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Author Jurre
Partaker
#781 | Posted: 6 Nov 2022 18:31 
Connection: Recorded cultural discoveries

Sigiriya - It wasn't until 1831 that the abandoned Sigiriya was discovered by British Army Major Jonathan Forbes. (Source)

Connection: Theravada Buddhism

Sigiriya - "Kashyapa (...) was wary of an attack by Moggallana, and (...) moved the capital and his residence from the traditional capital of Anuradhapura to the more secure Sigiriya. (...) Moggallana took back the kingdom which was rightfully his, and shifted the capital back to Anuradhapura, converting Sigiriya into a Buddhist monastery complex. (...) This site may have been important in the competition between the Mahayana and Theravada Buddhist traditions in ancient Sri Lanka." (Source)

Author jonathanfr
Partaker
#782 | Posted: 7 Nov 2022 09:08 
UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists: Osun-Osogbo: Oral heritage of Gelede
https://ich.unesco.org/en/RL/oral-heritage-of-gelede-00002?RL=00002

Author Jurre
Partaker
#783 | Posted: 8 Nov 2022 04:12 
Connection: Cemeteries

Hawraman/Uramanat - "Archaeological findings dating back about 40,000 years, caves and rock shelters, ancient paths and ways along the valleys, motifs and inscriptions, cemeteries, mounds, castles, settlements, and other historical evidence attest to the continuity of life in the Hawraman/Uramanat region from the Paleolithic to the present time". (Official desription)

Author elsslots
Admin
#784 | Posted: 12 Nov 2022 00:41 | Edited by: elsslots 
Moving this here:
Solivagant:
This got me thinking abut the place of "fish" on the current WH list – not that prominent and even significantly "under water and out of sight"!? Whales and Dolphins often get a "look in" as "iconic" marine mammals but "fish" seem less prominent despite their spread across the world in both fresh and saltwater!! Perhaps we should we make a "Connection" for WHS whose Natural OUV is "significantly" based on "Fish". We currently only have one - related to Sharks. To avoid including sites which merely mention "Fish" generically (E.g The Wadden See supports "large numbers of Fish") I would suggest something along the lines of "Fish - WHS whose OUV/Criterion statements include Fish "speciation" or endemism".

Solivagant:
The following would be enough to set up such a Connection - no doubt further thought and searches could identify more – I will leave that "pleasure" to others!
a. Lake Malawi - Crit x "up to c.1000 species of fish, half occurring within the property: estimated as the largest number of fish species of any lake in the world. Endemism is very high: of particular significance are the cichlid fish, of which all but 5 of over 350 species are endemic. The lake contains 30% of all known cichlids species in the world"
b. Natural and Cultural Heritage of the Ohrid region - Crit vii - "Lake Ohrid provides a unique refuge for numerous endemic and relict freshwater species of flora and fauna. Its oligotrophic waters contain over 200 endemic species with high levels of endemism for benthic species in particular....and 17 endemic species of fish"
c. Central Amazon Complex - Crit x "The "pirarucu" (Arapaima gigas), the largest freshwater fish in South America......... In addition, 64 species of electric fish, which is the strongest known diversity for this group unique in the world, with a circulation range and an adaptation rate comparable to those of cichlids in the African Rift Valley, have been identified in the property"
d. Colchic Rainforests - Crit x "The property also harbors sturgeon species, including the Colchic Sturgeon"

Unfortunately the iSimangaliso WHS documentation doesn't mention the Coelacanth which live there, so it wouldn't meet my proposed "Connection definition". See here . The Comoros do have a T List entry for the "Ecosystèmes Marins de l'Archipel des Comores" whose first "element" is intended to be the "Parc marin des Coelacanthes".

The proposed very strict Connection definition will also exclude sites like Lake Baikal where the OUV and Criteira are not well described and the description just generally refers to "endemic flora and fauna" (another example that "Fish" generally aren't regarded as very "exciting" when descriptions are being drawn up!) and we don't even have a Nomination File. The book "Endemic fishes of Lake Baikal" states - "Lake Baikal is unique among the Great Lakes of the world in that there is fish life from its surface to a depth of over 1600 metres, its greatest depth, nearly all of which are endemic. Lake Baikal's great habitable depth range, combined with its great age, make it a unique natural laboratory for the study of adaptation to deepwater conditions. The present ichthyofauna of Lake Baikal includes 61 species and subspecies of fishes belonging to 32 genera and 15 families." We could extend the definition to allow other reputable references to Fish speciation/endemism within a WHS??

Added: Fish
I've found a couple more, including sites with salmon. I'd like to add the sites with sharks in their OUV as well, any objections?
Furthermore I'll stick to the strict definition, there are enough sites to connect.

