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Filling Up the Gaps

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Author Assif
#91 | Posted: 4 Mar 2014 16:08 | Edited by: Assif 
Solivagant, I agree with you it is a shame such more detailed delineation is unavailable.
In the T-list description of Meru the nom file says:
The Meru Conservation Area (MCA) lies in the Somali-Maasai Regional Centre of Endemism, an area of some 1.87 million square kilometers, extending from north-eastern Somalia to north-eastern Tanzania and including much of north-eastern Kenya, south-eastern Sudan, parts of Ethiopia and north-eastern Uganda.
WWF suggests a somewhat different definition:
There are several protected areas in this ecoregion, many of which harbor the last remaining populations of desert-dwelling ungulates. However, these parks are generally not well protected, managed, or funded, making them "paper parks" rather than effective sites for conservation. Protected areas in Ethiopia include Yangudi Rassa, Nechisar, Awash, Omo, and Mago National Parks, as well as Chew Bahr Wildlife Reserve and Babile Elephant Sanctuary. In Kenya, the Malka Mari National Park falls within this ecoregion and in Somalia, the Alifuuto (Arbowerow) Nature Reserve is found here, although there is no recent information about the status of this site.
So no south Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda here, only South Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia and north Kenya.
I have changed the description above to the following:
Meru on is on the Kenyan T-list, although its inclusion could be debated. Somalia and South Sudan are not signatories of the WH convention and their savannah is not protected. The Ethiopian sites are not on the T-list. Omo and Awash are both inscribed for cultural properties only, not encompassing the entire NPs.

Author Solivagant
#92 | Posted: 4 Mar 2014 16:43 | Edited by: Solivagant 
I have done a bit more searching on "Somali-Maasai" AND "Samburu" as I am pretty convinced that this is the most appropriate reserve in Kenya (together with the adjacent Shaba Nat Reserve) for assignment to this "natural region". I have visited it (many years ago) but I believe that the NP is still in reasonable nick. It does seem to be "different" in fauna from Meru - but i note what Kenya's T List entry says about that reserve!
a. See the first para of the section on Samburu here which assigns it to "Somali-Maasai" -
b. And this "The wildlife of Shaba notably includes the endangered Grevy's zebra, which does not roam the popular areas of southern Kenya. It's easily identified by its thinner stripes, white belly, round ears and light-colored nose. Other unique species to this region within the Somali-Maasai biome include reticulated giraffe, gerenuk, Somali ostrich and Beisa oryx." from

On the other hand ........ there are certainly other documents which seem to place virtually ALL of Kenya right down to N Tanzania within it. This seems to me to be unlikely but it may well be true that it is a transition zone. If it were the case of course then the existing WHS would seem to cover the zone! See page 12 para 3 of this which states -
"The dominant biogeographic unit in East Africa is the Somali-Maasai region which covers most of Kenya, the north east corner of Uganda and the northern plains of Tanzania"

Author Assif
#93 | Posted: 5 Mar 2014 04:41 | Edited by: Assif 
And on with habitats (C):

11) temprate deserts of central and eastern Asia - This includes the Central Asian Northern Desert of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, Central Asian Southern Desert of Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Both are with few natural reserves, but few human impacts. A notable exception is the Aral desaster in the Cetral Asian Northern Desert. Amu Darya is on the Turkmen T-list and Tigrovaya Balka on the Tajik T-list. Both represent the Central Asian Southern Desert. The Central Asian Northern Desert is represented by the mixed site of Sarmishsay (Uzbekistan), which, however, only lies at the desert periphery.
I cannot find out what other deserts could be meant (in Eastern Asia).

12) shrubland of the southern Caucasus - About 5% of the region's area have protective guidelines. Principal protected areas are Borjomi-Kharagauli National Park, Lagodekhi and Tusheti Strict Nature Reserves in Georgia, Caucasus Biosphere Reserve in Russia, and Zakatala Reserve in Azerbaijan. Colchis Forest is on the Georgian T-list. Western Caucasus is already inscribed (Russia).

13) shrubland of Southwest Australia - Although 11 percent is under protection the ecoregion is not well maintained. No representation on the T-list. ralia/Pages/conservation.aspx


Author Assif
#94 | Posted: 5 Mar 2014 15:28 | Edited by: Assif 
14) rainforests of Polynesia and Micronesia - apart from Tahiti, which was separately discussed, Polynesian rainforest is represented on the T-list by Sovi (Fiji) and Fagaloa (Samoa).
Micronesian rainforest are most prominent in Micronesia on the islands of Pohnpei, Kosrae and Chuuk. They are under no protection and are on no T-list.

15) mangroves of Eastern Papua and Northern Australia - Represented by Kakadu (Australia) on the list. Cape York (Australia) is planning inscription, but currently no T-list presence on the Australian side. The Papuan side is represented with Kikori, Transfly and Sepik (PNG T-list).

