after their own WHC membership has finished and there is no doubt a vast network of "debts" for repayment
c. We don't know as much about what AB recommendations were overturned in those years prior to the most recent 2. This year's events show that even a recommendation to reject can be overturned - one suspects that earlier adjustments were more of the "give a deferral" type to allow an SP a second chance!
d. There is of course also the "coterie" aspect of the AB evaluators themselves - we have already heard how Columbia was shocked at how little its evaluator knew about the society whose Cultural Landscape he/she was evaluating - I wonder if ICOMOS send Saudi Arabian evaluators to investigate a French CL? Regarding the Indian Hill fort evaluation one felt that, almost whatever India had put forward the evaluator would have found fault. Some countries have perhaps less "need" to make use of their WHC membership!

Inscribed when the Nominating States Party was a member of the WHC - (Yr and WHC members)

(1978 - USA Pol Ecu Egy Fra Iran Nig Austral Can Ger W Iraq Tun Yugo)
Yellowstone
Mesa Verde
L'Anse aux Meadows
Nahanni
Quito
Galapagos
Aachen
Wieliczka

(1979 - Egy Fra Bulg Nep Pan Sen USA Austral Ecu Iran Ita Pak Yugo)
Abu Mena
Thebes
Boyana
Grand Canyon
Cairo
Split (Yugo)
Indep Hall
Kathmandu
Maidan Isfahan
Madara Rider
Memphis etc
Mont St Micehl
Ohrid
Nubian Monuments
Dubrovnik
Versailles
Persepolis
Plitvice
Vezere Valley
Valcamonica
Ivanovo
Sagamartha
Stari Ras
Tchoga Zambil
Kazanlak
Vezelay

(1980 - Fra Tun Austral Gha Pan USA Yug Alg Arg Bulg Ecu Egy Iraq Ital Nep Nig Pak Sen Sudan Switz)
Al Q'ala of Beni Hamad
Moenjodaro
Asanti
Takht i bahi
Santa Maria del Grazie
Durmitor
Portobelo
Rome
Ichkeul
Redwood
Taxila

(1981- Austral Tun Ger Braz Bulg Guin Nep Arg Cyprus Egy Fra Iraq Ital Jor Liby Pak Switz USA)
Amiens
Arles
Fontenay
Lahore
Gt Barrier reef
Thatta
Kakadu
Glaciares
Mammoth
Olympic
Fontainbleau
Orange
Speyer
Willandra
Wurzberg

(1982 - Austral Tun Arg Bulg Guin Ital Pak Braz Cyprus Egy Fra W Ger Iraq Jor Liby Nep Pan Sen Switz USA Zai)
Cyrene
Leptis
Sabratha
Cahokia
Arc et Senans
Florance
Olinda
Lord Howe
Tasmanian Wilderness

(1983 - Italy Braz Alg Austral Guin Norway Sri L Arg Cyprus Fra W Ger Jor Leb Libya Switz Turk)
St Savin
Mustair
St Gall
Gulf of Porto
Missions of Guaranis
Berne
Wies
Place Stanislas

(1984 - Arg Fra Alg Austral Norway Pak Sen Braz Cyprus W Ger Guin Ital Leb Libya Pan Switz Turk)
Anjar
Baalbek
Augustusberg
Iguazu
Tyre

(1985 - Tanz Can Alg Bulg India Mex Nor Austral Braz Cyprus W Ger Gree Guin Jor Leb Libya Sri L Turk Yemen Zaire)
Goreme
Divrigi
Istambul
Bahia
Kaleodao
Kaziranga
Manas
Troodos Churches
Petra
Tadrat Acacus
Qaseir Amra
Alta
Congonhas
Hildesheim
Sveshtari

(1986 - Can Braz Alg Bulg India Mex Zaire Austral Cyprus W Ger Gree Guin Jor Leb Liby Nor Sri L Turk Tanzan Yemen)
Goa
Fatepur Sikri
Gondwana Forests
Hampi
Hattusha
Iguacu (Braz)
Khahuraho
Ghadames
Bassae

