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Filling Up the Gaps

 
 
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Author Assif
Partaker
#76 | Posted: 9 Jan 2014 17:16 | Edited by: Assif 
I thought it might be worthwhile to go through my suggestions for filling up the gaps and see how many of the proposed sites are on the national tentative lists.

1) Hacienda Chuao (Venezuela) - yes
2) Agricultural Landscape of the Midwest (USA): Homestead National Monument (Nebraska),
Morrow Plots (Illinois), Sanborn Field and Soil Erosion Plots (Missouri) - no
3) Korowai tree houses (PNG) - no
4) Ford River Rouge Complex (USA) - no
5) Hollywood studios and movie palaces (USA) - no
6) Trans-Siberian Railway (Russia) - no
7) Baikonur Cosmodrome / Cape Canaveral (Kazakhstan, USA) - no
8) Chernobyl (Ukraine) - no
9) Mecca (Saudi Arabia) - no
10) Schum cities (Germany) - no
11) Golden Gate Bridge (USA) - no
12) Chicago School of architecture (USA) - no
13) Miami Art Deco (USA) - no
14) Watts Tower (USA) - no
15) Munich Olympic Stadium (Germany) - no
16) Tempelhof (Germany) - no
17) Moscow undergound (Russia) - no
18) Guggenheim Bilbao (Spain) - no
19) Jordell Bank Observatory (UK) - yes
20) Babylon (Iraq) - yes
21) Ur (Iraq) - yes
22) Ninveh (Iraq) - yes
23) Nimrud (Iraq) - yes
24) Abydos (Egypt) - yes
25) Siwa (Egypt) - yes
26) Bursa (Turkey) - yes
27) Konya (Turkey) - yes
28) Lycian cities (Turkey) - yes
29) Gobekli tepe (Turkey) - yes
30) Ahlat (Turkey) - yes
31) Silk Road - yes
32) Nan Madol (Micronesia) - yes
33) Marae (France) - yes
34) Lapita sites (Samoa) - yes
35) Sites of Congo, Lunda and Luba empires (Rep Congo, Angola) - M'banza (Angola) yes
36) Huaca del Sol (Peru) - no
37) Kuhikugu (Brazil) - no
38) Monte Verde (Chile) - yes
39) Ciudad Perdida (Colombia) - yes
40) Guyalbo (Costa Rica) - no
41) San Lorenzo de Tenochtitlan (Mexico) - no
42) Caguana (USA) - no
43) Oxford and Cambrdige (UK) - no
44) the Kibbutz (Israel) - yes
45) Civil Rights Movement (USA) - yes
46) Nuremberg Trials room (Germany) - no
47) Ellis Island (USA) - no
48) Qapaq Nan - yes
49) Hangar Y (France) - yes
50) Gobi Desert (Mongolia and China) - yes (China only)
51) Svalbard (Norway) - yes
52) Andaman (India) - no
53) Benguella Current (South Africa, Namibia, Angola, DR Congo) - no
54) Fiji marine (Fiji) - no
55) Karoo Desert (South Africa and Namibia) - yes (South Africa only)
56) Maldives and Chagos atolls (Maldives and UK) - no
57) New Caledonia forests (France) - no
58) Red Sea (Israel, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Yemen and Eritrea) - yes (Egypt only - Ras Mohamad)
59) Sudd-Sahelian savanna (Cameroon, Chad, Ethiopia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Sudan, Uganda and South Sudan) - yes (Cameroon, Chad and others)
60) Tahiti natural reserves (France) - no
61) Volga and Lena river deltas (Russia) - no
62) Okavango (Botswana) - yes
63) Eastern Arc Mts (Tanzania, Kenya) - yes
64) Atlas Mts (Morocco) - yes (Talassemtane)
65) tropical mangroves of Kenya, Mozambique and Tanzania - yes
66) Somali-Maasai savanna (Somalia, Kenya) - yes (Kenya only)
67) Sub-tropical forests of Cambodia - no
68) shrubland of the southern Caucasus (Armenia) - yes
69) shrubland and savannahs of Southwest Australia (Australia) - no
70) rainforests of Polynesia and Micronesia (France, Samoa, Tonga, Fiji, USA and Micronesia) - yes (only Samoa and Fiji)
71) mangroves of Eastern Papua and Northern Australia (PNG and Australia) - yes (PNG only - Sepik)
72) Californian shrub (USA and Mexico) - no
73) rainforests of Southern Chile (Chile, Argentina) - yes
74) Miskito Coast (Nicaragua) - no
75) temperate forests and shrubland of Central Chile (Chile) - no
76) grasslands of Falklands and Tierra del Fuego (Argentina, Chile and UK) - no
77) tropical Andes (Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Colombia) - yes
78) coastal deserts of Chile and Peru - no
79) South Georgia (UK) - no
80) maquis (Spain, Portugal, France and Italy) - yes
82) montado of Portugal and Spain - yes
83) Chicxulub (Mexico) - yes
84) Colorado Plateau (USA) - yes (Petrified Forest NP)