Author Assif
#95 | Posted: 5 Mar 2014 17:58 | Edited by: Assif 
16) Californian shrub - also called Chaparral. Can be further subdivided into three ecoregions:
coastal sage - greatly degraded in both Mexico and USA. No T-list entries.
montane chaparral - also degraded and fragmented. Ventana Wilderness Area (USA) is an exception. No T-list entry.
interior chaparral - The Carrizo Plain (USA) is the best example. An initiative to apply for a world heritage status failed. No T-list entries.

17) Central Mexico desert - better known as Chihuahuan Desert. Currently represented by Carlsbad Caverns on the list (USA), although it was entered for its geological features and is rather small. The best representative is Big Bend NP (USA). Mapimi and Ocampo are reserves on the Mexican side. No T-list entries.

18) rainforests of Southern Chile - better known as Valdivian forest. Several national parks in Argentina and Chile.
Los Alerces (Argentina) is on the T-list.

19) Mosquito Coast - Mosquitia includes two ecoregions. The Mosquito coastal pinte forest is not significant in its biodiversity.
Conversely, Caribbean Coast mangroves is a biodiversity hotspot of significance.
Although mostly in Nicargua the Nicaraguan side has fewer well preserved examples of the ecoregion (one example is Cerro Wawashan). The Honduran part includes Rio Platano, already inscribed. Ramasar reserves in Honduras are the Jeannette Kawas National Park, Barras de Cuero y Salado and Punta Izopo. No sites are on current T-lists.

Author Euloroo
#96 | Posted: 6 Mar 2014 04:41 
The Papuan side is represented with Kikori and Sepik (PNG T-list).

Also Trans-Fly as a possible transnational extension of Kakadu

Author winterkjm
#97 | Posted: 6 Mar 2014 12:16 
For Central Mexico: Biosphere Reserve Desert Mapimí (Durango), Ocampo Flora and Fauna Protected Area (adjacent to Big Bend, TX)

Author Assif
#98 | Posted: 8 Mar 2014 15:26 
20) temperate forests and shrubland of Central Chile - also known as Chilean Matorral. It is a transitional zone between the Valdivian rainforest and the Atacama Desert. It is not well protected and there are only few natural reserves, the largest of which is Cerro La Campana. No T-list entries.

21) grasslands of Falklands and Tierra del Fuego - Only few natural reserves such as Dicky Private Reserve (Falklands), the Reserva Costa Atlántica Tierra del Fuego (Argentina) and Magallanes National Reserve (Chile). No T-list entries.

22) tropical Andes shrub - also known as Central Andean Puna, distinct from the wet and dry Punas. This area encompasses southwestern Peru and northwestern Bolivia. It includes some reserves such as Tariquía, Aymara Lupaca and Salinas and Aguada Blanca (Peru) and Cordillera de Sama and Cotahuasi Subbasin (Bolivia). No T-list entries.

23) coastal deserts of Chile and Peru - made of the Atacama and the Sechura deserts. Several reserves such as Pampa del Tamarugal and Pan de Azucar (Chile). No T-list entries.

24) South Georgia - Well protected. Not on the British T-list.

Author Assif
#99 | Posted: 8 Mar 2014 15:44 
As to Macchie (Maquis), Dehesa (Montado) - these two are mentioned as habitat gaps. These are, by and large, different from other ecoregions in being the result of human interference. Anyone with some knowledge about these two?

Author hubert
#100 | Posted: 9 Mar 2014 13:25 
Dehesa (Montado)

This may refer to the cork oak forests in the Alentejo (montado) and in southwest Spain (dehesa). These areas are also used as pasture land. But they are also habitat for rare plants, birds (eg Spanish Eagle) and the Iberian Lynx. Thus, the classification as habitat gap would be correct. The cork oak forests are threatened as a consequence of the growing trend to use cheaper synthetic caps for wine bottles. If the production is no longer profitable, cork oak forests could be converted into olive groves.
I have not yet visited these regions, but I like to drink wine, and some months ago I had a discussion with a wine merchant (a Portuguese) on pros and cons of the several materials for bottle caps. I have learned, that I can help to protect old cultural landscapes and habitats by drinking wine with a natural cork, :)

Author Assif
#101 | Posted: 12 Mar 2014 07:34 
Montado (Dehesa) - not currently represented. Monfrague is on the Spanish T-list. None in Portugal.

Macchie (Maquis) - not currently represented. Arrabida on the Portugese T-list, Port-Cros on the French T-list, Sila on the Italian T-list, Olymp and Samaria on the Greek T-list and more.

Author Assif
#102 | Posted: 18 Mar 2014 05:37 
1) pastoralist cultures -
Mostly European examples are present (Hortobagy, Sami, St. Kilda, Causses and Cevennes, Madriu-Claror). African (Richtersveld) and Arab examples (Wadi Rum) are scarce. Central Asian examples, where pastoralism plays a major role, do not currently figure on the list except Orkhon which is mostly present for its sedentary archaeology.
African, Arab and Central Asian examples on the T-list are scarce. There are several Central Asian T-list sites (e.g., Binder Mts, Mongolia). I could find no African or Arab T-list sites.