(1987 - Can Bulg Fra Mex Sri L Tun Tanzan Alg Austral Braz Cub Gree India Ital Leb Pak Turk USA Yemen)[/i]
Acropolis
Delphi
Brasilia
Elaphanta
Chola Temples
Pattadakal
Mex city/Xochimilco
Oaxaca/Mte Alban
Nemrut Dag
Duomo Pisa
Palenque
Teotihuacan
Sian kaan
Sundabans (ind)
Uluru
Venice
Puebla
Hawaii Volcanoes
Monticello
Kilimanjaro

[i](1988 - Brazil Greece Austral Can Fra India Yemen Alg Bulg Cub Italy Leb Mex Nor Pak Sri L Tun Turk USA)

Pamukkale
Guanjuato
Kairouan
Rhodes
Sousse
Meteora
Mt Athos
Nanda Devi
Galle
Theessalonika
Chitzen Itsa
Kandy
Epidaurus
Sinharaja
Strasbourg
Trinidad
Wet Tropics
Xanthos

(continued on next post)

Author Solivagant
Partaker
#3 | Posted: 3 Jul 2012 04:06 | Edited by: Solivagant 
Continuation
Inscribed when the Nominating States Party was a member of the WHC - (Yr and WHC members)

(1989 - Tun Canada Bulg Colomb Greece Sen Thai Braz Cuba Fra India Indon Ital Mex Oman Pak Peru Syr Tanzan USA Yem)
Mystras
Olympia
Sanchi

(1990 - Can Italy Bulg Mex Sen Thai Tun Braz Colomb Fra Gree Indon Peru Tanz USA)
Delos
San Giminiano
Monasteries of Daphni etc
Rio Abiseo

(1991 - Tun Mex Braz France Sen Thai USA China Cyprus Egy Ger Italy Oman Peru Phil Spa)
Morelia
Ayuttaya
Sukkothai
Paris
Poblet
Serra de Capivara
Tungyai- Huai Kha

(1992 - USA Tun Braz China Colomb Ger Sen Cyprus Egy Fra Indon Italy Mex Oman Pak Per Phil Spa Syr Thai)
Ban Chiang
Bourges
El Tajin
Rammelsburg
Taos

(1993 - Columb Spain China Oman Sen Thai USA Braz Fra Ger Indon Italy Jap Leb Mex Niger Peru Phili)
Merida
Baroque Churches of Phil
Maulbronn
Rock Paintngs of Sierra de San Fran
Route of S de compost
Royal Monast of S Maria de Guadaloupe
Sassi Matera
Bamberg
Tubbataha
El Vizcaino
Yakushima

(1994 - Thai China Columb Ger Italy Oman Sen Braz Cyprus Fra Indon Jap Leb Mex Niger Peru Phil Spa USA)
Wudang Mnts
Arabian Oryx Sanct
Vicenza
Quedlingburg
Donana
Popocatapelt Monasteries
Potala
Kyoto
Nazca
Los Katios
Chengde Reosort
Qufu
Volklingen

(1995 - Ger Niger Austral Italy Jap Leb Mex Benin Braz Can China Cuba Cyp Ecu Fra Malta Moroc Phili Spain USA)
Carlsbad
Crespi d'Adda
Ferrara
Naples
Siena
Shirakawa-go
Messel
Lunenburg
Rice Terraces
Waterton

(1996 - Mex Niger Austral Ger Italy Jap Mor Benin Braz Can China Cuba Cyp Ecu Fra Leb Malta Phili Spain USA)
Bauhaus
Canal du Midi
Koln
Ravenna
Meknes
Queratero
Cuenca
La Lonja Valencia
Lushan
Luther Memorials
Mt Emei
Uxmal
Trulli of Alborello
"W" NP