Author Solivagant
Partaker
#77 | Posted: 9 Jan 2014 18:37 
Kibbutz Israel
Degania and Nahalal are on Israel's T List representing a Moshav and a Kibbutz I guess.
Have just visited each of them!!

Author Assif
Partaker
#78 | Posted: 1 Mar 2014 15:08 | Edited by: Assif 
I think it could be worthwhile, now that we have the current top 50 missing, to go through the gaps and see whether we could come up with any interesting suggestions.
I came up with a list in the past, but there is still a lot of work to be done, extending and specifying it. For some of the natural sites, as some members commented, there is no specific reserve mentioned. Some other gaps have been ignored (some cultural gaps for which I had no ideas). The thematic studies of marine sites and deserts have also been ignored.
This summed up, I think we could try to establish a list of suggestions for filling up each of the gaps. In order to do so, I thought of compiling a list of all the gaps discussed so far:

Cultural gaps:

A:
1) pastoralist cultures
2) traditional production of crops such as wheat, barley,
maize, millet, cocoa, cotton, rubber, or fruits
3) historic and traditional irrigation systems
4) human seasonal migration (transhumance)
5) sacred and/or symbolic significance of certain natural
features such as mountains, volcanoes, forests, groves, etc
6) African, Asian and Pacific vernacular architecture
7) Non European technological properties
8) pre-industrial revolution technological properties (mining sites excluded)
9) sites representing Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, and Judaism
10) modern heritage
11) cultural landscapes in Arab countries
12) African archaeology, rock art, cultural routes and burial sites

And now to category B:

1) Ancient Mesopotamian cultures
2) Anatolian cultures
3) Ancient Egypt
4) Seljuk and Ottoman Empires
5) Central Asia (cultural)
6) Pacific except Australia (cultural)
7) Central Africa (cultural), e.g. Bantu states
8) Post independence sites from the Americas
9) Precolumbian cultures (except Mayan)

and category C:

1) expressions of oral traditions,
music, education, philosophy, health and justice
2) rural settlements
3) modern towns (19th century onward)
4) necropolises
5) industrial landscapes
6) Zoroastrianism
7) living indigenous beliefs
8) hunting-gathering-fishing
9) places of mythical origin (whatever this should mean!)
10) cultural routes
11) migration-nomadism-slavery
12) land roads
13) aviation
14) energy conversion and utilisation (wind power,
water energy, steam, coal, electricity, thermonuclear energy,
etc.)

rock art thematic study:
http://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CCwQFjAA&url=http% 3A%2F%2Fwhc.unesco.org%2Fdocument%2F104947&ei=2jgSU_LdI-WV7AaslICgCQ&usg=AFQjCNF8KECv -6SfmtlmZuXHE2MYgdv87w&sig2=1MTLIrCJdjLOoWDl7Q8LxA&bvm=bv.62286460,d.ZGU
Pecos River

astronomy thematic study:
http://www2.astronomicalheritage.net/index.php/thematic-study-content

Caribbean cultural sites:
http://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CC8QFjAA&url=http% 3A%2F%2Fwhc.unesco.org%2Fuploads%2Fevents%2F66-report.doc&ei=5DYSU-jIA-i47AbY9oCIBA&u sg=AFQjCNEVp12hhJIXaEE2ecBawkx8ZkOKfw&sig2=zVLBRiuUeDWju0gMNFDx2g&bvm=bv.62286460,d.Z GU

Natural sites:

