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Adding Categories to TWHS

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Author Solivagant
#181 | Posted: 13 Nov 2021 13:28 | Edited by: Solivagant 
Benguela Current Marine Ecosystem Sites (Mixed) Factories & Industry/ Coastal & Marine ("globally unique guano platforms of Namibia, built at suitable localities on the coast that allows sustainable industrial harvesting of organic fertilizer"... "large marine ecosystem along the coast of south-western Africa"... "Small islands immediately offshore the Namibian coast".... "vast colonies of Cape Fur Seal (at) upwelling centres along the coast, e.g. near Lüderitz, Cape Cross and Cape Frio.". Issues – Will mainland based areas like Cape Cross be included as well as the islands? I assume so, though our coordinates do not, hence non use of "Insular". Would prefer "Agriculture" to Industry if it could include "Harvesting" – same issue at Lofoten)

Brandberg National Monument Area (Mixed) - Rock Art/ Religious Site Indigenous / Flora /Fauna ("exceptionally rich palaeo-arch heritage..more than 43,000 paintings.....a spiritual site of great significance to the San (Bushman) tribes." There is a list of significant endemism of plants, insects and fauna in the Park – either to the park alone or to Namibia – facilitated by the climatic conditions, Both Fauna & Flora??)

Etosha Pan – Natural Fauna/ ??? (Dry saline desert with occasional partial flooding surrounded by grasslands..... vast herds of giraffes etc, their....predators... one of the largest and healthiest populations of black rhino in the world." Cant really choose a specific "ecosystem" – covered by the Fauna?)

Fishriver Canyon – Natural Eroded ("2nd largest canyon in the World after the Grand Canyon"....Continental uplift..... tectonic trough....Erosion". No particular ecosystem/Flora etc - same as GC)

Okavango Delta (Extn) – Wetlands (Note that the existing WHS doesn't have "Fauna" as a category. Should it? Just "wetlands" rather undersells it)

Sān Living Cultural Landscape – CL Continuing ("traditional land-use of the Sān and the artistic results of their beliefs and traditions in rock art. The living hunter-gatherer culture". Does it justify "Rock art" as well? Or even "Religious Indigenous? Or is everything picked up by CL? We do have Rock art for Matabo which is CL Assoc)

Succulent Karoo Protected Areas (Namibia) - Flora ("hallmark of the Succulent Karoo is its exceptionally diverse and endemic-rich flora...due to massive speciation of an arid-adapted biota in response to unique climatic conditions and high environmental heterogeneity.")

Welwitschia Plains –- Flora ("most notable feature....presence of the highest concentration of Welwitschia mirahilis plants .. in Namibia....endemic to the Namib Desert and semi-desert, it is also taxonomically very distinct, being the only representative in its family, and only one of three species in the order Gnetales.")

Author elsslots
#182 | Posted: 14 Nov 2021 03:32 | Edited by: elsslots 

Burkina Faso,
Cour royale de Tiébélé - Palace + Religious indigenous
La réserve de Biosphère de la Mare aux Hippopotames de Bala - Fauna + Rivers and Lakes
Les gravures rupestres du Sahel burkinabè : Pobé-Mengao, Arbinda et Markoye - Rock Art
Les necropoles de Bourzanga - Burial
Sya, centre historique de Bobo-Dioulasso – Urban landscape African

Gasumo, la source la plus méridionale du Nil - Rivers and lakes
La réserve naturelle de la Rusizi - Rivers and lakes
La résidence royale du Burundi: Le cas de Gishora - Palace
Le lac Tanganyika - Rivers and lakes
Le parc national de la Kibira - Forest
Le parc national de la Ruvubu - it's a grassland/steppe, but we don't have a category for it; Wildlife Fauna fits as well, though it doesn't have criterion X listed
Le rugo traditionnel du Mugamba - Another candidate for Vernacular village. Will put it under Urban landscape – African till then
Les chutes de la Karera et la faille de Nyakazu - Mixed : Rivers and lakes + Religious indigenous
Les paysages naturels sacrés de Muramvya, de Mpotsa et de Nkiko-Mugamba - Mixed : Cultural Landscape - Associative (natural category would be unclear, possibly they mean a cultural landscape instead of mixed)
Rwihinda, lac aux oiseaux) – Rivers and lakes

Author elsslots
#183 | Posted: 14 Nov 2021 03:35 
Would prefer "Agriculture" to Industry if it could include "Harvesting" – same issue at Lofoten)

I've put it under Agriculture for now.

