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Author Zoe
#571 | Posted: 21 Feb 2022 08:12 
Guided Visit Only

Tassili n'Ajjer
While technically one could attempt to drive from the north and be lucky to avoid all police and military checkpoints, officially one must be with a local guide at all times. You need to register one arrival at Djanet airport and the police will regularly check in with the guide who needs to bring a satellite phone if you hike into the Tadrart plateau.

Author Jurre
#572 | Posted: 4 Mar 2022 05:32 | Edited by: Jurre 
Connection: Natural sites with indigenous human population

Ngorongoro - The Masai live in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area and still maintain their pastoralist lifestyle. (Tanzania's Masai fight eviction from UNESCO World Heritage Site)

Author Jurre
#573 | Posted: 6 Mar 2022 04:11 
I think the connection "Extensions on Tentative List" can be eliminated for "Popocatepetl monasteries", since the ensemble in Tlaxcala was added to the WHS in 2021.

Author Jurre
#574 | Posted: 6 Mar 2022 13:43 | Edited by: Jurre 
Connection: Cemeteries

Danube Limes - There are cemeteries in several components, e.g. Regensburg, Linz, Enns, Mautern, Zwentendorf, Tulln, Klosterneuburg, Vienna, Carnuntum. These can be burial grounds or grave sites on both sides of the arterial roads, as was generally the case in Roman times. In Carnuntum (ID No 31), there are "cemeteries along the ancient radial roads, whereby elaborate tomb architecture such as funeral altars, pillar monuments or tomb chapels as well as tumulus tombs were found". (Nomination file, p. 79) "One of the more important ones is the one in Regensburg (ID No 5 & 6), which is the largest Roman cemetery in Germany." (German Wikipedia – Kastell Kumpfmühl)

Connection: Protective shelters

Danube Limes - Several components are protected by shelters, e.g. the well preserved walls of the burgus of Passau Haibach (ID No 9c), Kleinkastell Oberranna (ID No 10), the bathouse in Schlögen (ID No 11a) and the porta principalis dextra of the fort in Tulln (ID No 27b). (Nomination file, p. 62, 66, 76)

Connection: Recently discovered

Danube Limes - Several components were discovered after 1970, e.g. Weltenburg‐Am Galget – Kleinkastell (ID No 3) in 1979 and the amphitheater in Künzing (ID No 8) in 2003-4. (Nomination file, p. 105, 108)

Connection: Destroyed during invasion

Danube Limes - "One of the most significant periods of crisis in the history of the (...) Danube Limes was the time of the Marcomannic Wars (166–180 AD). Many fortifications and especially the civilian hinterland (...) were attacked, raided or even destroyed several times by barbarian tribes. Destruction levels have been identified on many sites in the Danube Limes provinces." (Nomination text, p. 99-100) Enns-Lauriacum (ID 14) was destroyed several times by Germanic tribes (Juthungi, Alemanni) in the third century, but it was the passage of the Huns in the fifth century that meant the end of the settlement. (German Wikipedia – Lauriacum)

Connection: Early archaeology

Danube Limes - In multiple locations, excavations were conducted before the 20th century, e.g. Regensburg (2nd half of the 19th century), Künzing (1897-8), Schlögen (1838-40), Enns (mid 19th century), Carnuntum (from 1885), Bratislava-Rusovce (1888-91). (Nomination file, p. 106-108, 111, 117)

Connection: Locations for playing sport

Danube Limes - A wooden amphitheatre was found in Künzing (ID No 8). In Carnuntum (ID No 31), an "amphitheater preserved in the area which was built in the 70ies of the 1st century is (...) part of the cannabae". "The amphitheater of the civilian city is found in the southern part of the city, and has been reconstructed several times after it was built in 2nd century AD." (Nomination file, p. 65, 78-79) Amphitheatre I in Carnuntum served primarily as a weapons training ground for the legionaries. However, gladiator fights (munera) and show hunts (venationes) also took place there, probably also games arranged especially for the troops. (German Wikipedia – Carnuntum (Militärlager))

