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Top 50 - Latin America and the Caribbean [2020]

 
 
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Author winterkjm
Partaker
#1 | Posted: 16 May 2020 19:36 | Edited by: winterkjm 
Final region. Here is the Missing 2020 list so far. As always, I look forward to your proposals! We can tentatively plan to close all proposals on this forum, Sunday 5/31.

Africa____________________71 approved proposals
Arab States________________59 approved proposals
Asia and the Pacific_________125 approved proposals
Europe and North America___123 approved proposals

Latin America and the Caribbean (WHS)
Antigua and Barbuda (1)
Argentina (11)
Bahamas (0)
Barbados (1)
Belize (1)
Bolivia (7)
Brazil (22)
Chile (6)
Colombia (9)
Costa Rica (4)
Cuba (9)
Dominica (1)
Dominican Republic (1)
Ecuador (5)
El Salvador (1)
Guatemala (3)
Guyana (0)
Haiti (1)
Honduras (2)
Jamaica (1)
Mexico (35)
Nicaragua (2)
Panama (5)
Paraguay (1)
Peru (12)
Saint Kitts and Nevis (1)
Saint Lucia (1)
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (0)
Suriname (2)
Uruguay (2)
Venezuela (3)

Starting with 3 of my own proposals.

Full name of site: Great City of Chicomostoc-La Quemada
Country: Mexico
TWHS?: Yes
Short description of site: If the total elements of this site are considered, from the extensive roads and the numerous smaller sites linked to La Quemada, this is a singular archaeological site in the context of mesoamerican sites. It is supposed that this place could be the legendary Chicomostoc, a Caxcan site, a Teotihuacán fortress, a Purépecha centre, a fort against Chichimeca intruders, a Toltec trading post, or simply consequence of independent development and a city of all the native groups established north of the Río Grande de Santiago.
Criteria: Cultural

Full name of site: Sierra del Divisor National Park
Country: Brazil, Peru
TWHS?: Yes
Short description of site: The Sierra del Divisor National Park is characterized by having rare and diverse geological formations that do not occur anywhere else in the Amazon and include a series of sandstone hills (As Serrania de Contamana, Ojo de Contaya, Sierra del Divisor) and cones volcanoes in the south (El Cono), which exceed 800 m.a.s.l., which in some cases is shared with Brazil. The Park hosts a rich biological community of mainly endemic, rare and endangered species of plants and animals, including species of commercial value that are over-exploited in other regions.
Criteria: Natural

Full name of site: Chachapoyas sites of the Utcubamba Valley
Country: Peru
TWHS?: Yes
Short description of site: The most representative site of the Chachapoyas culture is the Kuelap Archeological Complex, considered an elite urban site of indisputable political and religious pre-eminence, and therefore, the hegemonic center that would exert supremacy over the ethnic groups of the territory; sample of it, would be the groups that inhabited the sites Ollape, Yalape, Macro and Olan, among others. Moreover, the importance of Kuelap was of pan-regional scope because it radiated beyond the north-eastern Andes, reaching very distant regions such as the north coast and highlands on the western side of the Andes.
Criteria: Cultural

Please remember to include information about your proposal and links when possible. When seconding a proposal, it is also helpful to explain (briefly) your validation of the site.

Author elsslots
Admin
#2 | Posted: 17 May 2020 02:09 
Of course have to add this one:

Huaca de la Luna and Huaca del Sol.
Country: Peru
TWHS: No
Description: Ruins of adobe brick temples built by the Moche people (100 CE to 800 CE), an important group in Peruvian history that has no links to a current WHS. Great site to visit.

Author mrayers
Partaker
#3 | Posted: 17 May 2020 10:04 
I don't think I will have anything to propose for this region, but I will gladly second these two (haven't had a chance to look at the other two proposals yet) :

elsslots:
Of course have to add this one:

Huaca de la Luna and Huaca del Sol.

winterkjm:
Full name of site: Sierra del Divisor National Park
Country: Brazil, Peru


Author winterkjm
Partaker
#4 | Posted: 17 May 2020 12:32 
We had 12 Latin America and Caribbean proposals that made out old list. These are not proposals for 2020, so please don't second it. However, if you do wish to propose any of the sites below, provide some justification for OUV in your own proposal.