Author Assif
#103 | Posted: 23 Mar 2014 18:53 | Edited by: Assif 
2) traditional production of crops such as wheat, barley,
maize, millet, cocoa, cotton, rubber, or fruits -
Unlike tobacco (Viniales), agave, taro (Kuk), rice (Hani), coffee, tea (Wuyi, Kyoto) and vineyards, the above mentioned crops are still missing from the list. Hacienda Chao (Venezuela) for Cacao and Land of Olives (Palestine) are on the T-list.

3) historic and traditional irrigation systems - Mostly covered by now.

4) human seasonal migration (transhumance) - Exists in mostly two forms: pastoralism covered above and hunter-gatherer societies. Hunter-gatherer societies are not covered in the list. Huichol Route (Mexico) and Trans-Fly (PNG) on the T-list. Spinifex (Australia), Hadza (Tanzania) and San (Botswana) are missing.

5) sacred and/or symbolic significance of certain natural
features such as mountains, volcanoes, forests, groves, etc - Mostly represented for Europe, Asia and Africa. Pacific and American representations are still missing. No T-list entries.

6) African, Asian and Pacific vernacular architecture - African and Asian are now represented. Pacific still missing (Toraja, Indonesia will probably make it in soon).

7) Non European technological properties - Some examples on the list (Humberstone, Iwami Ginzan, Loropeni, Mt railways of India, Rideau). Grand Canal will probably make it in soon. However, further properties are still missing, mostly USA, China and South America.

8) pre-industrial revolution technological properties (mining sites excluded) - So far only Moretus House (Belgium). Hall (Austria) and Kokino (Macedonia) are attempting inscription.

9) sites representing Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, and Judaism - Islam, Buddhism and Hinduism are now better represented.
Judaism is missing with Prague, Cracow, Trebic, Venice, Rome and Jerusalem as best representations. T-list entries include Joden Savanne (Suriname), synagogue of the Galilee (Israel) and probably a few German entries in the near future (Schum cities, Weisensee Cemetery, Erfurt Synagogue).
Other missing religions are Zoroastrianism, Sikhism, Shinto, all represented in the T-lists. For some reasons they are not mentioned in the gap report except Zoroastrianism in C.

10) modern heritage - Probably the greatest gap of all! We have already gathered several significant gaps of the modern era including Panama Canal, Chicago School (USA), space technology (USA, Kazakhstan), Hollywood CL (USA), Chernobyl (Ukraine), Guggenheim Museum (Spain), Olimpia Stadium (Germany), Tempelhof (Germany), Ford (USA) - all of which are not on current T-lists.
What we do have on current T-lists: Le Corbusier (transnational), Lloyd (USA), Salmona (Colombia), Diesde (Uruguay), Paimio (Finland), Degania (Israel), Westhoek (Belgium), Cubanacan (Cuba), Minsk (Belarussia) and some more (see age=0#msg8328).

11) cultural landscapes in Arab countries - Al Ain and Wadi Rum were close calls that ended up losing their CL status. Some T-list entries.

12) African archaeology, rock art, cultural routes and burial sites - archaeology (Mapungubwe, Great Zimbabwe, Loropeni), rock art (Chongoni, Tsodilo, Lope Okanda) and burial sites (Buganda) are now represented. Cultural routes (Slave route, Tanzania on the T-list) are still not represented.

Author winterkjm
#104 | Posted: 24 Mar 2014 01:47 | Edited by: winterkjm 
Hunter-gatherer societies are not covered in the list

Poverty Point (almost certain inscription in June) certainly pertains to advanced hunter-gatherer societies.

Author Solivagant
#105 | Posted: 24 Mar 2014 03:05 | Edited by: Solivagant 
African, Asian and Pacific vernacular architecture - African and Asian are now represented. Pacific still missing (Toraja, Indonesia will probably make it in soon)

PNG - The Upper Sepik "Mixed" T List entry contains Melanesian vernacular architecture. From the description - "The area is famed for the gabled spirit houses or "haus tambarans", one of the most dramatic examples of indigenous Melanesian architecture, and a very rich ceremonial carving and music tradition." I notice that the Transfly entry is also categorised as "mixed" but the description doesn't describe any cultural aspects other than "The cultural links across the border with Papua, Indonesia are significant - many groups share languages and cultural traditions and many sacred sites and ancestor routes are important to groups on both sides of the border."

modern heritage - Probably the greatest gap of all!

Perhaps not really a "gap" but rather "under-represented" at least at that "high level" of categoriation? In addition to the T List sites you mention can be added New Delhi as part of "Delhi - Heritage City"- which is of course "active". Interestingly if Westhoek AND New Delhi are both inscribed then the architect Sir Edwin Lutyens would gain 2 inscriptions in quick time!!

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