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Author Jurre
#901 | Posted: 21 Feb 2023 09:52 | Edited by: Jurre 
Connection: Bay of Biscay

Tower of Hercules – "Located in Galicia, near Cape Finisterre, this port and its lighthouse occupy a strategic position at the entry to the Bay of Biscay, marking the last stage in the route north, before Brittany and the British Isles." (AB Ev)

Connection: Celtic history

Tower of Hercules – One of the legends connected to the tower's origin is that of Breogán of Irish origin. "Breogán, son of Brath, was the Celtic leader that subjected the Spanish tribes. After conquering the whole territory, he founded the city of Brigantia (La Coruña) and built a tower along with it, which he named the Tower of Breogán." (Nomination file, p. 65-66) The tower was "of such a grand height that his sons could see a distant green shore from its top. The glimpse of that distant green land lured them to sail north to Ireland. According to the legend, Breogán's descendants stayed in Ireland and are the Celtic ancestors of the current Irish people." (Wikipedia)

Connection: Cultural sites connected to Cliffs

Tower of Hercules – The large urban park where the Tower is situated used to be military zones and was "recovered by the City Council of A Coruña in order to create an extensive green zone. (...) The value of this reclaimed area's landscape is immense; a coastline of great natural beauty, with sheer cliffs dropping down to the sea, forming a never-ending display of inlets and headlands upon which the waves of the Atlantic crash." (Nomination file, p. 14) The lighthouses "that were erected on Atlantic shores were built on coastal cliffs in particularly dangerous areas in order to direct ships away from the shallows, which could threaten their wooden hulls." (Nomination file, p. 137)

Connection: International Exhibitions

Tower of Hercules – The "image of renovation, change and progress was what influenced the Government of Spain to send a model of the Tower of Hercules lighthouse to the Universal Exhibition in Paris in 1869 as an example of the new engineering projects that were being undertaken in the country. This international forum was chosen to display the new value that had been conferred upon the Tower of Hercules, not only on a regional and national level, but also internationally. This task of publicising the monument was completed by the presentation of the same model at the Universal Exhibition of Vienna in 1873." (Executive Summary, p. VI)

Connection: Legends and Folk Myths

Tower of Hercules – "Numerous legends surround the Tower's history, from the Middle Ages to the 19th century. They attempt to explain in mythical and popular terms the Tower's origins and its construction, regardless of any historical or archaeological understanding. There are three main families of legends: the legend of Breogán in the Celtic-Irish tradition, the Greco-Roman legend of Hercules, the demigod of mythical strength who gave the Tower its contemporary name, and the tale of Trecenzonio halfway between the former two legends." (Ab Ev)

Connection: Normans

Tower of Hercules – In the 9th and 10th centuries, "the attacks of the Normans and the Vikings struck fear into the coasts of the south of Europe. On various occasions, enemy squadrons disembarked on Galician soil (...). [The] Chronicle of King Alphonse III (...) alluded to a battle which took place in the year 846 close to the "Farum Brecantium" or "Bregantium" and where the Asturian king's troops succeeded in defeating the Norman hoards after having sacked and burnt their ships. This episode, however, did not represent an isolated incident but rather this type of attack is alluded to on numerous occasions, particularly in the years 854 and 866 when the Normans held the Kingdom to siege." (Nomination file, p. 91-92)

Connection: Sites from antiquity with identified architects

Tower of Hercules – "(...) it is the only Roman lighthouse of which the name of the architect and engineer who built it is known: Gaius Sevius Lupus, who immortalised his name by leaving it engraved on a commemorative inscription at the foot of his work". (Executive Summary, p. V)

Connection: Spolia

Tower of Hercules – "[S]tones of the Tower were reused in (...) new buildings (...), such as the fort of the old town, the Collegiate Church of Santa María del Campo and the church of Santiago (...). [O]ne has the feeling that the surroundings of the Roman lighthouse became a makeshift quarry from which a large number of blocks of stone of a considerable size from all four facades of the Tower, which had collapsed taking with them the access ramp to the rotunda, were extracted." (Nomination file, p. 97) "The looting of materials continued until 1557, when the Town Council banned the extraction of ashlars from the Tower, under threat of fines." (Nomination file, p. 177)

Already existing connection but adding a rationale:

Connection: Lighthouses

Tower of Hercules – "The Tower of Hercules has served as a lighthouse and landmark at the entrance of La Coruña harbour in north-western Spain since the late 1st century A.D. when the Romans built the Farum Brigantium." (Official description)

Author elsslots
#902 | Posted: 22 Feb 2023 06:04 
Scuba Dive Liveboard
As opposed to just being a dive spot which is quite common. Should be 3 days minium and not private charter.