Top Missing 2014 List

11 Lake Titicaca
15 Panama Canal
25 Torres del Paine National Park
33 Cenotes of the Yucatan
38 Naica Cave: Cave of the Crystals
40 Atacama Desert
53 Huaca de la Luna and Huaca del Sol
59 Railways of the Andes
61 Ciudad Perdida, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta
65 Kaieteur National Park, Iwokrama Forest and the Kanuku Mountains
70 Copper Canyon
115 Monte Verde

Author Colvin
Partaker
#5 | Posted: 17 May 2020 13:34 | Edited by: Colvin 
Here are two nominations for Chile, which is completely lacking in natural World Heritage Sites. In an ideal world, Torres del Paine and Bernardo O'Higgins National Parks would be an extension to Argentina's Los Glaciares National Park, but this is Latin America, where Iguazu Falls and the Jesuit Missions get multiple nominations for the same subject.

Full Name of Site: Torres del Paine and Bernardo O'Higgins National Parks
Country: Chile
TWHS? Yes
Short description of site: Torres del Paine and Bernardo O'Higgins National Parks include over 90% of the Southern Patagonian Icefield; the remainder of the icefield is in the adjacent Los Glaciares National Park in Argentina. Both parks cover an area of exceptional natural beauty, including the famous peaks of the Paine Massif in Torres del Paine National Park. The fjords and islands of Bernardo O'Higgins National Park demonstrate stages of glacial action and periglacial ecosystems succession. The parks cover four vegetation zones, and are home to guanacos, pumas, Andean condors, marine otters, and the endangered Chilean huemul.

Criteria: Natural
Outstanding universal value / comparative analysis: Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks; Kluane/Wrangell-St. Elias/Glacier Bay/Tatshenshini-Alsek; West Norwegian Fjords

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Full Name of Site: Juan Fernández Archipelago National Park
Country: Chile
TWHS? Yes
Short description of site: The Juan Fernández Archipelago National Park represents the volcanic tops of a mountain chain that formed over hot spots in the middle of the Nazca Plate. The islands are between 360 and 450 nautical miles from the Chilean coast, and are home to a high proportion of endemic flora and fauna, with origins related to tropical America, the Antarctic, and Asia and Australasia. The plants include the Lactoridaceae family, found only in the cloud forests of the Juan Fernández Islands, and the wildlife includes the endangered Juan Fernández firecrown hummingbird, the Juan Fernández fur seal, and the Juan Fernández petrel. The islands are considered a distinct ecoregion, and were designated a Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO in 1977.

Criteria: Natural
Outstanding universal value / comparative analysis: Galapagos Islands, French Austral Lands and Seas, Lord Howe Island Group

Author nfmungard
Partaker
#6 | Posted: 17 May 2020 15:31 
Colvin:
Full Name of Site: Torres del Paine and Bernardo O'Higgins National Parks

Seconded. Potentially, this should be an extension of Los Glaciares, but two stellar sites in Patagonia I don't mind.

Author Zos
Partaker
#7 | Posted: 18 May 2020 06:07 
(This site was proposed in the Asia Pacific Forum. At that time, I did not second it as the initial proposal needed more concrete components. After further web search, I am now convinced that there is indeed sufficient built heritage left to fully tell the story of this trade route. And there can be a strong case to be made for it to be one of the 50 top missing. This is a transnational property, including Mexico. Thus I think, I can second the proposal here. Apologies for a long post)

Site: Manila - Acapulco Galleon Trade Route (1565 - 1815)
State Parties: Philippines, Mexico, United States
Category: Cultural
Description: The Manila-Acapulco galleons sailed across the Pacific between Mexico and the Philippines for two and a half centuries. The route is the umbilical link for the expansion of the Spanish empire beyond the Americas and the sustained trade of Asian goods to the new world. It is an economically powerful system that carries goods in Manila, mostly from China including silk and spices, to Acapulco where they carry silver and other commodities. The eastward route goes north of the 38th parallel off the coast of Japan to catch the westerlies across the Pacific to Northern California and then to Mexico. The journey back to the Philippines follows the 10-15 degree latitude to catch the Tradewinds with infrequent storms, passing Guam and the Marianas. The route created a cultural exchange that shaped the identities and culture of the countries involved.

Components include the surviving structures of the (1) Walled City of Manila, (2) Forts in Acapulco, (3) churches ruins, fortifications lighthouses and related structures on the waypoints, (4) Archeological sites of historic shipyards, and (5) Underwater cultural heritage of galleon wrecks.

Below are some components I have identified. With more scholarly research, for sure there are other sites (with better preserved remains) can be added.