Connection: Granaries

Danube Limes - Passau Altstadt – Kastell (ID No9a): "(...) the excavations revealed well preserved structural remains of a granary that was part of the Late Roman fort. The walls of this granary are preserved up to a height of 1.3 m and have 1.5 m thick foundations." (Nomination file, p. 65) + Zeiselmauer – Kastell Kastentor (ID 28d): The excellent state of preservation of the complex is explained by its later use as a granary (tithe barn) by the Bishopric of Passau. (German Wikipedia – Kastell Zeiselmauer)

Connection: Mithraism

Danube Limes - Mithraeums were found in several locations, such as Künzing and Linz. The Mithraeum in Pöchlarn (ID No 18d) "is the only one preserved on the northern Danube limes and is directly connected with the military units garrisoned here." (Nomination file, p. 72) Several Mithraeums were discovered at Carnuntum (ID No 31). Mithraeum III, located in the western part of Petronell, was probably built in the late 2nd century and was one of the largest sacred buildings in Carnuntum. (German Wikipedia – Carnuntum (Militärlager))

Connection: Spolia

Danube Limes - "Certainly the first post Roman construction phase led to a considerable number of discoveries of inscriptions and building stones as can be deducted from their frequent use as spolia in Romanesque churches and buildings, sometimes in prominent visible positions and usually with a new Christian meaning." (Nomination file, p. 101) In the church of St. Martin in Linz (ID No 13a) Roman spolia are visible in the interior and exterior walls. (Nomination file, p. 67) Component part 25d (Traismauer – Kastell Hufeisenturm), "the so called Reck Tower or Hungerturm belonging to the northern front of the fort consists of antique masonry, up to the second floor, which contains numerous spolia." (Nomination file, p. 74)

Author Jurre
#575 | Posted: 6 Mar 2022 16:52 | Edited by: Jurre 
Connection: Historical Food Remains

Danube Limes - Passau Boiotro – Kastell (ID No 9b): In 1975 and 1977 charred plant remains were found in a layer of clay from the Horreums, which could be identified as grains of wheat, rye, barley and millet. (German Wikipedia – Kastell Boiotro)

Connection: Female archaeologists

Danube Limes - Christine Schwanzar – Schwanzar carried out emergency excavations for the Vicus at Schlögen in 1984 (ID No 11a) and for the Burgus at Hirschleitengraben (ID No 12). (German Wikipedia – Kleinkastell Schlögen)

Connection: Archaeological potential

Danube Limes - "The nominated component parts include not only the Roman architectural monuments which are preserved above the surface, but also archaeologically not yet examined and therefore fully undisturbed monuments underground." (Nomination file, p. 237) Enns – Gräberstraße (ID No 14a): "(...) graves and burial structures are clearly visible in the survey images. Road and graves are preserved under the earth's surface in their substance. The so far intact area of the cemetery is a zone with a particularly high research potential for Roman burial customs of Lauriacum." (Nomination file, p. 68)

Connection: Hospitals

Danube Limes - Carnuntum (ID No 31): The barracks, the central buildings principia (staff building), praetorium (accommodation for the legionary legate), the valetudinarium (camp hospital), three of the six tribune houses (officers' accommodation) and three larger farm buildings in the eastern half of the camp were almost completely excavated. (German Wikipedia – Carnuntum (Militärlager))

Connection: Ongoing Archaeological digs

Danube Limes - Enns (ID No 14a-g): The Roman roots of Enns have been known since the Middle Ages. However, systematic and scientifically supervised excavations only began in the early 20th century and continue to this day. (German Wikipedia – Lauriacum)

Connection: Buried treasures

Danube Limes - Kastell Kumpfmühl (ID No 5): In 1989, during construction work in the west of the former Kumpfmühl fort, a deposit was discovered that turned out to be the largest coin find in southern Germany. Apart from coins, the hoard also comprised gold and silver jewelry. (German Wikipedia - Kastell Kumpfmühl)

Author Astraftis
#576 | Posted: 6 Mar 2022 18:12 | Edited by: Astraftis 
OK, this may be a dumb one, but: it seems that we don't have a World Heritage Process connection for sites of a country that have been inscirbed when the WH session took place in that country. Let me call them autoinscriptions. There are surely more than 3, right? It might be interesting to see which sites are suspected to have reached their status as "bonus"...