A.k.a. as "the sites Els will never visit"... (well, some have other means of entering)

Author Zoe
#903 | Posted: 23 Feb 2023 05:24 
Awww not too late to pick up diving.

The reference was just for you to see some examples, not necessarily to put an ad for them on your website lol

Gulf of California might also be part of the connection but I can't be sure any dive sites are in a core zone. Very likely though.

Author winterkjm
#904 | Posted: 23 Feb 2023 05:56 | Edited by: winterkjm 
Gulf of California might also be part of the connection but I can't be sure any dive sites are in a core zone. Very likely though.

Cabo Pulmo National Park is absolutely frequented by divers. While I was snorkeling I could see all the divers on the sea bottom!

Author elsslots
#905 | Posted: 23 Feb 2023 06:24 
The reference was just for you to see some examples, not necessarily to put an ad for them on your website lol

I have now removed it. But I must say that it opened up a world for me!

Cabo Pulmo National Park is absolutely frequented by divers. While I was snorkeling I could see all the divers on the sea bottom!

The trips must be multi-day (hence the need for a liveaboard). But this one at least covers Bahia Loreto and thus the Gulf of California WHS.

Author Jurre
#906 | Posted: 23 Feb 2023 16:56 | Edited by: Jurre 
I would like to propose a new connection: Estuary

Sites that are situated in an estuary, comprise one or more estuaries or are meaningfully linked to an estuary.

Atlantic Forest South-East – "The site is part of the Serra do Mar domain and extends across the adjacent coastal plain, which includes the estuarine complex of Iguape-Cananéia-Paranaguá." "From mountains covered by dense forests with an abundance of orchids and bromeliads to coastal islands and estuaries with a wealth of vast mangroves, the property offers a natural environment of great beauty with tremendous terrestrial and marine biodiversity." (Official description)

Cocos Island – "The property harbours a rare and complex mosaic of land and sea environments, including forested mountains, rivers, waterfalls, estuaries, cliffs, sandy and rocky beaches, bays, and extensive and highly diverse coral reefs and pelagic environments." (Official description - Crit ix)

Cordouan Lighthouse – "The Lighthouse of Cordouan rises up on a shallow rocky plateau in the Atlantic Ocean at the mouth of the Gironde estuary." (Official description)

Donana National Park – "Doñana National Park in Andalusia occupies the right bank of the Guadalquivir river at its estuary on the Atlantic Ocean." (Official description)

Ephesus – "Located within what was once the estuary of the River Kaystros, Ephesus comprises successive Hellenistic and Roman settlements founded on new locations, which followed the coastline as it retreated westward." (Official description)

Forth Bridge – "This railway bridge, crossing the Forth estuary in Scotland, had the world's longest spans (541 m) when it opened in 1890." (Official description)

Getbol, Korean Tidal Flat – "Each component represents one of four tidal flat subtypes (estuarine type, open embayed type, archipelago type and semi-enclosed type)." (Official description)

Guanacaste – "(...) a diverse coastal-marine ecosystem containing important coral reefs, algal beds, estuaries, mangroves, sandy and cobble beaches, shore dunes and wetlands." (Official description - Crit ix)

iSimangaliso Wetland Park – The park "includes a wide range of pristine marine, coastal, wetland, estuarine, and terrestrial environments which are scenically beautiful and basically unmodified by people." (Official description)

Joggins Fossil Cliffs – "the site groups remains of three ecosystems: estuarine bay, floodplain rainforest and fire prone forested alluvial plain with freshwater pools." (Official description)