Author elsslots
#184 | Posted: 14 Nov 2021 03:40 
Okavango Delta (Extn) – Wetlands (Note that the existing WHS doesn't have "Fauna" as a category. Should it? Just "wetlands" rather undersells it)

Indeed. Added Fauna!

Author elsslots
#185 | Posted: 14 Nov 2021 03:48 
it's a grassland/steppe, but we don't have a category for it

We've noticed this a few times now. Anyone with objections to creating a new category called "Tundra and steppe" already?

Author Solivagant
#186 | Posted: 14 Nov 2021 04:39 | Edited by: Solivagant 
Anyone with objections to creating a new category called "Tundra and steppe" already?

No disagreement - just a review for clarification. We have (at least) 4 words for vaguely similar landscapes - Grassland, Tundra, Steppe and Savanna - All lack trees - but differ somewhat in "floral content", latitude and geogaphic/cultural location. Are we putting all 4 into the same "category"
I have picked up a few definitions from the Web
a. "Steppe (a grassland) to tundra (mosses and shrubs growing in waterlogged soils) is a regime shift that can occur in cold terrestrial ecosystems. Tundra and steppe regime shift is typically found where permafrost occurs. Steppe and tundra are primarily found in the Arctic, north of the tree line,"
b. "A steppe is a particular sub-type of grassland. Steppe grassland are found on nearly every continent, with the exceptions of Australia and Antarctica. They are drier and colder than other grasslands. Steppes lack humidity because they are far from the ocean and near mountains"
c. "Savannas, sometimes called "tropical grasslands," generally lie between a tropical rainforest and a desert. As such, they are warmer than steppes"
d. "The most important difference between a steppe and a savanna is where it is located. Savannas lie closer to the equator than steppes and, thus, are warmer than steppes. Being closer to the rainforest means that savannas have two major seasons: a hot, wet summer and a marginally cooler, but much drier winter."
e. "There are five major types of biomes: aquatic, grassland, forest, desert, and tundra, though some of these biomes can be further divided into more specific categories, such as freshwater, marine, savanna, tropical rainforest, temperate rainforest, and taiga."

Ther last one seems significant as it differentiates "Tundra" from "Grassland". That is of course no reason for us to have to split them into different categories but it raises the Q! I wonder if some of our "problems" derive from not adopting existing "top down" categorisations?

Author elsslots
#187 | Posted: 14 Nov 2021 05:11 | Edited by: elsslots 
Amazonia Theaters - Civic Public works
Anavilhanas Ecological Station Already inscribed as part of another WHS - Rivers and Lakes
Brazilian Fortresses Ensemble - Military/fortifications
Canyon du Rio Peruaçu, Minas Gerais - Eroded
Cavernas do Peruaçu Federal Environmental Protection Area (APA) / Veredas Do Peruaçu State Park - Mixed: Karst + Rock art
Cedro Dam in the Quixadá Monoliths - Civic Public works
Cultural Landscape of Paranapiacaba: Village and railway systems in the Serra do Mar Mountain Range, São Paulo - Cult landscape Relict
Eglise et Monastère de Sao Bento, Rio de Janeiro – Religious christian
Geoglyphs of Acre – Archeo Pre-Columbian
Itacoatiaras of Ingá River – Rock Art
Palais de la Culture, ancien siège du Ministere de l'Education et de la Santé, Rio de Janeiro - Civic Public works
Parc National de la Serra da Bocaina (Sao Paulo - Rio de Janeiro) Already inscribed as part of another WHS - Forest
Parc National du Pico da Neblina (Amazonas) - Mountain
Parque Nacional dos Lençóis Maranhenses – Lençóis Maranhenses National Park - Coastal / Marine
Reserve biologique de Atol das Rocas (Rio Grande do Norte) Already inscribed as part of another WHS - Insular
Serra da Canastra National Park - it's a savanna, would that fit into a new steppe category? Savanna's are somewhere in between steppe and forest
Serra da Capivara National Park and Permanent Preservation Areas Proposed as Extension of a WHS - Mixed: Rock Art + Eroded
Serra do Divisor National Park - Diverse ecosystems
Station écologique de Taim (Rio Grande do Sul) - Coastal/Marine
Station écologique du Raso da Catarina (Bahia) - Desert
Ver-o-Peso – Transport and Trade

Author elsslots
#188 | Posted: 14 Nov 2021 05:14 
I wonder if some of our "problems" derive from not adopting existing "top down" categorisations?