A
1) cold winter deserts
2) tundras
3) polar systems

B
1) Andaman
3) Benguela Current
4) Central Asian deserts
5) Fiji (marine)
6) Gulf of California
7) Karoo desert
8) Madagascar moist forests
9) Maldives-Chagos atolls
10) New Caledonia dry and moist forests
11) Palau
12) Red Sea
13) Soqotra
14) Sudd-Sahelian savanna and flooded grasslands
15) Tahiti
16) Volga and Lena river deltas
17) Western Ghats

And now to habitats (C):

1) Cape Floral
2) Okavango (and Sudd)
3) Eastern Arc Mts
4) Atlas Mts
5) Rift Valley Lakes
6) tropical mangroves of Kenya, Mozambique and Tanzania
7) Namib and Kalahari deserts
8) Somali-Maasai savannah
9) Sub-tropical forests of Cambodia
10) tropical montane forests of Sumatra, Philippines and Sulawesi
11) temprate deserts of central and eastern Asia
12) shrubland of the southern Caucasus
13) shrubland and savannahs of Southwest Australia
14) rainforests of Polynesia and Micronesia
15) mangroves of Eastern Papua and Northern Australia
16) Californian shrub
17) Central Mexico desert
18) rainforests of Southern Chile
19) Mosquito
20) temperate forests and shrubland of Central Chile
21) grasslands of Falklands and Tierra del Fuego
22) tropical Andes
23) coastal deserts of Chile and Peru
24) South Georgia
25) European saline wetlands
26) maquis
27) montado of Portugal and Spain

thematic study geology:
http://whc.unesco.org/uploads/activities/documents/activity-504-1.pdf
1) tectonic and structural features
2) stratigraphic sites
3) meteorite impact
4) deserts

thematic study deserts:
http://data.iucn.org/dbtw-wpd/edocs/2011-006.pdf
1) Lut Desert
2) Western Desert Egypt
3) The Chotts
4) Thar Desert
5) Band-e-Amir
6) Las Parinas
7) Ennedi and Tibetsi
8) Atacama
9) Gobi
10) Wadi Howar
11) Sabkha
12) Badain Jaran
13) Arches
14) Colorado Plateau
15) Death Valley
16) Lake Bonneville
17) Bodele Depression
18) Kimberley Mts
19) Hunza Valley

thematic study marine sites:
http://whc.unesco.org/en/marine-programme/
1) Scotia Sea
2) Agulhas
3) Easter Island
4) Benguela
5) Gulf of Guinea
6) Arabian Sea
7) Central Indian Ocean Islands
8) Humboldt Current
9) Northwest Atlantic

Author Assif
Partaker
#79 | Posted: 1 Mar 2014 17:57 | Edited by: Assif 
I would be happy to start with the cultural gaps in B.

1) Ancient Mesopotamian cultures:
The major Mesopotamian cultures are the Sumerian, Akkadian, Babylonian and Assyrian. These major civilizations are now only represented by a single WHS: Ashur.
Major Sumerian sites: Ur, Uruk, Eridu, Nippur, Lagash and Mari. All of these cities were later occupied by the Akkadians and the Babylonians
The location of the city of Akkad is unknown. The most significant city related to the Akkadian culture is Ebla, which is outside Mesopotamia.
Babylon was the capital city of the Babylonian Empire.
The major Assyrian cities are Ashur, Harran, Nimrud and Nineveh.
Of all these sites Nimrud, Nineveh, Harran, Babylon, Ur, Ebla and Mari are on the T lists (Mari and Ebla are in Syria, Harran in Turkey and the rest in Iraq). In order to fill up the gap Ur, Mari, Ebla, Babylon and one of the later Assyrian sites would probably have to be included.

2) Anatolian cultures:
Anatolian cultures include (chronologically unordered) the Lycians, Phrygians, Hurrians, Hittites, Assuwans, Lydians as well as neolithic sites. The most important sites are Troy (Assuwan), Ephesos (Lydian), Gordium (Phrygian), Erbil and Ahlat (Hurrians), Hattusha (Hittite), Dalyan (Lycian) and Goebeklitepe and Catalhoeyuek (Neolithic). Of these Catalhoeyuek, Troy and Hattusha are WHSs. Nonetheless, all other sites are on the Turkish T-list (except Erbil which is on the Iraqi T-list). The Turkish T-list even lists some further more minor sites belonging to these cultures. In order to fill up this gap sites representing each of these cultures would probably have to get inscribed.