Author elsslots
#577 | Posted: 6 Mar 2022 19:04 
OK, this may be a dumb one, but: it seems that we don't have a World Heritage Process connection for sites of a country that have been inscirbed when the WH session took place in that country.

We do:

Author elsslots
#578 | Posted: 6 Mar 2022 19:15 
Well done!

Author Astraftis
#579 | Posted: 7 Mar 2022 08:44 | Edited by: Astraftis 
Oh my. I never find what I am looking for, sorry and thanks for pointing me to it! It would have been a strange gap... :-)

I see that Naples in 1997 was a very fruitful session...

Author Jurre
#580 | Posted: 7 Mar 2022 10:22 | Edited by: Jurre 
Well done!

Thanks, but that's only half of it. :D

Connection: Protective shelters

Danube Limes - Several components are protected by shelters, e.g. the well preserved walls of the burgus of Passau Haibach (ID No 9c), Kleinkastell Oberranna (ID No 10), the bathouse in Schlögen (ID No 11a) and the porta principalis dextra of the fort in Tulln (ID No 27b). (Nomination file, p. 62, 66, 76)

Just to please my OCD, could you correct the highlighted word into "bathhouse" (with double "h")?

Author Jurre
#581 | Posted: 7 Mar 2022 10:50 | Edited by: Jurre 
Ready for the next batch about the Danube Limes? I did a lot of reading. :D

Connection: Amber

Danube Limes - Carnuntum (ID No 31) - The "area around Carnuntum became a hub for the connection between Northern and Southern Europe. This was due to the situation on the northern border of the Roman Empire and at the crossroad of the Limes road with an inner European long‐distance trade route, the so‐called Amber Road, which was at the same time the most important military‐strategic point for the Roman military to enter Germania magna. (Nomination file, p. 159) "In Roman times, Carnuntum had a history as a major trading centre for amber, brought from the north to traders who sold it in Italy; the main arm of the Amber Road crossed the Danube at Carnuntum." (Wikipedia – Carnuntum)

Connection: Salt

Danube Limes - Tulln – Kastell Hufeisenturm (ID No 27a): "Component part 27a is a late Roman horseshoe tower of the western front, which is preserved to the rooftop, whose excellent preservation is due to the Medieval re‐use as a stacking area for salt in the Danube region of Tulln." (Nomination file, p. 76) + Traismauer (ID No 25a-e): A trade route (iron and salt) approaching from the Mur valley in Styria met the Danube at Traismauer, crossed it and joined two old long-distance routes on the north bank, the so-called Manhartsberglinie and the Kamptalweg. (German Wikipedia – Kastell Traismauer)

Connection: River ports

Danube Limes - Many of the forts along the Danube had river ports for the Roman fleet. Enns (ID No 14) had a "port of the Danube flotilla". In Vienna (Vindobona, ID No 30), there "has been evidence of a port from Late Antiquity, directly towards the north of the fortress. As early as the Roman Imperial Period, a naval base in Vindobona for parts of the classis Pannonica has to be assumed, due to the strategically important position at the Danube." (Nomination file, p. 78, 156) In the 4th century, the headquarters of the commander of the Danube fleet (Classis Histrica) was moved from Carnuntum to Vindobona. (German Wikipedia – Vindobona)