Kulangsu – "Kulangsu is a tiny island located on the estuary of the Chiu-lung River, facing the city of Xiamen." (Official description)

Ningaloo Coast – "Intertidal systems such as rocky shores, sandy beaches, estuaries, and mangroves are also found within the property." (Official description)

Puerto-Princesa Subterranean River – "The Puerto-Princesa Subterranean River National Park (...) is of adequate size to protect all the various landforms and the estuarine ecosystem that conveys the Outstanding Universal Value of the property." (Official description)

Rio Platano Biosphere Reserve – "Starting from the Caribbean Sea, there are estuarine and marine systems, sandy beaches, coastal lagoons of varying salinity, mangrove swamps, and pine savannah." (Official description)

St. Petersburg – "The unique urban landscape of the port and capital city of Saint Petersburg, rising out of the Neva estuary where it meets the Gulf of Finland, was the greatest urban creation of the 18th century." (Official description)

Sundarbans National Park – "Covering 133,010 ha, the area is estimated to comprise about 55% forest land and 45% wetlands in the form of tidal rivers, creeks, canals and vast estuarine mouths of the river." (Official description)

The Sundarbans – "Areas of unique natural beauty, ethno botanical interest, special marine faunal interest, rivers, creeks, islands, swamps, estuaries, mud flats, and tidal flats are also included in the property." (Official description)

Tower of Hercules – The Tower of Hercules is "a solitary lighthouse which (...) is located on the ocean shore at a height of 57 metres above sea level close to the entry channel of the estuary, acting as maritime signalling element away from the ancient port of Brigantium which was to be found sheltered from the storms in a natural inlet inside the estuary." (Nomination file, p. 79)

Vizcaya Bridge – "Vizcaya Bridge straddles the mouth of the Ibaizabal estuary, west of Bilbao." (Official description)

Wadden Sea – "It is a large, temperate, relatively flat coastal wetland environment, formed by the intricate interactions between physical and biological factors that have given rise to a multitude of transitional habitats with tidal channels, sandy shoals, sea-grass meadows, mussel beds, sandbars, mudflats, salt marshes, estuaries, beaches and dunes." (Official description)

Author Zoe
#907 | Posted: 25 Feb 2023 01:36 
Natural Arches and Bridges

As the link for Galapagos says the arch collapsed already so does this connection include "former arches" too? I think it's a nice honorable mention though.

Author Zoe
#908 | Posted: 27 Feb 2023 03:24 
On Banknotes

2008 Bank of China Series
10 patacas = A-Ma Temple
20 patacas = Façade of the ruins of Saint Paul's Cathedral
50 patacas = Dom Pedro V Theatre
100 patacas = Guia Lighthouse
500 patacas = Casa do Mandarim
1000 patacas = Legislative Senate

Yes, that's all notes with WH images!

Author Mohboh
#909 | Posted: 1 Mar 2023 17:05 
Hello everybody,

I would like to suggest connection: Buildings designed by Czech architects outside the borders of the Czech republic.

Let me explain why i think this connection fits the criteria.

1. It is self evident that this connection is not self evident
2. At least three famous buildings on the list may be included:
- Stoclet House - designed by Josef Hoffmann -
- Genbaku dome - designed by Jan Letzel -
- Residence of Bukovinian & Dalmatian Metropolitans - designed by Josef Hlavka -

I believe that this connection shows the new level of iterconnection of the world in 19th and 20th century. Even the architects born in relatively small country may had succed and realize important projects all over the world.


Author elsslots
#910 | Posted: 2 Mar 2023 03:30 | Edited by: elsslots 
I would like to propose a new connection: Estuary

Sites that are situated in an estuary, comprise one or more estuaries or are meaningfully linked to an estuary.

Seems like a good one. I will add it in a few days.

Buildings designed by Czech architects outside the borders of the Czech republic.

Sounds good as well. Architect then must be born within the borders of current Czechia (Hoffmann was from Austrian-Hungarian empire, but born in Moravia). Will add in a few days too when I have a better internet connection.