(1997 - Italy Leb Benin Ecu Jap Moroc USA Australia Braz Can Cub Fin Fra Gre Hun Malta Mex Niger Korea(S) Thai Zimb)
Caseerta
Agrigento
Pompeii
Padua
Modena
ChangdeokgungAmalfiutana
Heard/McDonald Is
Carcassonne
Hospicio Cabanas
Hwaseong
Macquarie
Tetouan
Portovenere
Pyrenees Mt Perdu
Royal Houses of Savoy
San Pedro de la Roca
Su Naraxi
Villa Romana

(1998 - Jap Hun Benin Cuba Italy Moroc Kor (S) Australia Braz Can Ecu Fin Fra Gre Leb Malta Mex Niger Thai USA Zimb)
Aquileia
Pakime
Cilento
Urbino
Tlacotalpan
Lyons
Forest of Cedars
Route of Sant de Comp (Fr)

(1999 - Moroc Fin Austral Greece Hun Mex Zimb Belg Ben Can China Columb Cuba Egy Ecu Italy Malta Port Korea (S) RSA Zimb)
Xochicalco
Mycenae
Belfries (Belg)
Sammallahdenmaki
Desembarco de Granma
Fossil Hominid sites (RSA)
Chora with Mon of St John (Gr)
Sta Ana cde Cuenca
Campeche
ISimangaliso
Laurisilva of Mad
Hortobagy
Miguasha
Mt Wuyi
Robben Island
Villa Adriana
Vinales

(2000 - Austral Zimb Can Ecu Fin Moroc Thai Belg Ben China Columb Cuba Egy Gre Hun Italy Malta Mex Port Korea (S) RSA)
Villages of Xidi Hongcun
Coffee Plantations (Cub)
Assissi
Verona
Pecs
Gochang etc (S Kor)
Gt Blue Mntns
Gyeongyju
High Coast
Brugge
Imp Tombs
Is Eolie
Longmen
Qingcheng
Spiennes
Tournai
Drakensburg

(2001 - Finland Mex Egypt Greece Hun RSA Thai Arg Bel China Columb India Leb Nigeria Oman Port Korea (S) Russ St Luc UK Zimb)
Alto Douro
Derwent Valley
Dorset E Devon
Guimares
New Lanark
Saltaire
Yungang

(2002 - Hun Bel China Egy Greece Mex RSA Arg Columb Fin India Leb Nigeria Oman Port Korea (S) Russ St Luc Thai UK Zimb)
Bodgaya
St Catherines
Tokaj Region

(2003 - St Lucia RSA Arg China Nigeria Oman UK Belg Columb Egy Fin Gree Hun India Leb Mex Port Korea (S) Russ Thai Zimb)
Derbent
Mapungubwe
Matabo
Quebrada de Humahuaca
Bimbhetka
Kew
3 Rivers

(2004 - China RSA Arg Nigeria Oman St Lucia UK Benin Columb Egy Nor NL Chile Ind Leb Jap Port Kuw Russ Lith NZ)
Cape Floral Region
Koguryo (China)
Champaner
Vic Terminus
Novodevichy
Pico Is
Liverpool
Wrangel
Pitons

(2005- RSA Arg Columb Leb NZ Nigeria Port Chile Benin Chin Egy India Jap Kuw Lith NL Nor Oman Russ St Luc UK)
Macao
Yaroslavl
Humberstone and Laura
Osun-Osogbo
Shiroteko
Whale Valley
Geiranger etc

(2006 - Lith NZ Benin Chile India Kuw NL Arg China Columb Egy Jap Leb Nigeria Port Nor Oman Russ St Luc RSA UK)
Aflaj
Cornwall + W Devon
Malpelo
Sewell
Panda Sanct
Yin Xu

(2007 - NZ Canada Benin Japan Norway Cuba Moroc Chile India Israel Kenya Kuw Lith Madag Maurit NL Peru Spain Kor (S) Tun USA)
Iwami Ginzan
Jeju
Rainforests of Atsinana
Red Fort
Rideau Canal
Teide