Connection: Legends and Folk Myths

Danube Limes - Carnuntum (ID No 31): The legend of the Roman treasure at the Heidentor (German Wikipedia – Heidentor (Carnuntum))

Connection: Horse Stables

Danube Limes - Several forts along the Danube had garrisons with equestrian units. These forts therefore had horse stables, like in Zeiselmauer (ID 28a-d). The auxiliary fort in Carnuntum (ID No 31) was an equestrian camp. Remnants of horse stables have been identified in several of the construction phases. (German Wikipedia – Carnuntum (Militärlager))

Connection: Cisterns

Danube Limes - Carnuntum (ID No 31): The camp was supplied with fresh water via running wells, cisterns and draw wells located along the main roads. The tribune houses each had their own wells, up to 6 m deep. Between two of the officers' houses, one came across a slightly sloping brick concrete pavement. Along its longitudinal axis, three cisterns with bevelled edges collected rainwater flowing down from the roofs. (German Wikipedia – Carnuntum (Militärlager))

Connection: Destroyed or damaged by Earthquake

Danube Limes - Carnuntum (ID No 31): In 350 Carnuntum was shaken by a severe earthquake, which caused considerable damage to the infrastructure and is archaeologically attested (especially in the Canabae) by destruction layers on the large public buildings. Presumably, a large part of the civilian population migrated due to this catastrophe and because of an incipient climate deterioration in the late 4th century. (German Wikipedia – Carnuntum (Militärlager))

Connection: Irrigation and drainage

Danube Limes - Wien (ID No 30): "The Romans provided their cities, including Vindobona, with clean potable water through an elaborate systems of Roman aqueducts, canals, and large subterranean pipes. Excavations have revealed that Vindobona received its supply through a 17 km long water pipeline. (...) Waste from the Roman camp was transported through an elaborate subterranean sewerage system that was planned from the beginning. The sewers were lined with brick walls and plates and ran beneath the main roads." (Wikipedia – Vindobona)

Connection: Aqueduct

Danube Limes - Carnuntum (ID No 31): "In the western slope of the Pfaffenberg, an aqueduct can be closed due to an array of columns." (Nomination file, p. 78)

Connection: Tumuli

Danube Limes - Carnuntum (ID No 31): "cemeteries along the ancient radial roads, whereby elaborate tomb architecture such as funeral altars, pillar monuments or tomb chapels as well as tumulus tombs were found" (Nomination file, p. 79)

Author Jurre
#582 | Posted: 7 Mar 2022 12:34 | Edited by: Jurre 
Connection: Mentioned by Pliny the Elder

Danube Limes - Carnuntum (ID No 31): BOOK XXXVII. THE NATURAL HISTORY OF PRECIOUS STONES. Chapter 11: "From Carnuntum in Pannonia, to the coasts of Germany from which the amber is brought, is a distance of about six hundred miles, a fact which has been only very recently ascertained (...)" (Pliny the Elder, The Natural History)

Connection: Assassinations

Danube Limes - Carnuntum (ID No 31): In 260, during the reign of Gallienus (253-268), the Carnuntine troops proclaimed the governor of Pannonia superior, Regalianus, as counter-emperor; however, he was not recognised by the Senate in Rome. His influence also never grew beyond the limes strip between Carnuntum and Brigetio. During his short reign he had coins minted with his image and that of his wife Sulpicia Dryantilla, some of which were found in Carnuntum. Only six months later, both were murdered by their own soldiers. (German Wikipedia – Carnuntum (Militärlager))

Connection: The Tetrarchy

Danube Limes - Carnuntum (ID No 31): The political conflicts between his successors after his abdication prompted Diocletian to convene a meeting of all disputants in Carnuntum in 308 in order to settle the conflicts peacefully and revive the tetrarchy. In this historically significant meeting, the Augusti Diocletian, Galerius, Licinius and Maximinus Daia succeeded in placing the distribution of power in the Roman Empire on a new stable basis (so-called fourth tetrarchy). (German Wikipedia – Carnuntum (Militärlager))