3) Ancient Egypt: The most significant missing sites are on the T-list: Siwa, Fayoum, Amarna and Dahshour. Ancient Egypt currently has three WHSs. It was such an important ancient culture that it probably deserves at least several more nominations.

4) Seljuk and Ottoman Empires: Since the publication of the gap document several Ottoman sites have been nominated (Edirne, Visegrad, Butrint, Mostar). Other major Ottoman sites include Istanbul and Saftanbolu. A missing site would be Bursa which is the origin of the Ottomans.
The Seljuk Empire is currently represented only by Dvirigi. Konya is meant to fill up this gap.
Both Konya and Bursa are on the Turkish T-list and would have to be included to close this gap.

5) Central Asia (cultural) - With the expected nomination of the two silk road entries this gap is probably going to be closed. The major cultural sites from this area have now been nominated (Merv, Bukhara, Urgench, Turkestan, Khiva, Samarkand, Nisa). Other sites are the Neolithic Sarasm, the sacred Mt Soleyman-To and the rock art of Tamgaly.
The postmodern architecture of Astana could be an interesting contribution.

6) Pacific except Australia (cultural) - This gap involves several sub-categories: Pacific archaeology, living indigenous religions, colonial and modern heritage, agricultural practices and vernacular architecture. I will address each of them separately:
Archaeology - Major sites are the Lapita sites from Tonga and Samoa (T-list), Rapa Nui (inscribed), Nan Madol, Micronesia (T-list) and Raiatea, French Polynesia (T-list).
Rock art is represented in Rock Island (Palau) and Roi Mata (Vanuatu).
Living indigenous religions - Probably best represented by CLs. Represented on the list with Tongariro (NZ) and Roi Mata (Vanuatu). Manono CL (Samoa) is on the T list. Papuan religious practices are not currently represented (Trans-Fly and Sepik on the T-list could relate). The rock money of Micronesia is on the T-list of Palau and Micronesia.
Agricultural pratices - Kuk (PNG) is currently the only WHS. Houn (PNG) is on the T-list. No sites from Polynesia, which is a major shortcoming.
Modern and Colonial sites: Levuka (Fiji) and Bikini (Marshalls) are WHSs. Napier (NZ) is on the T-list.
Vernacular architecture: Most prominent examples are from Papua, e.g. the Korowai tree houses that are unique in the entire world (West Papua). No such sites are on current T-lists.
To close this gap several further nominations would be necessary. Nan Madol, Lapita sites and Rajatea are probably compulsory. Indigenous CLs, Polynesian agricultural practices and vernacular architecture have to be elaborated. Examples of postulated CLs are presented in http://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=3&ved=0CEAQFjAC&url=http% 3A%2F%2Fwhc.unesco.org%2Fdocument%2F10061&ei=u1oSU7HWMOSK4gT2nYDwCA&usg=AFQjCNHVqgaZ3 NgqJwuqbMjD8y1hiH28fg&sig2=liphfQ_kcwROKMAFVhDQ0g&bvm=bv.62286460,d.bGE.
Only one of them (North Kohala, Hawaii) represents Polynesian agricultural practices. None include examples of vernacular architecture.

7) Central Africa (cultural), e.g. Bantu states:
Currently only Lope-Okanda (Gabon). There were three Bantu states: Kongo, Luba and Lunda. Only Kongo is on the T-list: M'Banza Kongo (Angola). The other two are not represented. The less known kingdom of Mbe is on the Rep. Congolese T-list.
Colonial sites are represented on the T-list: Albert Schweizer Hospital (Gabon), Loango (Rep. Congo) and churches (Angola). Cultural landscapes (Minkebe, Gabon) and rock art (DRCongo) are present on the T-lists.
In order to close up this gap several nominations are necessary: M'Banza Kongo and some Luba/Lunda site for the Bantu kingdoms and at least some colonial site.

8) Post independence sites from the Americas: I shall skip this category as all independent states in the Americas are relatively new and fall under the categories of modern heritage, modern town planning and non-European technological sites.