(2008 - Can Barb Kenya Tun Korea Israel Peru Austral Bah Braz China Cuba Egy Jor Madag Maurit Moroc Nigeria Spain Swed USA)
Bahai
Fujian Tulou
Camaguay
Joggins
Le Morne
Mount Sanqingshan

(2009 - Spa Braz Austral Barb Kenya Tunis USA Bah Can China Cuba Egy Israel Jordan Madag Maurit Moroc Nigeria Peru Spain Swed)
Mt Wutai
Caral Supe
Tower of Hercules

(2010 - Braz Bah Egyt Russ RSA Swe Thai Austral Barb Camb China Est Eth France Iraq Jord Mali Mex Nigeria Switz UAE)
Austral Convict Sites
Camino Real
Danxia
Albi
Denfeng
Pitons of Reunion
Caves of Yagul etc
Sao Francisco Sq

(2011 - Bah Mali Barb Camb Est RSA Switz Austral Braz China Egy Eth Fra Iraq Jordan Mex Nigeria Russ Swed Thai UAE)
Al Ain
Bridgetown
Konso
Ningaloo
Causses
Wadi Rum
West Lake

(2012 - Russ Mex Fra Mali RSA UAE Alg Camb Columb Est Eth Ger India Iraq Jap Malay Qatar Sen Serb Switz Thai)
Lenggong
Bassari Country
Lena Pillars
Nord-Pas Mining
Margravial Opera House
W Ghats

Author winterkjm
Partaker
#4 | Posted: 3 Jul 2012 04:20 | Edited by: winterkjm 
Solivagant:
I have also identified which WHS were inscribed when their country was on the WHC - it is an amazing number!!

I think this practice should be ended. However, the change would be a dilema for countries like India, Mexico, Germany, France, etc who nominate sites so regularly.

The topic was brought up during this convention and the conflict of interest it creates. Neverthless, I believe Japan seemed to object, and the conversation moved to another subject.

Author Durian
Partaker
#5 | Posted: 3 Jul 2012 04:55 
Good information, but we should not bring the sites that recommended to inscribe by ICOMOS or IUCN to be part of undue example that WHC member used their own influence to get the 'NO', "Def", "Ref" sites to be inscribe.

Author Euloroo
Partaker
#6 | Posted: 3 Jul 2012 05:50 | Edited by: Euloroo 
Great work!
Solivagant:
we have had a few asides about "undue influence" which WHC members might be able to exercise

I guess in past years this has been less of an issue since most countries put forward their obvious candidates with undeniable OUV. Such was the case with Bethlehem this year, despite - not because of - the dodgy politics. But its becoming far more of an issue now that many contries are putting forward their mediocre B-team. We're facing the real prospect of the OUV of WH inscription being irreversibly compromised!
Solivagant:
There is of course also the "coterie" aspect of the AB evaluators themselves

I think this has been a particularly significant revelation this year. There seems to be a widespread frustration with the arrogance and aloofness of ICOMOS in particular. This has resulted in disrespect of their opinion from many quarters.

Author Solivagant
Partaker
#7 | Posted: 3 Jul 2012 09:44 
Correction re first post above -
RSA has been on 11 WH Committees - not 1

Author meltwaterfalls
Partaker
#8 | Posted: 3 Jul 2012 10:51 | Edited by: meltwaterfalls 
Right this is the first time I have played with publishing data through Google Docs so sorry if it is a little dodgy.
I tried posting the stats directly onto here but it was a touch messy.

Here is a bit of further analysis based on Solivagant's thorough breakdown above, thanks for that.

https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/pub?key=0ApUSQTr0FQ5CdDd0QTNLUE9QcEtiM2U3a3NRenpt OEE&output=ods

Some interesting points.

All of Egypt's 7 and Jordan's 3 sites have been inscribed whilst they have been on the Committee
Same is true for: Barbados, UAE and St Lucia but with 1 site each it is not as relevant

Greece amazingly has had 15 of it's 17 sites inscribed whilst being on the committee.

