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Top 50 - Europe and North America [2020]

 
 
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Author Jurre
Partaker
#271 | Posted: 13 May 2020 14:03 
Full Name of Site: The fortified cities of Mdina and Cittadella (Gozo)
Country: Malta
TWHS? Yes (but both as separate entities)
Short description of site: Mdina and Cittadella are both prime examples of fortified cities on higher terrain, which allows to have a overview of the surroundings. Mdina is a small fortified city with a mainly medieval character, but also containing significant Baroque buildings, such as St. Paul's Cathedral. It served as Malta's capital from antiquity to the medieval period. The city displays an unusual mix of Norman and Baroque architecture, including several palaces. The fortifications of the city are still intact. Cittadella is a small fortified city at a strategic position on a hill dominates the surrounding countryside. First settlements on the site date back to the Bronze age. The settlement was expanded in the Medieval era and transformed into a purely military outpost by the Order of St. John in the 16th century. Nevertheless, some monuments in the Baroque style were constructed as well, including the Cathedral Church.
Criteria: Cultural

Author Colvin
Partaker
#272 | Posted: 13 May 2020 14:36 | Edited by: Colvin 
I'll second Mdina and Citadella, which represent an extended period of Maltese history, with medieval architecture highlighting both Arabic and Western European influences. Malta jumped on the WHS list early, but it has been rather quiet in the four decades since then.

winterkjm:
History of Film: Hollywood & the Movie Palaces on Broadway, Los Angeles

BTW, I'm intrigued by this nomination, and I'm glad you included Grauman's Chinese and Egyptian theaters. If this nomination is going to be called history of film, should there be a component that includes a representative studio lot for Hollywood? Also, beyond architecture and volume, is there anything that can be said about the concentration of theaters developing innovations in film screening or movie premieres? Maybe something about the global cultural influence of Hollywood overall?

Author Assif
Partaker
#273 | Posted: 13 May 2020 15:52 
Jurre:
Full Name of Site: Engineering of Isambard Kingdom Brunel

A yes from me.

Author mrayers
Partaker
#274 | Posted: 13 May 2020 16:06 | Edited by: mrayers 
winterkjm:
Should this nomination be called the "The Mall of Washington D.C. and Tidal Basin". It would not be appropriate to include the full NPS boundaries (Arlington National Cemetery and the White House) right?

Hard to say... The whole issue of boundaries and naming is very confused. For example, this paragraph from Wikipedia:

The term National Mall commonly includes areas that are also officially part of neighboring West Potomac Park and Constitution Gardens to the southwest. The term is often taken to refer to the entire area between the Lincoln Memorial on the west and east to the United States Capitol grounds, with the Washington Monument dividing the area slightly west of its midpoint.[5] A smaller designation sometimes referred to as the National Mall (proper) excludes both the Capitol grounds and the Washington Monument grounds, applying only to an area between them.[6]

West Potomac Park gets in most or all of the Tidal Basin, but not Arlington. And there is a larger NPS unit called National Mall and Memorial Parks, which includes a large number of lesser known sites scattered around the area, which would not be appropriate.

This is basically why I added "Associated Buildings" to the title, since it is not perfectly clear if all the important buildings are within the Park boundary. The White House and Capitol are outside, I think, though personally, I would like to include them (as well as the Library of Congress, just across the street, even though I think that could be a WHS on its own.) This all probably a moot point, of course, since it seems certain that various politicians will never sign off on this submission in any case.

Author winterkjm
Partaker
#275 | Posted: 13 May 2020 16:26 | Edited by: winterkjm 
Colvin:
BTW, I'm intrigued by this nomination, and I'm glad you included Grauman's Chinese and Egyptian theaters. If this nomination is going to be called history of film, should there be a component that includes a representative studio lot for Hollywood? Also, beyond architecture and volume, is there anything that can be said about the concentration of theaters developing innovations in film screening or movie premieres? Maybe something about the global cultural influence of Hollywood overall?