9) Precolumbian cultures (except Mayan): Major cultures are Inuit (Eskimo), Mississipi, Pueblo, Olmec, Zapotec, Aztec, Intermediate Zone, Taino, Amazonian, Chachapoyas, Wari, Inca, Moche/Chimu, Paracas/Nazca, Pachacamac, Caral, Chavin, Chinchorro, Tiwanaku, Atacama, Palaeoindian.
Some of the cultures are (well) represented: Pueblo (Chaco, Taos, Mesa Verde), Mississippi (Cahokia), Zapotec (Monte Alban, Mitla), Aztec (Mexico City, Teotihuacan), Caral, Chavin, Tiwanaku and Nazca.
Inuit is a living culture and has some T-list entries (Canada, Greenland) for CLs.
No Olmec sites have been left authentic and worthy of inscription.
The Intermediate Zone is represented by Tierradentro and Agustin (Colombia). Ciudad Perdida (Colombia) and Guyalbo (Costa Rica) are major sites that are missing. CP is on the T-list. Guyalbo was on the CR T-list and has been removed.
Taino culture is not represented and has no T-list entries. The most prominent site is Caguana (Puerto Rico).
No Amazonian sites are present. The most prominent one is Kuhikugu (Brazil), not on T-list.
Rio Abiseo has some Chachapoyas representation, but the major site of Kuelap is missing (on T-list).
Wari (Peru) is not on the T-list.
The Inca culture is heavily underrepresented, with only Machu Picchu, Cuzco and maybe Chapaq Nan next year. Some further nominations such as Ingapirca (Ecuador T-list), Titicaca (Bolvia T-list), Sacred Valley sites and Otuzco (Peru, not on T-list) are mandatory.
Chan-Chan represents the Moche-Chimu culture, but further nominations are necessary (Tucume, Huaca de la luna, Tumba de Sican - none on the T-list.
Pachacamac, Chinchorro and Atacama are all on the current T-lists (Peru, Chile, Chile).
The Palaeoindian culture is only represented in Sierro de Capivara (Brazil) and Cueva de las Manos (Argentina). The major Monte Verde is on the Chilean T-list.
In order to close up this gap multiple nominations would be necessary. Ciudad Perdida, Guyalbo, Kuhikugu, Caguana, Ingapirca, Chapaq Nan, Sacred Valley, Otuzco, Titicaca, Tucume, Huaca de la Luna, Monte Verde, San Pedro de Atacama, Kuelap and some more minor sites would be necessary.

Author Solivagant
Partaker
#80 | Posted: 2 Mar 2014 04:49 | Edited by: Solivagant 
Assif:
I would be happy to start with the cultural gaps in B.


Wow - very thorough (and interesting)! What more can be said?

One thing might be that the list of sub categories under "Cultural B" ("chronological-regional " I believe) itself seems to have some "gaps" in it. Obviously not your "fault" Assif, you have taken what the gap analysis said and "run with it" but it does, on close study, seem incomplete. So, for instance as you have identified, the sub-category "Post independence sites from the Americas" doesn't seem to add a great deal -so, why is it there, especially when there are other potential "chronological regional" sub categories which don't get a mention (e.g S Asian)? Now, is that because the group identifiying the gaps didn't think that there were any gaps remaining among these latter or was it because their list was incomplete?

It seems to me that your excellent analysis of the "missing" sites under the listed sub-categories grinds a lot smaller than do the currently inscribed sites in respect of other potential "chronological-regional" categories. I think of the major historical Indian cultures and empires (Maratha, Chola, Gupta, Vijayanagara etc) which also have major gaps. Are the Ottoman Empire and Anatolian sub categories for instance that badly served on the inscribed list compared with these? My (possibly ill informed) viewpoint is that, whilst there are undoubted gaps among both Anatolian and Ottoman/Seljuk sub categories so there are under those of the Indian sub-continent. Yet the "gap analysis" ignores them.

Author Assif
Partaker
#81 | Posted: 2 Mar 2014 05:12 
I fully agree.

Author Khuft
Partaker
#82 | Posted: 2 Mar 2014 07:35 
Great summary, Assif!

One question on the Anatolian gap: did you consider the Urartu civilisation in eastern anatolia / armenia? Possible sites could be Van (Turkey) and Yerevan (Armenia), which have citadels from that culture.