Author jonathanfr
Partaker
#785 | Posted: 12 Nov 2022 12:05 | Edited by: jonathanfr 
Fish: Sangha Trinational: "Much of the site is unaffected by human activity and features a wide range of humid tropical forest ecosystems with rich flora and fauna, including Nile crocodiles and goliath tigerfish, a large predator."

https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1380/

Author elsslots
Admin
#786 | Posted: 12 Nov 2022 12:12 
jonathanfr:
Fish: Sangha Trinational: "Much of the site is unaffected by human activity and features a wide range of humid tropical forest ecosystems with rich flora and fauna, including Nile crocodiles and goliath tigerfish, a large predator."

Unfortunately the fish aren't part of the OUV criteria. The introduction text on the UNESCO webpage is just a blurb supplied by the country.

Author Jurre
Partaker
#787 | Posted: 12 Nov 2022 16:57 | Edited by: Jurre 
Connection: Fish

Belize Barrier Reef - Crit x: "A total of 178 terrestrial plants and 246 taxa of marine flora have been described from the area while over 500 species of fish, 65 scleractinian corals, 45 hydroids and 350 molluscs have been recorded."

Great Barrier Reef - Crit vii: "Other superlative natural phenomena include the annual coral spawning, migrating whales, nesting turtles, and significant spawning aggregations of many fish species." - Crit ix: "Biologically the unique diversity of the GBR reflects the maturity of an ecosystem that has evolved over millennia; evidence exists for the evolution of hard corals and other fauna. Globally significant marine faunal groups include over 4,000 species of molluscs, over 1,500 species of fish, plus a great diversity of sponges, anemones, marine worms, crustaceans, and many others."

Kakadu National Park - Crit x: "The property protects an extraordinary number of plant and animal species including over one third of Australia's bird species, one quarter of Australia's land mammals and an exceptionally high number of reptile, frog and fish species."

Okavango Delta - Crit x: "The Delta's habitats are species rich with 1061 plants (belonging to 134 families and 530 genera), 89 fish, 64 reptiles, 482 species of birds and 130 species of mammals."

Pantanal - Crit x: "The Pantanal is extremely important for the conservation of biological diversity and the property contains representative habitats comprising around 80 species of mammals, 650 species of birds, 50 of reptiles and 300 of fish (thus the Reserve is vital for the maintenance of fish stock)."

The Sundarbans - Crit x: "It is also rich in fauna with 693 species of wildlife which includes; 49 mammals, 59 reptiles, 8 amphibians, 210 white fishes, 24 shrimps, 14 crabs and 43 mollusks species."

Author elsslots
Admin
#788 | Posted: 12 Nov 2022 23:27 | Edited by: elsslots 
Jurre:
Connection: Fish

These do not fit the criteria in my opinion: it's not about the existence of fish in a site, but more specific: Fish "speciation" or endemism. See original examples of Solivagant in post above and text in connection itself. I've also taken those with named fish species, as these are the most interesting ones (you know what to specifically look out for when visiting).

Author elsslots
Admin
#789 | Posted: 15 Nov 2022 08:39 | Edited by: elsslots 
I'm also about to change the Connection "Orchids" from a general one into one where orchids are part of the OUV.
As per Alikander99: "There are over 8.000 species of orchids and you can find them virtually anywhere. If we were to check which natural WHS have orchids, It would probably be over 70% of them."

Limiting the connection to where Orchids are part of the OUV gives us a nice little list of WHS of botanical interest.

If you can provide another specifying aspect, for example "occurrence of > 300 species of orchids", please share.

Author jonathanfr
Partaker
#790 | Posted: 16 Nov 2022 13:15 
Disputed territories: to move from Trivia to Geography
Located in a Former Capital: to move from Trivia to History
Named after individual people: to move from Trivia to Individual People
Shoe covers required: to move from Trivia to Visiting conditions
Undergoing Restoration or Repair: to move from Trivia to Visiting conditions

Probably more trivia connections would be better elsewhere.

Author jonathanfr
Partaker
#791 | Posted: 17 Nov 2022 04:01 
(Fossil) Fish: Miguasha

Author Jurre
Partaker
#792 | Posted: 20 Nov 2022 05:27 | Edited by: Jurre 
Connection: Marian Shrines

Belfries - The Cathedral of Our Lady in Antwerp has a Marian Chapel which contains the statue of Our Lady of Antwerp, after which the church is named. (Dutch Wikipedia)

Connection: Iconoclasm

Belfries - Almost nothing of the original interior of the Cathedral of Our Lady in Antwerp has been preserved. During the Reformation, the church fell victim to the iconoclasm of the "Beeldenstorm". Stained-glass windows, statues, relics, tombs and dozens of altars were dishonored and destroyed by Calvinists. Only a few old frescoes testify to the late Gothic decoration. (Dutch Wikipedia)

Author Solivagant
Partaker
#793 | Posted: 20 Nov 2022 06:14 | Edited by: Solivagant 
Alikander99:
invertebrates, which are perhaps even further ignored in the WHS list

(I have transferred this across from "Top Missing by Country")