END POINTS
1. Manila, Philippines

* Manila Intramuros - The historic Walled City of Manila, the center of the Spanish empire in the Philippines. The galleons carried goods to and from Intramuros and Acapulco. Constructed in 16th century, the walled city was heavily bomb during WWII. Preserved components include the defensive wall, gates and bastions, Fort Santiago, San Agustin Church (part of the baroque churches WHS), and other ruins.

2. Cavite City, Philippines - Galleons left and arrive the Philippines at the Port of Cavite as the Pasig River sand bar prevents them from entering Manila. The port was surrounded by a defensive walls, gates and bastions. The city was heavily bomb during WWII and almost all ruins were demolished.
(Something about Porta Vaga)

* Fort San Felipe - the facade and main entrance with flanking curtain walls and two bastions dates back to the original fort. The rest of the fort was demolished by the Americans during the early 20th century to make way for a naval station. https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/aija/82/741/82_2837/_pdf

* Belfry of Santa Monica Church - the sole surviving part of the numerous Spanish churches in Cavite. It was built on 17th century, when the port city was at the peak of economic and religious success.
(https://nicerioadventures.blogspot.com/2016/01/featured-destination-santa-monica.html?m=1)

* Site of Porta Vaga - The Virgen of Porta Vaga is the oldest extant Maria painting in the Philippines. The icon was used to bless the galleons during formal send-off ceremonies. The Porta Vaga site is located on the Samonte Park.

3. Acapulco, Mexico - The Mexican end-point of the route. Cargoes arrived in Acapulco and transported the goods to other parts of Americas by land or to Veracruz where they will be loaded for Spain.. Two potential sites directly linked to the Galleon Trade Route

* Fort San Diego - the most important Spanish fortress on the Pacific Coast. A star fort built to protect Acapulco from pirates in 1617 and damaged by earthquake in 1776. The existing fort is the extant structure after reconstruction in 1783. (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fort_of_San_Diego) http://www.acapulco.com/en/tours/fuerte/

* Fortin Alvarez - built together with Fort San Diego as a warehouse for ammunition and gun powder. (https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fort%C3%ADn_%C3%81lvarez)

WAY POINTS
1. Capul, Philippines
- Lighthouse in Capul served as guidepost for the galleon trade passing through San Bernardino Strait.

* Capul Church - example of Spanish fortress-church. Extant structure dates back from 1781. https://kahimyang.com/kauswagan/articles/208/the-capul-northern-samar-heritage

* Capul Watchtower - A stone watchtower in a huge rock located near the Capul Church complex.

2. San Blas, Nayarit, Mexico - founded as a jump-off point for military expeditions to California. Both Acapulco and San Blas tied New Spain to Manila. (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/San_Blas,_Nayarit)

* La Contaduria - A hill fort was built to defend the town's sea trade with the Philippines. Ruins of San Blas Spanish fort is preserved.

* Ruins of the Church of Our Lady of Rosary - San Blas adopted the devotion to Our Lady of Rosary. Church was built in 1769 and the ruins of the church is preserved.

3. Monterey, California, USA - One of the motivations for the exploration of California is the establishment of way-stations and safe harbor for returning Manila galleons. Monterrey was one of the established port (The other one was Dan Diego). Galleons tended to stop here for 40 days, with regular visits from 1777 and 1794 as ordered by the Spanish crown.

* Ruins of El Castillo - El Castillo consists of the partially exposed ruins of a 1794 Spanish fort considered the best preserved Spanish fort west of St. Augustine, Florida. A monument to Father Junipero Serra is located at the site. (https://www.nps.gov/nr/travel/ca/ca29.htm)

4. San Diego, California and other fortifications in the Philippines are also noteworthy. Some galleons may have also departed from Cebu, Philippines.

SHIP YARDS
Most of the Galleons are made in the Philippines due to abundance of raw materials. Most of these shipyards (astillero) are in Bicol region of the Philippines. Only few structures and traces of the ship yards survive.
1.Pantalunan Astillero - One extant remaining wall of the Panlatuan Astillero. Other areas are archeological sites. http://www.themua.org/collections/files/original/34a74c76efdb951655b9bde1213812dc.pdf

2. Bagatao Astillero - One of the biggest astillero. Site is mostly archeological. https://www.magallanessorsogon.gov.ph/bagatao-and-the-ancient-town-of-magallanes-in-the-galleon-times/

Note: Most of the sites are archeological and more components can be identified, including the ones in Mexico

SHIPWRECKS
More than 40 galleons did not make it. Most perished in bad weather and rough seas. More than 25 galleons wrecked off the Philippines. Others were lost around the Marianas. Often they were westbound silver galleons. In one three year period (1655-57) four galleons were lost. Five Manila Galleons are known to have sunk off the west coast of the United States. There is a wealth of information available online and books about the wrecks.