If we are going for authenticity the theater serial approach is best. Broadway in Downtown is an intact historic district that really is a gem most visitors to LA seem to miss. With Broaday Street you have the Million Dollar Theatre and the Bradbury Building on one end, and the United Artists Theater (now Ace Hotel) on the other. In between you have 10 other theaters, many well-preserved, Clifton's Cafeteria and the Southern entry to the Grand Central Market. Many films premiered on Broadway, before the Movie Entertainment Industry shifted to Hollywood in the late 20's. Only then did Hollywood become the movie capital of the world as Sid Grauman financed/built the Egyptian, Chinese, and El Capitan Theatres. The Pantages Theater was home to the Academy Awards between 1949-1959. There are certainly historic studios and lots that have some authenticity, but the nature of the business makes actual preservation of historic structures/buildings unrealistic.

Upon your request I added:

"As the movie capital of the world, major movie premiers have become synonymous with Hollywood Boulevard. The theatres on Broadway and then Hollywood Blvd demonstrate the evolution of the early motion picture age from vaudeville acts, silent film, and "talkies" to the global industry of film today."

This website gives some great information on the Broadway Theatre District

"On June 26, 1911, when a brand new theatre opened in downtown Los Angeles called the Orpheum, the population of Los Angeles was just over 300,000. Fewer than ten percent of the city's residents owned an automobile. Hollywood was still just a village and motion pictures were silent."

"The Tower Theatre was the first movie theatre in Los Angeles to be wired for sound, and the sneak preview of The Jazz Singer—held one night before its official premiere in New York—makes the Tower the first movie theatre in the world to have publicly shown a feature-length talking picture."

Information about Broadway's role from vaudeville, silent film, and "talkies".

"Two weeks prior to the premiere, Chaplin decided to have an unpublicized preview at Los Angeles' Tower Theatre. It went poorly, attracting a small and unenthusiastic crowd. Better results were seen at the gala premiere on January 30, 1931, at the Los Angeles Theater. Albert Einstein and his wife were the guests of honor, and the film received a standing ovation."

"The Million Dollar Theatre was the first movie house built by entrepreneur Sid Grauman. Grauman was later responsible for Grauman's Egyptian Theatre and Grauman's Chinese Theatre, both on Hollywood Boulevard, and was partly responsible for the entertainment district shifting from downtown Los Angeles to Hollywood in the mid-1920s"

Author Jurre
Partaker
#276 | Posted: 13 May 2020 17:06 
Full Name of Site: Rostov Kremlin
Country: Russia
TWHS? Yes
Short description of site: (Unesco) The Rostov Kremlin is placed in the center of Rostov Veliky (the Great), on the hill of the side of the Lake Nero. The Kremlin consists of three independent areas. The central one (Bishop's Yard) is fenced by high walls with towers. Two other smaller parts are Sobomaya Square and the territory of Gregory Seclusion. In the second half of the 17th century these three parts were united and the integral architectural ensemble was created. High fortress walls with 11 towers enclose the Metropolitan Residence, which is one of the best Old Russian ensembles that reached our days. It combines masterpieces of Old Russian architecture and monumental painting. The kremlin is flanked by two monasteries, both facing the Lake Nero. To the right from the kremlin stands the Abraham monastery, founded in the 11th century and one of the oldest in Russia. Its cathedral, commissioned by Ivan the Terrible in 1553 to commemorate the conquest of Kazan, inspired numerous churches in the region, particularly in Yaroslavl. Spaso-Yakovlevsky Monastery, situated to the left from the Kremlin on the town's outskirts, has been venerated as the shrine of St. Dmitry of Rostov. Most of the monastery structures were built in the late 18th and early 19th centuries in the fine neoclassical style.
Criteria: Cultural

Author Colvin
Partaker
#277 | Posted: 13 May 2020 17:45 
winterkjm:
Upon your request I added:

"As the movie capital of the world, major movie premiers have become synonymous with Hollywood Boulevard. The theatres on Broadway and then Hollywood Blvd demonstrate the evolution of the early motion picture age from vaudeville acts, silent film, and "talkies" to the global industry of film today."