We could try at the end to see whether there are enough existing of these to cover all that we have now. Maybe there is a geological one the covers mountain, eroded, karst etc

Author Jonas Bergmann
#189 | Posted: 14 Nov 2021 05:48 | Edited by: Jonas Bergmann 
Parque Nacional dos Lençóis Maranhenses – Lençóis Maranhenses National Park - Coastal / Marine

Although it's next to the ocean, I think it's more Desert / Rivers, Wetlands and Lakes.

Author Solivagant
#190 | Posted: 14 Nov 2021 06:51 
Jonas Bergmann:
, I think it's more Desert / Rivers, Wetlands and Lakes

Not even sure about "desert".... Sand dunes do not a desert make! It's rainfall puts it way above desert definition (Almost 5 fold). The wetlands/lagoons/oases are really it's USP?

Author elsslots
#191 | Posted: 14 Nov 2021 06:56 
Jonas Bergmann:
I think it's more Desert / Rivers, Wetlands and Lakes.

You are right. It is definitely not marine (though coastal). Its OUV would be about the freshwater lagoons (rivers, wetlands and lakes) and the sand dunes ("has the appearance of a desert, but it differs from a desert"; looks a bit similar to Fraser Island, but that's Insular so of no help in categorizing; am a bit hesitant to call it desert, there are a lot of coastal sand dunes in the Wadden Sea as well, without it being a desert)

Author elsslots
#192 | Posted: 14 Nov 2021 06:57 
Ah, Solivagant, we were researching the same at about the same moment (with the same conclusion)

Author Jonas Bergmann
#193 | Posted: 14 Nov 2021 07:20 
OK. Not for the desert category. But the OUV in my understanding is clearly not the coastline but the lagoons/lakes in the sand dunes. So I would prefer putting it into Rivers, Wetlands and Lakes also if the surronding for the lakes is strange from the perspective we normally know and btw creating a very specific ecosystem in the lakes.

Author Solivagant
#194 | Posted: 14 Nov 2021 08:33 | Edited by: Solivagant 
Bhurti Temple Complex of Dailekh - Arch Site S (East) Asian ("a ruin of ancient monuments in Dailekh district W Nepal....consists of 22 monuments. The origin of the temple complex is not known..... Currently, no worship practices is done at these temples" Wiki. So not "Religious").

Cave architecture of Muktinath Valley of Mustang –Arch Site S (East) Asian (No UNESCO text at all! "some 10,000 man-made caves. Partially mummified human bodies and skeletons that are at least 2,000–3,000 years old...found in them ... (and) medieval Buddhist paintings and artefacts".... "The relatively intact skeletons....from the 3rd- 8th C, before Buddhism came to Mustang – had cut marks on the bones. Scientists believe that this burial ritual may have been related to the Bon-Buddhist practice of sky burial". No need to add "Burial" Categ?)

Khokana, the vernacular village and its mustard-oil seed industrial heritage - Urban L;scape Asian / Agriculture ("model of a medieval settlement pattern....houses chaityas and a Mother Goddess temple.....A long history in the mustard-oil seed industry...a heavy wooden beam is used to crush the mustard seeds". No evidence of being really "industrial"?)