Connection: Hercules

Danube Limes - Carnuntum (ID No 31): The heated camp sanctuary (sacellum) was located exactly in the central axis of the basilica. The most famous ancient stone sculptures from Carnuntum were found between the hypocaust pillars. To the west and east of the sacellum, the excavators were able to uncover two more rooms. The eastern one contained the statue of Hercules, which had probably been made in Virunum. (German Wikipedia – Carnuntum (Militärlager))

Connection: Prison

Danube Limes - Carnuntum (ID No 31): In one of the buildings, a consecration altar was found that had been donated by the prison administrator Caius Pupilius Censorinus. The building was therefore interpreted by the excavators as a prison (carcer castrorum). (German Wikipedia – Carnuntum (Militärlager))

Connection: Brick architecture

Danube Limes - Carnuntum (ID No 31): During the excavations, numerous brick water pipes were found. (German Wikipedia – Carnuntum (Militärlager))

Connection: Triumphal Arches

Danube Limes - Carnuntum (ID No 31): Among the last major building projects in the civilian city was a triumphal arch of the Emperor Constantius II southwest of the settlement area, the remains of which are now known as the Heidentor. (German Wikipedia – Carnuntum (Militärlager))

Connection: Ancient Roman colonies

Danube Limes - Carnuntum (ID No 31): At the end of the 2nd century, the Upper Pannonian governor Septimius Severus was proclaimed emperor there by the Danubian legions and the civilian city was subsequently elevated to the rank of a colony. (German Wikipedia – Carnuntum (Zivilstadt))

Connection: Mosaic art

Danube Limes - Carnuntum (ID No 31): In House IV in the garden of Petronell Castle archaeologists came across the only Roman floor mosaic from Carnuntum that had survived in situ. In the 21st century, the mosaic was removed, restored and embedded in a new support material. Finally, in 2013, to protect and present the mosaic, the surrounding residential architecture was reconstructed as a partial reconstruction using ancient building techniques up to the eaves. After completion of the construction work, the mosaic was moved back to its original location. (German Wikipedia – Carnuntum (Zivilstadt))

Connection: Frontier walls

Danube Limes - The many defensive walls of the military forts and around military and civil settlements are a testimony of the protection these places needed at the frontier of the Roman Empire against "the barbarians".

Author Jurre
#583 | Posted: 7 Mar 2022 13:30 | Edited by: Jurre 
Connection: Habsburgs (Austrian)

Danube Limes - The 18th century "saw also the first measures towards a preservation of the remains of ancient buildings, like a decree of Maria Theresia (1740–1780) about preservation and publication of archaeological results, and a stipulation of Franz I concerning the Heidentor at Carnuntum (ID No 31), which needed protection from being dismantled." (Nomination file, p. 102)

Connection: Benedictines

Danube Limes - "Although Roman ruins at Mautern were already known in the 11th century, the archaeological explorations were pursued only from the 19th century onwards, whereby especially the priests of the nearby Benedictine monastery of Göttweig made significant contributions." (Nomination file, p. 114)

Connection: Charlemagne

Danube Limes - Linz (ID No 13a/b): In 791 Charlemagne and his army passed Linz on a campaign against the Avars. In 799, the Emperor gave St. Martin's Church and its castrum to his brother-in-law Gerold as a fief. (German Wikipedia – Lentia (Noricum))

Connection: Individual Rivers

Danube Limes - Danube

Author elsslots
#584 | Posted: 8 Mar 2022 06:47 
Connection: Individual Rivers

Danube Limes - Danube


Really good ones again, Jurre. I especially like the Amber link.
I only omitted the Brick Architecture one, as it is more geared to buildings.

Author jonathanfr
#585 | Posted: 22 Mar 2022 13:32 
Belize Barrier Reef: Reduced from broader TWHS: Hol Chan Marine Reserve

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