I think that helps give some context, particularly with how the theaters are representative of the early days of film, from vaudeville and nickoledeons to "talkies". I understand the challenge of finding any actual historic structures/buildings from any studio lots or movie ranches due to the need to re-use studios and sets, as well as the effects of development and, in the case of some of the ranches, fires. Thanks!

Author nfmungard
Partaker
#278 | Posted: 13 May 2020 17:55 
Jurre:
Full Name of Site: Rostov Kremlin

I will second this one.

Author Jurre
Partaker
#279 | Posted: 13 May 2020 19:11 | Edited by: Jurre 
Full Name of Site: Koryak Nature Reserve
Country: Russia
TWHS? No
Short description of site: (Wikipedia) Koryak Nature Reserve is located in the north of the Kamchatka Peninsula, in the valley of the Kuyul River in the Russian Far East, and in separate coastal areas on the coast of the Bering Sea. The reserve is situated in the Bering tundra ecoregion and includes the surrounding mountains of the Gauvin peninsula and adjacent waters in Lavrov Bay, and one fourth of the total area covers waters of the Bering Sea. A common feature of the areas is that they are mostly untouched by industrial activities of man. Koryak is an important area for large colonies of nesting waterfowl and migratory seabirds. The rivers of Koryak are important spawning grounds for salmon. The site is part of a RAMSAR wetland area of international importance. Because of its large, marshy character, the Parapolsky site is home to a wide variety of water and wading birds - ducks, geese, cormorants, and gulls. During the spring and autumn migration, hundreds of thousands of birds nest or rest on the site. The Koryak Highlands are one of the largest sites for bighorn sheep in northeast Asia. The Cape Gauvin and Lavosky sites, with coastal rocks and ledges, are home to over 30 large colonies of seabirds.
Criteria: Natural

Author Colvin
Partaker
#280 | Posted: 13 May 2020 19:51 
Jurre:
Full Name of Site: Koryak Nature Reserve
Country: Russia

Could this be folded into the Bering Strait - Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge and Commander Islands proposal? I can't see myself voting for both the Bering Sea proposal and Koryak Nature Reserve in the Top 50.

Author Jurre
Partaker
#281 | Posted: 13 May 2020 20:00 | Edited by: Jurre 
Colvin:
Could this be folded into the Bering Strait - Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge and Commander Islands proposal? I can't see myself voting for both the Bering Sea proposal and Koryak Nature Reserve in the Top 50.

That might be a possibility.

EDIT: But I'm not sure if they're thematically linked. I have the feeling it would be a geographical link, but geographically we're still talking about hundreds of kilometres of distance between these sites.

Author Jurre
Partaker
#282 | Posted: 13 May 2020 20:28 | Edited by: Jurre 
Full Name of Site: Transborder Amazonian Park: Parc amazonien de Guyane and Tumucumaque Mountains National Park
Country: Brazil & France
TWHS? No
Short description of site: (Wikipedia) This transborder site is formed by two contiguous national parks in the Global 200 ecoregion "Guianan moist forests": Parc amazonien de Guyane & Tumucumaque Mountains National Park. Put together, the two parks represent the biggest rain forest protected area in the whole world. (1) Guiana Amazonian Park covers multiple forest types, belonging to both more arid and more humid zones. It houses 90 amphibian species, 133 reptile species, 520 avian species and 182 mammal species, among which the endangered Degranville's rocket frog and black bearded saki. (2) Tumucumaque Mountains National Park covers a remote and mountainous area of the Amazon. It is an uninhabited region and is of high ecological value: most of its animal species, mainly fish and aquatic birds, are not found in any other place in the world. The area contains endangered species, such as the harpy eagle, jaguar and spider monkey, which are all on the International Conservation Union's red list of endangered species.
Criteria: Natural