Author kkanekahn
Partaker
#83 | Posted: 2 Mar 2014 14:13 
Volcanic features
Fissure volcanoes - 1) extension of Žingvellir NP WHS, Iceland, 2) future inscription of Mżvatn-Laxa area, Iceland, tentative site (this will include the volcano Krafl)
Hyaloclastic mountains (tuyas) and ridges - 1)future nomination tuya from type-area in Canada; 2) extension of Žingvellir NP WHS, Iceland
Icelandic type shield volcano- : 1) extension of Žingvellir NP WHS, Iceland, to include Skjaldbreišur, 2) future inscription of extended Heršubreišarlindir-Askja site on Iceland's tentative list
Continental Flood Basalts- Columbia Flood Basalt Province, USA and/or Deccan Traps, India

Resurgent calderas- 1) Taal ; 2) Valles Caldera, New Mexico, USA; Toba Caldera, Indonesia;
and Cerro Galįn Caldera, Argentina.

Large ash flows and ignimbrite sheets/plateaus - : Las Parinas
Intrusive landforms- Shiprock, New Mexico, USA; Scottish Tertiary Igneous Province, UK

Whole landscapes

Basaltic plains- , Snake River Plain, Idaho, USA, or extension of Heršubreišarlindir-Askja
Iconic sites
Mt St Helens and Crater Lake, USA;
Mt Pelee, Martinique; Laki, Iceland; Mt Mayon, Philippines;
Thera, Greece

Author kkanekahn
Partaker
#84 | Posted: 2 Mar 2014 14:27 
These are copied from IUCN volcano thematic study

IUCN karst thematic study
Band-E-Amir (Afghanistan), Canyon du Rio Peruaēu (Brazil), and Gewihaba
(Botswana). The Lijiang River Scenic Zone (China) and Velebit Mountain (Croatia)
Dinaric Karst of Europe
Gewihaba, Great Desert Landscapes, Parc Natural de Talassemtane
Svalbard Archipelago

Author Assif
Partaker
#85 | Posted: 2 Mar 2014 17:00 
Kkanekahn - thanks for the input. I'll add it to the review.
Khuft - Ahlat is the Urartu citadel near Van. I dubbed it Hurrians as it is related to Erbil of Iraq.
Solivagant - I gave your point about India a thought. I still concur, however, I think I did get the idea behind the choices made in the report. When it was released Anatolian cultures were represented by two sites, Mesopotamian by one, Ottomans and Seljuks by three sites, Ancient Egypt by three sites, South-American Precolumbian sites by 10 sites for all cultures. Central Asia was barely represented, as well as the Pacific. I just think the situation for the cultures they mentioned was indeed more accute. This said, when holding a gap analysis now, things have gratefully much improved. Now it does appear somewhat biased to only deal with some cultures and not others.

Author Assif
Partaker
#86 | Posted: 2 Mar 2014 17:35 | Edited by: Assif 
I continue here, since I see the reactions seem to stick to the old post.

And I proceed with natural gaps A and B.

A
1) cold winter deserts - I will now skip this gap as it is covered in the detailed desert thematic study.

2) tundras - Since the publication of the gaps Wrangel and Lena Pillars and Putorana have been inscribed (all Russia). Subantarctic tundra is also represented - Macquarie, Subantarctic Islands (Australia and NZ respectively). Northamerican tundra is represented by Waterton NP (Canada/USA). Further gaps that are particularly mentioned are South Georgia, Falklands and Svalbard. These will be discussed separately. When these are inscribed tundra will not constitute a gap any longer.

3) polar systems - Tundras have been discussed above. Non-tundra polar sites currently include Surtsey, Kluane/Glacier Bay and Ilulissat (Iceland, Canada/Alaska, Greenland). Unlike the Arctic biomes, the Antarctic ones are barely represented (only Macquarie and Subantartic Islands). South Georgia and Falkland are particularly mentioned. Further sites are on the Greenlandian and Candian T-lists. Once the suggested habitats are inscribed polar systems will not constitute a gap any longer.

B
1) Andaman Sea- The Indian controlled area of the islands is protected in the Gandhi Marine Reserve. Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia also share marine reserves in the area (e.g., Tarutao NP in Thailand). None of the sites is on current T-lists.