Medieval Earthern Walled City of Lo Manthang – Urban Lscape Asian ("capital of the former Kingdom of Lo....located at an ancient trade route through the Himalayas. The settlement dates from the 15th C and is surrounded by an earthen wall. There's a palace and Tibetan Buddhist monasteries". Does it justify "Milit & Fortif"? I think not – E.g Harar has a wall ..but not categorised)

Medieval Settlement of Kirtipur (Extn) – Urban L'scape – Asian

Nuwakot Palace Complex – Palace (From 18th C ("built in the Malla style of architecture with fort-like characteristics....comprises of the main Nuwakot Palace and various temples and shrines, the most prominent being the Bhairab Temple". The Temple predates the palace but does it justify a separate Categ?)
Ram Janaki Temple – Religious Hindu ("Hindu site of pilgrimage, dedicated to the goddess Sita. .....mixed style of Mughal and Koiri domes....built in the early 20th century at the site where in 1657 a golden statue of the Goddess Sita was found.")

Ramagrama, the relic stupa of Lord Buddha – Religious Buddhist ("Buddhist pilgrimage site that contains relics of Gautama Buddha")

Rishikesh Complex of Ruru Kshetra – Religious Hindu / ???? ("Hindu pilgrimage and crematory centre also known for festivals & fairs".... "including the settlement of Ridi... embraces an intact medieval ensemble within an undisturbed landscape." Urban Asian to recognise inclusion of Ridi – or not necessary? I think not)

Sinja valley - Arch S (East) Asian (Arch site of "capital city of... Khasa Kingdom of 12th14th Ch and 14th Century.....Excavations have revealed the remains of old palaces, temples ...and the old settlement....ring of huge monolithic stone columns....surrounding the ruins")

The early medieval architectural complex of Panauti – Urban Asian ("early medieval architectural of the oldest towns of Nepal"... "The Indresvar Mahadev temple....was originally built in A.D. 1294. Other structures include the 17th C Brahmayani temple, other temples, patis, sattals, inscriptions, sculptures and traditional houses." Re "Relig Hindu" – every Nepali town includes temples ....we don't separate out Christian churches unless very special or Pilgrimage)

The medieval palace complex of Gorkha - Palace ("building in Newari style is completely fortified. Inside the palace complex lie various Hindu temples". The same issues as Nuwakot re possible Religious Hindu and Fortif)

The Medieval Town of Tansen – Urban Asian ("a typical traditional town of Western Nepal... ruins can be found from the Sen Period (15th to 18th Century). The compact settlement boasts numerous temples, monasteries and sculptures". Again – have treated it like Kathmandu etc without "Religious Hindu")

Tilaurakot, the archaeological remains of ancient Shakya Kingdom – Arch Site S (East) Asian / Religious Buddhist (No Text on UNESCO!! Buddha spent 29 years there and his father had a palace so it has become a significant Buddhist pilgrimage site along new road from Lumbini – but the Religious categ is open to re-consideration!)

Vajrayogini and early settlement of Sankhu (Extn) - Urban Asian / Religious Hindu / Religious Buddhist ("tradit Newari settlement....medieval character...narrow streets, public squares with.....tiered temples and rest houses....The (17th C) Vajrayogini temple complex (on) the hills 1.5 km north of Sankhu.... main tiered temple is dedicated to the tantric goddess Vajrayogini" Would this really be an extension to Kathmandu 40kms away? If not, then as a significant Hindu/Buddhist pilgrimage site it justifies the extra Categs?)

Author Solivagant
#195 | Posted: 14 Nov 2021 08:36 | Edited by: Solivagant 
City of Granada and its natural environment (Mixed) – Urban Colonial / Lake ("A bit of everything"!! Issues - As well as the core "Colonial" should we include/add the post Colonial 19C neo-classical aspects? How to cover "Forest" and or "Volcanic" (Mombacho) and the various included aspects of Lake Nicaragua – Lagoon and Islands? Could have as many as 6 categories!!! I am inclined to take 1 of each?)

Fortress of the Immaculate Conception (Mixed) - Military & Fortif / Natural Forest

The Natural Reserve "Bosawas" - Natural Forest

The Natural Reserve "Miskitos Keys" – Coastal & Marine (although it includes a number of Archipelagic islands, it also includes mainland coast – both can be covered by "Coastal & Marine". It also has "three types of important rain forest" and is the "principal known feeding area of the Caribbean turtles". Should the Forest and Turtles be separately "recognised"? I haven't)

Volcan Masaya National Park – Volcanic ("Gas emitting" active and potentially more....)

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