Author vantcj1
Partaker
#283 | Posted: 14 May 2020 03:53 
Major works of Louis Kahn:
Countries: USA, Bangladesh, India.
TWHS? No
Short description of site: Together with Le Corbusier, Walter Gropius, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Alvar Aalto, and at a later time, Louis Kahn was a master of modern architecture in the mid-20th century, when architecture was starting to be monotonous and repetitive (like in the International Style), be based on the expression of material and heavy (like in Brutalism) or showy and formalist (like in the many variations of camp, according to Susan Sontag), all trends that led to the 1964 to 1970s crisis and criticism of modern architecture
Unlike the previous masters, he did not follow strict, minimalist functionalism and his work was intending to appeal more to the subjective aspects of a person, so that his concepts were expressed in a more esoteric way. He is therefore important for bringing the atemporality from historic monuments into modern architectural language. During his years of activity, which covered from the early 50s to 1974 (a very short career, it has to be said, as he started his own office later in life) his work became extremely admired.
This site would include his most accomplished works, namely:
-Richards Medical Research Laboratories (Philadelphia, PA) His career breakthrough, admired for its expression of materiality, as well as for the ingenious functional solution provided. A National Historic Landmark.
-The Salk Institute (La Jolla, CA) I have to say that this has always been my favorite and achieves a sense of serene monumentality that is really appealing. Deemed as eligible for the National Register of Historic Places in 2006.
-Trenton Bath House (Ewing, NJ). Part of the National Register of Historic Places, initially part of a larger (proposed) Jewish Community Center.
-Yale University Art Gallery (New Haven, Ct) His first important commission, it was important for its provision of flexible exhibition space and for establishing his concept of serviced/served spaces.
-First Unitarian Church (Rochester, NY) On the National Register of Historic Places.
-Indian Institute of Management (Ahmedabad, India) His first built commission overseas, it stood out for its combination of Indian traditional and vernacular architecture into a modern language. It is always compared to Le Corbusier's works in Ahmedabad and Chandigarh.
-Phillips Exeter Academy Library (Exeter, NH) A winner of the 25-year award by the AIA, that awards architectural works that stand the test of time. It is a prize that is given to only work oeuvre per year.
-Kimbell Art Museum (Ft. Worth, Texas) Also a winner of the 25-year award by AIA, it really stands out for its use of diffuse natural light and for its simple, repetitive layout. Kenzo Tange received his Pritzker price there in 1987 (it may be an inspiration for a connection) and Tadao Ando built a museum in front, taking inspiration and respecting it, so that you can see how much this building is revered.
-Jatiya Sangsad Bhavan (Dhaka, Bangladesh). I understand it was nominated in the Asian-Pacific thread, I don't remember if it was seconded, but I am proposing this could be subsumed into this nomination.
Criteria: Cultural

Author vantcj1
Partaker
#284 | Posted: 14 May 2020 04:04 | Edited by: vantcj1 
nfmungard
winterkjm:
- The Architectural Works of Alvar Aalto