1. Concepcion - wrecked on the southwest tip of Saipan. Site found.
2. Pilar - wrecked off the southwest tip of Guam. Site found.
3. San Agustin - wrecked in Drake's bay north of San Francisco. Site found
4. San Diego Galleon - sunk of the coast of Manila bay. Treasures displayed in National Museum of the Philippines and in Madrid (https://labrujulaverde.com/en/2019/05/the-sinking-of-the-san-diego-the-spanish-galleon-that-carried-japanese-mercenaries-to-stop-a-dutch-invasion/)

References
1. Underwater Heritage
- https://www.treasureexpeditions.com/manila-treasure-galleons-shipwrecks.html
- https://www.researchgate.net/publication/336933086_Archaeological_Researches_on_the_Manila_Galleon_Wrecks_in_the_Philippines
- https://www.oregonlive.com/news/erry-2018/07/a1ffab16ae9934/passenger_list_unearthed_for_s.html
2. Shipyards
- https://muog.wordpress.com/2008/01/28/fueza-de-san-felipe-neri-%E2%80%A2-cavite-naval-station-cavite-city/amp/
- https://www.researchgate.net/publication/321715134_Early_sixteenth-century_shipbuilding_in_Mexico_Dimensions_and_tonnages_of_the_vessels_designed_for_Pacific_Ocean_navigation
3. Galleon and the Marians
- https://www.guampedia.com/navigation-and-cargo-of-the-manila-galleons/
4. Cebu-Acapulco Galleon
- https://www.researchgate.net/publication/261793193_The_Cebu-Acapulco_Galleon_Trade
5. General
- http://factsanddetails.com/southeast-asia/Philippines/sub5_6a/entry-3835.html
- https://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/10125/100380/1/Peterson_Andrew_r.pdf
6. Books
- Archelogy of Manila Galleon Seaports and Early Martime Globalization. Chunming Wu, et. Al.
- The Manila-Acapulco galleons: the Treasure Ships of the Pacific... Shirley fish.
- Conserving Fortified Heritage. Shikha Jain and Rima Hooja

Author nfmungard
Partaker
#8 | Posted: 18 May 2020 06:13 
Full Name of Site: Salar de Uyuni
Country: Bolivia
TWHS? No
Short description of site: Largest Salt Pan in the world. Acts as breeding ground for three species of Flamingos. Islands in the Salar contain rare Cacti. One of these, Isla Incahuasi, is holy to the native population and the Inkas with some remains.
Criteria: Natural
Outstanding universal value / comparative analysis: Salt Lake, Lake Eyre, Etosha Pan

Author kkanekahn
Partaker
#9 | Posted: 18 May 2020 08:14 
winterkjm:
Full name of site: Chachapoyas sites of the Utcubamba Valley

Seconded

Author Assif
Partaker
#10 | Posted: 18 May 2020 08:26 | Edited by: Assif 
Name: Xingu Indigenous Park
Country: Brazil
TWHS: no
Description: The Xingu Indigenous Park covers 2,642,003 hectares (6,528,530 acres) protecting at least 16 different tribes. It was the first such vast protected area in the world, and was the prototype of large indigenous territories throughout Amazonia which now protect a significant proportion of surviving tropical rain forests. Only scientists may enter the park.
Around Kuhikugu Lake a large archaeological complex was discovered. Large defensive ditches and palisades were built around some of the communities. Large plazas also exist at some of the towns throughout the region, some around 150 m across. Many of the communities at Kuhikugu were linked, with roads which bridged some rivers along their paths, and with canoe canals running alongside some of the roads. Fields of mandioca (cassava) may have existed around the communities at Kuhikugu, suggesting that the people there were farmers. Dams and ponds which appear to have been constructed in the area also suggest that the inhabitants of Kuhikugu may have been involved with fish farming, which is still practised by some of their modern day Kuikuro descendants.
Criteria: cultural

Author meltwaterfalls
Partaker
#11 | Posted: 18 May 2020 09:44 
nfmungard:
Salar de Uyuni

Seconded.

Author FredericM
Partaker
#12 | Posted: 18 May 2020 15:26 
Colvin:
Full Name of Site: Juan Fernández Archipelago National Park

For its high endemism, this site deserve a second.