3) Benguela Current - Not on current T-lists. The Benguela Commission of South Africa, Nambia and Angola currently takes care of preservation.
http://www.benguelacc.org/index.php/en/large-marine-ecosystems/the-african-lmes/the-b enguela-current-lme

4) Central Asian deserts - To be discussed in the desert thematic study.

5) Fiji (marine) - Fiji currently doesn't protect its marine territory. Plans are underway for the establishment of a marine reserve.
http://wwf.panda.org/who_we_are/wwf_offices/fiji_islands/our_work/protected_areas/

7) Karoo desert - On the South-African T-list (as a mixed site).

9) Maldives-Chagos atolls - Neither are on current T-lists. Baa Atoll in the Maldives is a Unesco Biosphere Reserve. http://www.unesco.org/new/en/natural-sciences/environment/ecological-sciences/biosphe re-reserves/asia-and-the-pacific/maldives/baa-atoll/
Other atolls are well maintained, but not officially protected.
Chagos Marine Reserve protects the Chagos atolls. www.chagos-trust.org/about/chagos-marine-reserve

10) New Caledonia dry and moist forests - A major biodiversity hotspot of universal significance. Three major reserves in New Caledonia:
Grandes Fougere http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parc_des_Grandes_Foug%C3%A8res
Riviere Bleu http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parc_provincial_de_la_Rivi%C3%A8re_Bleue
Dumbea http://www.province-sud.nc/content/le-parc-provincial-de-la-dumb%C3%A9a
None of these are on the current French T-list.

12) Red Sea - The most important portion is at the Sinai peninsula is well protected in national parks. Ras Mohammad is on the Egyptian T-list. Another site further south are Suakin (Sudanese T-list). Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Djibouti and Eritrea have no sites on the T-lists.

14) Sudd-Sahelian savanna and flooded grasslands - This global ecoregion is divided to the Sudd (South Sudan), Inner Niger Delta flooded savanna (Mali) and Lake Chad flooded savanna (Chad, Cameroon, Niger and Nigeria).
Lake Chad flooded savanna is currently only represented by Ounianga (Chad). Lake Chad itself is on the T-list of Chad, Cameroon and Niger.
Inner Niger Delta flooded savanna is not currently on the list or T-list of Mali. It is a Ramsar Wetland reserve though. http://www.wetlands.org/Whatwedo/Ouractions/InnerNigerDelta,Mali/tabid/1045/Default.a spx
The Sudd is not represented and South Sudan hasn't yet ratified the convention. It is, however, well protected.

15) Tahiti - Tahiti is currently neither inscribed nor on the French T-list. It has several reserves, the most prominent of which is Te Faaiti. http://www.environnement.pf/spip.php?rubrique58

16) Volga and Lena river deltas - Lena Delta Wildlife Reserve is a protected area. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lena_Delta_Wildlife_Reserve
The Volga river delta is not officially protected and suffers from pollution.
Neither sites are on the current Russian T-list. An attempt is made to inscribe them.
http://www.nhpfund.org/nominations/volga_delta.html

Author Durian
Partaker
#87 | Posted: 2 Mar 2014 20:41 | Edited by: Durian 
I am quite curious about the word Andaman. Does the report mean Andaman Island or Andaman Sea? As now there is no WHS in both definition and Andaman sea has many outstanding sites that can be WHS like Andaman island itself, Mergui Archipelago, Surin and Similan Islands or even Phangnga Bay if we consider upper Malacca Strait as part of Andaman Sea.

Author Assif
Partaker
#88 | Posted: 3 Mar 2014 05:35 | Edited by: Assif 
Durian, you are right about Andaman. It is the marine reserve and not the islands that are on the gap list. These include Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia, as well as India which controls the islands. There are several marine reserves in the area. None of the sites are on current T-lists.

Author Assif
Partaker
#89 | Posted: 4 Mar 2014 08:39 | Edited by: Assif 
And now to habitats (C):

2) Okavango (and Sudd) - Okavango is up for inscription next year (Botswana). Sudd (South Sudan) is on no T-list.

3) Eastern Arc Mts - On the Tanzanian T-list. It was put forwards for inscription and then withdrawn due to criticism about road construction in planning. The Kenyan section is on its T-list.