Countries: Finland, Russia, USA, Germany.
TWHS? Yes: Paimio hospital (formerly Paimio Sanatorium)
Yes, I also think that a serial site from Alvar Aalto's works should warrant inscription. Since I see it has been already seconded, I propose a slight amendment.
Rationale: Together with Le Corbusier, Mies van der Rohe, and Gropius, he was a master of modern architecture. He represents a more naturalistic and less purist approach to modern architecture, and in a very different vein to Frank Lloyd Wright. He also was a forerunner of what was called "critical regionalism" or "regional modernism" (very followed in my country, BTW) trends to adapt modern architecture to their natural/social/cultural/technological context, rather than imposing an international style.
Then, what works of his should be best to inscribe? Considering this source, and this, which I found very comprehensive and other ones I've seen/read throughout the years, I propose just 8 works, in Finland, USA and Germany (out of hundreds):
-Of course the TLS Paimio Sanatorium (1933, Paimio, Finland).
-The Viipuri Library (1935,Vyborg, Russia): Together with Paimio, it was one of his earliest and most resonating masterpieces, a revolutionary building that -even when partly a reconstruction, after the terrible damage it suffered during WWII- should definitely be considered.
-Villa Mairea (1939, Noormarkku, Finland)
-MIT's Baker House (Cambridge, MA, USA, 1946) This brick-faced building, with an undulating shape, responded to its context and provided an ingenious architectural solution to the provision of adequate ventilation, illumination and vistas to the students.
-Säynätsalo Town Hall (1949, Säynätsalo, Finland): just like Wolfsburg, but extremely different, this building is just a work of genious regarding its plan and volumetry. It's extremely simple, but at the same time extremely varied and the work in brick that he undertook during that time of his career completely softened the building, especially in comparison with the Brutalist turn that Modern Architecture was taken at that same time in the world.
-The Muuratsalo Experimental House (1953, Jyväskylä, Finland): this is outstanding for how he used it as a way to experiment techniques that he would then use in other, bigger works, most notably solar heating, being then a frontrunner of green architecture.
-The Vuoksenniska Church (1958, Imatra, Finland) of his ecclesiastical works, I prefer it even to the later Riola church (1978), it was a very revolutionary church with a very flexible floorplan.
-Wolfsburg Cultural Centre (1962, Wolfsburg, NS, Germany) I remember studying like mad this building in the university. Its plan and volumetry are just a work of genious, it has a rooftop open, public space, which was pretty new for its time.
Criteria: Cultural

Author vantcj1
Partaker
#285 | Posted: 14 May 2020 04:08 
nfmungard:
Reichstag, Berlin
OUV: Probably, Norman Foster's best work

Colvin:
Best work is a bit subjective. I think Norman Foster has plenty of other works that are just as noteworthy and could warrant a serial nomination

Yes, the Reichstag dome is iconic and a great work to resignify and complement a historic building. However, I think that his most accomplished (and quite revolutionary) work is the HSBC headquarters at Hong Kong. The building was designed considering the political and economic uncertainty in the 1980s regarding what would happen after the cession of the territory to China, in 1997. Therefore, the building was designed in its entirety with prefab structural elements to be allow it to be dissassembled, if required.
However, as the Asia/Pacific forum was closed some days ago, of course I'm not nominating it.

FredericM:
Full Name of Site: Pont sur la gorge du Salgina
Country: Switzerland
TWHS? Yes

I second it, I'm a fan of engineering and have known for years about how revolutionary this bridge was.
winterkjm:
New York Skyscrapers - Here is more information for this seconded proposal. Eleven serial components that trace the skyscraper skyline of NYC from 1899 to 1933. All sites listed are National Historic Landmarks. My Flickr album includes some of the components.

Great compendium!

winterkjm:
Spread of International Style Modernism to the United States

Thank you! I think you really captured the essence of what I was trying to propose, as how Modern Architecture started to conquer the American architectural scene (after initial strong rejection) and the paper that European-emigrés took in expanding it, so that, after WWII, it became the dominant architectural language worldwide.
Jurre:
Full Name of Site: Transborder Amazonian Park: Parc amazonien de Guyane and Tumucumaque Mountains National Park
Country: Brazil & France

Though extending also into the Latin American region, I consider it a great proposal, I'll second it, more than what these ultra-big reserves have already yielded, is the enormous potential in what to biodiversity refers. When we get to the Latin American region, I'd definitely support proposals from other Amazonian sites (like Serra do Divisor/Serra de Divisor and Pico da Neblina/Pico de la Neblina, including the yanomani culture sites).
Assif:
Site: Olympia Park, Munich

I see that it has already been seconded. It definitely is important for its innovative urban design and the extensive use of tensile structures by Frei Otto. I do think that there are other Olympic facilities that are outstanding (I think of Pier Luigi Nervi's Palazzetto dello Sport for Rome 1960 (also see this) and Kenzo Tange's Yoyogi Gymnasium for Tokyo 1964, already discussed by you all in the Asia/Pacific thread), All of them refer to a single historic period, when modern architecture was becoming more and more bold, allowing structures with very long spans. Of course, they also represent the Olympic sentiment of global peace and tolerance.

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