Author nfmungard
Partaker
#13 | Posted: 18 May 2020 16:19 | Edited by: nfmungard 
Full Name of Site: Valle Sagrado de los Incas / Sacred Valley
Country: Peru
TWHS: Partial. Salt Mines of Maras.
Short description of site: The Sacred Valley was at the heart of the Inkan Empire. Before the Inkas there were other civilizations and the site dates back to 900 BCE.
It stretches 100km East to West from Pisac to Ollantaytambo along the Urubamba River. The area is dotted with key archaeological finds of the Incans that add additional insights into the culture and their achievement. Pisac has the terrace farms. Ollantaytambo has a major Inka fortification. Maras has a salt mine used by the Inkas (and later). And Moray shows Inka agricultural research. And there are many more sites dotted around the area.
Criteria: Cultural
Outstanding universal value / comparative analysis: Cusco, Machu Picchu, Qhapaq Ñan.

Full Name of Site: Lake Titicaca
Country: Bolivia, Peru
TWHS: https://www.worldheritagesite.org/tentative/id/5080 https://www.worldheritagesite.org/tentative/id/1817

Short description of site: Lake Titicaca is the largest lake in South America. At almost 4000m, it is often referred to as the largest navigable lake in the world. Given the size and altitude of the lake, it is home to many species. Several islands are located in the lake that have preserved original ways of living. The most notable archaeological ruins are found on Isla de la Luna and Isla del Sol. All islands show how terraces were build for farming and have preserved their traditional ways. A nice side are the Uros, man built floating islands of the Uru people who fled to the lake. These are ever changing (non tangible), tough.

Criteria: Mixed
Outstanding universal value / comparative analysis: Cusco, Machu Picchu, Qhapaq Ñan, Tiwanaku

Author FredericM
Partaker
#14 | Posted: 18 May 2020 17:26 
nfmungard:
Full Name of Site: Valle Sagrado de los Incas / Sacred Valley

nfmungard:
Full Name of Site: Lake Titicaca

I will also second both these sites.

Author FredericM
Partaker
#15 | Posted: 18 May 2020 18:19 | Edited by: FredericM 
And here are some proposals:

Full Name of Site: Guano Islands, Islets, and Capes National Reserve System
Country: Peru
TWHS? Yes
Short description of site: The system of guano islands, islets and capes, contains a rich marine-coastal biodiversity, which in addition to protecting large populations of guano birds, provides the best refuges for important populations of birds and mammals. The system of guano islands, islets and capes has a great historical value because of the important role they played in the pre-Inca, Inca and last century. [UNESCO]
Criteria: Natural

Full Name of Site: Ring of cenotes of Chicxulub Crater, Yucatan
Country: Mexico
TWHS? Yes
Short description of site: The Chicxulub Impact Crater is a geomorphological formation dating from the end of the Mesozoic era that was produced by the impact of a meteorite. This belt is lying on the south margins of the borders of the impact crater. It is a unique event that left its mark within the karstic wide variety of limestone karstic process and formations, the water body, the flora and the fauna, the natural elements of the formations, and a complete geohydrologic manifestation of the stages of the sink holes known as cenotes. More than 900 cenotes formations only 99 of them may be proposed for inscription. [UNESCO]
Criteria: Natural

Full Name of Site: Cave of the Crystals
Country: Mexico
TWHS? No
Short description of site: Cave of the Crystals is a cave connected to the Naica Mine at a depth of 300 metres (980 ft), in Naica, Chihuahua, Mexico. The main chamber contains giant selenite crystals, some of the largest natural crystals ever found. The cave's largest crystal found to date is 12 m in length, 4 m in diameter and 55 tons in weight. When it was accessible, the cave was extremely hot, with air temperatures reaching up to 58 °C with 90 to 99 percent humidity. The cave was discovered in April 2000. As of October 2015, the mine had reflooded and the cavern filled once more with the water rich in minerals required for the crystals to grow. [Wikipedia]
Criteria: Natural

Full Name of Site: Kaieteur National Park
Country: Guyana
TWHS? Formerly
Short description of site: Kaieteur Falls is the world's largest single drop waterfall by the volume of water flowing over it. It is 226 metres high when measured from its plunge over a sandstone and conglomerate cliff to the first break. While many falls have greater height, few have the combination of height and water volume, and Kaieteur is among the most powerful waterfalls in the world with an average flow rate of 663 cubic metres per second. The park is in the Guianan moist forests ecoregion. The tiny golden rocket frog is endemic to the Kaieteur National Park. [Wikipedia]
Criteria: Natural

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