4) Atlas Mts - Represnted on the Moroccan T-list (Talassemtane, Ajgal).

6) East African mangroves - Protected areas containing mangroves include Mafia Island Marine Park, Jozani National Park and Sadaani Game Reserve in Tanzania; Watamu Marine National Park and Ras Tenewi Marine National Park in Kenya; and Bazaruto Marine National Park, Ilhas da Inhaca e dos Portugueses Faunal Reserve, Marromeu Game Reserve, Pomene Game Reserve, and Maputo Game Reserve in Mozambique. Jozani in Tanzania and Quirimbas in Mozamique are on the current T-lists.

7) Namib and Kalahari deserts - Namib Desert has been inscribed (Namibia). Kalahari is on the Botswanan T-list.

8) Somali-Maasai savannah - Several reserves in Ethiopia and Kenya:
Protected areas in Ethiopia include Yangudi Rassa, Nechisar, Awash, Omo, and Mago National Parks, as well as Chew Bahr Wildlife Reserve and Babile Elephant Sanctuary. In Kenya, the Malka Mari National Park falls within this ecoregion and in Somalia, the Alifuuto (Arbowerow) Nature Reserve is found here, although there is no recent information about the status of this site.
Meru on is on the Kenyan T-list, although its inclusion in this habitat could be debated. Somalia and South Sudan are not signatories of the WH convention and their savannah is not protected. The Ethiopian sites are not on the T-list. Omo and Awash are both inscribed for cultural properties only, not encompassing the entire NPs.

9) Sub-tropical forests of Cambodia - 20 percent of the country is protected under IUCN. No T-list entry. http://rainforests.mongabay.com/deforestation/archive/Cambodia.htm

10) tropical montane forests of Sumatra, Philippines and Sulawesi - Sumatran tropical forests have been inscribed.
The Filipino rainforest is in general not well maintained. Puerto Princesa has been inscribed. Batanes, Hamiguitan and others are on the Filipino T-list.
Sulawesi includes several reserves. Bunaken is on the Indonesian T-list.

TBC

Author Solivagant
Partaker
#90 | Posted: 4 Mar 2014 12:47 | Edited by: Solivagant 
Assif:
Somali-Maasai savannah - Several reserves in Kenya the most famous of which is Nairobi. Meru on is on the Kenyan T-list. Somalia is not a signatory of the WH convention and its savannah is not protected.


Assif, have you been able to access a map of the "Somali-Maasai Savannah" in order to fully determine the area's boundaries?
It appears that it is a very specific term orginally "coined" by one Frank White who devised a classification system for African vegetation - one of which he called "Somali-Maasai Savannah"
See more here -
http://cbp.carbon2markets.org/cbp/planning/usefultrees.pdf

Unfortunately i have not (as yet!) been able to access a good version of his map. The rather fuzzy versions I have found so far seem to show the area as being primarily in Somalia extending only into Northern Kenya together with parts of Ethiopia. But they do NOT seem to go as far south as Nairobi. The NP at Nairobi is in any case little more than a glorified zoo and I can't believe it is anything special as regards its flora/fauna other than that because it is so small they have managed to keep some rhino there!! I would be VERY surprised if Meru NP fitted in either - I have been there and its location actually results in it getting quite a lot of rain and it even has swamps! I would have thought that Samburu NP (which i have also visited) would have been the most likely Kenyan NP to fit into the Somali-Maasai categorisation. It is for instance the only NP in Kenya to contain Grevy's Zebra. Wiki says this of its ecological niche -
"The Grévy's zebra largely inhabits northern Kenya, with some isolated populations in Ethiopia.It was extirpated from Somalia and Djibouti and its status in South Sudan is uncertain.It lives in Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and barren plains. Ecologically, this species is intermediate between the arid-living African wild ass and the water-dependent plains zebra"
It is true that it is situated well north of today's Maasai Tribal homelands but the indigenous Samburu are related to the Maasai and Mr White may not have been referring specifically to the tribal lands. Unless you have "better" inforamtion that would be my judgement on the matter.

I have, in addition found this which refers to the term and suggests that "outliers" of it extend as far as Lake Turkana - but I would NOT propose we use that as enough "evidence"!!
http://worldwildlife.org/ecoregions/at1313

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