Of the exceptionally well represented countries Iran, China, Italy, India, UK, Germany and France all average more than one site inscribed per appearance on the committee.

Of the countries that have sites inscribed and have sat on the committee these have had all of their sites inscribed whilst they have not sat on it:
Sweden 15, Netherlands 9, Indonesia 8, Ethiopia 8, Syria 6, DR Congo (Zaire) 5, Yemen 4, Lithuania 4, Mali 4, Iraq 3, Malta 3, New Zealand 3, Bahrain 2, Estonia 2, Cambodia 2, Sudan 2, Benin 1, Guinea 1

Of the countries with 10 sites or more Poland, Iran, Spain, Russia, UK, Peru, Switzerland and Portugal have had over 70% of their sites inscribed when they have not been on the committee

Author elsslots
Admin
#9 | Posted: 3 Jul 2012 11:26 
Iran apparently seldom is part of the WHC, but is very good at getting their sites inscribed and is not a country with lots of friends in the world

Author meltwaterfalls
Partaker
#10 | Posted: 3 Jul 2012 12:49 
And to take the opposite side these countries have all had 5 or more sites inscribed without delving into the murky world of WHC politics:
Czech Republic 12, Austria 9, Romania 7, Slovakia 7, Vietnam 7, Bolivia 6, Ukraine 5

Croatia would also be in there but they were part of Yugoslavia and Split, Dubrovnik and Plitvice were all inscribed as Yugoslav sites initially.

Author Euloroo
Partaker
#11 | Posted: 3 Jul 2012 23:14 
meltwaterfalls:
Iran apparently seldom is part of the WHC, but is very good at getting their sites inscribed and is not a country with lots of friends in the world

Probably more a reflection of the concentration of phenomenal cultural heritage.

Author Solivagant
Partaker
#12 | Posted: 4 Jul 2012 02:41 | Edited by: Solivagant 
elsslots:
Iran apparently seldom is part of the WHC, but is very good at getting their sites inscribed and is not a country with lots of friends in the world


Iran's only 2 years of WHC membership were 78 and 79 and it got 3 inscriptions at the second meeting! But then there was a massive gap before the next inscription in 2003. In the 10 years 2003-2012 it has obtained 12 inscriptions.

The gap is of course understandable - the Khomeini revolution had already got rid of the Shah by the time the 1979 WHC took place although the nominations would have predated that event and then there was the Iran-Iraq war ............... and lots of other internal/external matters! So the "rush" since then has a degree of "catch up" about it.

There is no doubt that Iran has a rich cultural heritage - though whether this fully justifies its enormously long T List is another matter!! It is interesting that
a. Iran must obviously regard getting sites inscribed as an important policy matter - but why? The reasons for any country trying to get inscription can be categorised as "Pride", "Profit" (Tourism) and "Preservation". I suspect that the first is very high on Iran's agenda (with a large element of doing something which is relatively easy in order to demonstrate "success" to its peoples?) whilst Tourism (unlike China for instance) is very low. How much is "Preservation" a driver - I wonder?
b. Iran hasn't so far got itself a place on the WHC. One might have thought that it would have seen such membership as worthwhile - not for reasons of potential direct influence on the success of its nominations but for the same reason it is putting forward so many nominations - as a demonstration of its "rightful" place in the world. Getting membership is seen as important by many countries - Malaysian newpapers etc "went wild" when it got its place.

Nevertheless, it has to be said that Iran must have done an excellent job with preparing its nominations since 2003 - I think that, among them all since 2003, only this year was ICOMOS, with its notoriuosly nit-picking approach, able to find a reason for recommending deferral for one site (and Iran was lucky to find an obstreperous WHC!). Having "phenomenal cultural heritage" isn't sufficient (or even, in some cases, a pre-requisite!) for obtaining inscriptions.

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