Now there's a challenge for a "Connection"!!!
But what level of Classification to use for any Invertebrate "Connection? Wiki tells me that "over 95% of the described animal species in the world are invertebrates." so we need to divide them in some way. But what level do we adopt - Class, Phylum, Order, Family, Species etc? Looking at our existing "Connections" we have been pragmatic, using a variety of different "levels" according to interest, number of examples etc.
So for Class "Mammal" we have usually operated at the "Genus" or "Family" level, only occasionally going down to "Species".
For Class "Birds" we have identified "Connections" at various levels - usually below "Family" but above "Species." (e.g Penguin have 6 genera and c19 "species" - but just 1 "Connection"!)
We have just added "Fish" which sits above "Class" and below "Phylum" as an "unofficial" classification - but acts as an everyday proxy for a "Class" of creatures.
Within Invertebrates we already have "Coral" which, in common parlance, is equivalent to the Class "Anthozoa" (I don't think we have excluded any Sea Anemones because they are not strictly "Corals"!!).

Looking for examples of Invertebrates which are highlighted in Inscription descriptions and Criteria, I would suggest we start at a very high level - The Phylum "Mollusca" –
This should please all Malacologists, Helicologists and Gastropodologists among our readers!!!

"Mollusca is the second-largest phylum of invertebrate animals after the Arthropoda, the members of which are known as molluscs.... Around 85,000 extant species of molluscs are recognized. The number of fossil species is estimated between 60,000 and 100,000 additional species. The proportion of undescribed species is very high. Many taxa remain poorly studied. Molluscs are the largest marine phylum, comprising about 23% of all the named marine organisms. Numerous molluscs also live in freshwater and terrestrial habitats. They are highly diverse, not just in size and anatomical structure, but also in behaviour and habitat. The phylum is typically divided into 7 or 8 taxonomic classes, of which two are entirely extinct. Cephalopod molluscs, such as squid, cuttlefish, and octopuses, are among the most neurologically advanced of all invertebrates—and either the giant squid or the colossal squid is the largest known invertebrate species. The gastropods (snails and slugs) are by far the most numerous molluscs and account for 80% of the total classified species." (Wiki)

But how to separate out those WHS whose molluscs are more "special" than just ordinary everyday "molluscs" found elsehere??!! Here is a proposed "Starter". I suggest we extend the "allowable" description beyond that used for "Fish" to include any mention within the UNESCO Web "description". There are so many species/families and most of them will mean nothing to most people that they don't often get mentioned. And quite a lot of the potential sites don't even mention any Criteria anyway – e.g Getbol !! I don't think this will open the flood gates. I would also be wary of allowing fossils as has just been done for Fish. But maybe it wouldn't add many? Ammonites for instance were Molluscs.

Molluscs
WHS whose OUV/Criteria statements or UNESCO Web site Descriptions include reference to the Phylum "Mollusca" (Octopus/Squid, Snails/Slugs, Clams/Mussels etc) and any species within it, thus indicating that the WHS is a particular "hot spot" for them.

Socotra
Crit x "Extremely high levels of endemism occur in Socotra's reptiles (34 species, 90% endemism) and land snails (96 species, 95% endemism

Getbol
"Endemic fauna includes Mud Octopuses (Octopus minor), Yellow Sea Sand Snails (Umbonium thomasi), =), as well as various suspension feeders like clams"

East Rennell
Crit ix "The invertebrate life is also rich with 27 species of land snail (seven endemics) and approximately 730 insect species, many of which are endemic"

Laurisilva of Madeira
Crit x "In the Laurisilva there are more than 500 endemic species of invertebrates, including insects, arachnids and mollusks"

Rock Islands
Crit x "7 species of giant clams, and the endemic nautilus are found in the property"

Belize Barrier Reef
"350 mollusc species have also been identified"

Ningaloo Coast
Crit x "roughly 650 mollusc species,"

PS – noted whilst "researching"
Add to Siranean connection -
Belize Barrier reef
Crit x "Numerous endangered species are protected within the boundaries of the BBRRS including; the West Indian manatee,"

Add to Fish
Talamanca
Crit x "a remarkable 115 species of freshwater fish"

Author Jurre
Partaker
#794 | Posted: 20 Nov 2022 07:04 
Connection: Destroyed during invasion

Roman Walls of Lugo - A section of the wall was destroyed in 984, during the siege of the town by Almanzor. (Nomination file, p. 75)

Author elsslots
Admin
#795 | Posted: 20 Nov 2022 07:36 | Edited by: elsslots 
Solivagant:
Molluscs
WHS whose OUV/Criteria statements or UNESCO Web site Descriptions include reference to the Phylum "Mollusca" (Octopus/Squid, Snails/Slugs, Clams/Mussels etc) and any species within it, thus indicating that the WHS is a particular "hot spot" for them.

Thanks! I have added the connection, and tied a few more WHS to it. I've left out references to oyster farming for now.

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