Author tsunami
#911 | Posted: 2 Mar 2023 20:37 | Edited by: tsunami 
Below are some of the major art festivals in Europe. All of these take place in the core zones of the respective WHSs, except where noted in ( ).


(This festival takes place at two WHSs -- in Athens and in Epidaurus, except in Athens one of the two venues is not within the core zone.)




SALZBURG EASTER FESTIVAL (Berlin Philharmonic used to play here)
(Salzburger Festwochen is currently in this connection, but I'm not sure if such a festival exists.)


(Berlin Philharmonic now plays here. Festspielhaus in Baden-Baden is currently the only venue in the world where you can see operas with Berlin Phil.)


(This large festival, probably the largest art festival in France, takes place at many different venues, some of which are in the core zone.)


(Mostly at the Mariinsky Theatre. The last one was in 2019. I am not sure if this festival can continue. The festival director, Valery Gergiev, was fired from his position as the conductor of the Munich Philharmonic in March, 2022 due to his pro-Putin stance. No more international music organizations may want to participate in this festival in the foreseeable future.)

Author jonathanfr
#912 | Posted: 7 Mar 2023 14:10 
Pritzker Architecture Prize: Museumsinsel (Museum Island): David Chipperfield

Author paul
#913 | Posted: 8 Mar 2023 11:12 | Edited by: paul 
Having just got back from skiing I was wondering about tsunami's suggestion:

Alpine ski areas in core zone

Areas with lifts and marked pistes for alpine skiing:

Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks
Pyrénées - Mont Perdu

Author meltwaterfalls
#914 | Posted: 9 Mar 2023 07:00 
Buildings designed by Czech architects outside the borders of the Czech republic.

Oh I missed this one, great idea, very much my cup of čaj.

I will add, Vienna, Looshaus is the most prominent, but there are lots of others designed by Adolf Loos (born in Brno)

I'm trying to see if I can pinpoint anything by Jan Kaplický or Eva Jiřičná but can't find anything at the moment (Kaplicky's Naples Metro station is outside the core zone at the University unfortunately).

Author Solivagant
#915 | Posted: 10 Mar 2023 15:19 | Edited by: Solivagant 
With the addition of the Padang to Singapore's T List ("Shortly after the establishment of a British trading post in Singapore in 1819, the Padang originated as a military parade ground within the larger cantonment which served as the settlement's military and governing centre." it seems appropriate to propose the following "Connection" - it may, one day, join them!

Historic Military Parade Grounds
WHS containing a surviving open area once used primarily as a Military Parade Ground = "A large area of firm ground, formerly usually adjacent to fortifications.......where soldiers present(ed) themselves for inspection ("parade") and practice(d) marching and close-order drills". Excluding areas within forts/castles and city streets/squares used occasionally for ceremonial parades.

Paris Banks of Seine – Champ de Mars "The construction, in 1765, of the École Militaire designed by Ange-Jacques Gabriel, was the first step toward the Champ de Mars in its present form. Grounds for military drills were originally planned for an area south of the school, the current location of the place de Fontenoy. The choice to build an esplanade to the north of the school led to the erection of the noble facade which today encloses the Champ de Mars" (Wiki)

Bridgetown Garrison – Savannah "The Garrison was constructed at the south end of Carlisle Bay, ........ It covers about 60ha. It consists of three main areas: the open grass parade grounds.........The former grass parade-grounds are now known as the Garrison Savannah, and used as a horse racing circuit." (AB Eval)

St Petersburg - Field of Mars (Russian: Ма́рсово по́ле, tr. Marsovo Polye) "During the reigns of Emperor Paul I and his son Alexander I, the square took on more of a martial purpose, with the construction of military monuments in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. In acknowledgement of this, and its role in hosting military reviews and parades, it was renamed the "Field of Mars" in 1805". After the Revolution it "was for a time renamed the "Victims of Revolution Square", and was sometimes called "The Square of the Graves of the Victims of the Revolution" (Wiki). It regained its earlier name in 1944.

( I have excluded Rome's "Campio Marzio" on the grounds that it is fully built upon and is only recognizable through the name of one of Rome's administrative divisions.)

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