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Author winterkjm
#331 | Posted: 28 May 2022 04:22 | Edited by: winterkjm 
From the Spring 2022 Edition of the Korean Heritage Webzine, there are two featured articles of interest. The first covers the values of the inscribed Korean Getbol (Tidal Flats) and the second focuses on the The Capital Defense System of the Joseon Dynasty, which is the reconfiguration of the Seoul City Wall tentative nomination.

Getbol, One of the Most Important and Meaningful Habitats for Biodiversity

Another World Heritage Nomination in Preparation

Author winterkjm
#332 | Posted: 17 Jun 2022 05:35 | Edited by: winterkjm 
2021 UNESCO World Heritage New Provisional List (Research Report)
- ICOMOS Korea
- Cultural Heritage Administration of Korea

Recommendation for Inclusion on Tentative List
1 Sorok-do Rehabilitation Center
2 Jeju Stone Culture
3 Port City Incheon
4 Modern Protestant Missionary Base (Seoul, Daegu, Gwangju, Cheongju, Gongju, Jeonju, Suncheon, Mokpo)
5 Yongsan Base
6 Sungkyunkwan
7 Han River Estuary Wetland
8 Ulleungdo and Dokdo

Not Analyzed in Report
*Yangju Hoeamsa Temple Site (previously approved, awaiting publication)
*Busan Provisional Capital (previously approved, awaiting publication)

Long-Term Recommendation
1 Jukmak-dong Ancient Maritime Relics
2 Jeongjo Cultural Heritage: Hwaseong New Town
3 Landscape Korean Garden (Nujeong Culture)
4 Mudeungsan National Park

What this likely means is up to 14 new Tentative Nominations to be added to Korea's Tentative List (over the next few years). However, I would only expect some of the more advanced stage nominations to be approved and officially published by January 2023.

Author Durian
#333 | Posted: 17 Jun 2022 06:56 

Great! another headache for UNESCO.

Author winterkjm
#334 | Posted: 19 Jun 2022 14:10 | Edited by: winterkjm 
I thought I would provide some elaboration on this ambitious nomination. Links go directly to web pages that include pictures and descriptions of each component. Based on some speculation, what are the most rewarding components to visit? I would hazard a guess that the sites in Daegu and Gwangju (which largely lie within a semi-intact, though small historic district/neighborhood that is walkable) will provide the best experience. Additionally, multiple components are now museums, including Appenzeller Noble Memorial Museum in Seoul (which I had not been aware of despite exploring Jeong-dong District on numerous occasions).

Modern Protestant Missionary Base (29 serial components)

Seoul Base (3)
- Jeong-dong First Methodist Church
- Simpson Memorial Hall of Ewha Girls' High School
- Baejae (Pai Chai) Hakdang East Hall (Appenzeller Noble Memorial Museum)

Cheongju Base (1)
- Yanggwan, Tap-dong Residence

Gongju Base (2)
- Old Jeil Church (Gongju Christian Museum)
- Former Missionary House in Junghak-dong

Daegu Base (8)
- Old Jeil Church
- Missionary Switzer House (Missionary Museum - Daegu Heritage Trail)
- Missionary Chamness House
- Missionary Blair House
- Gyeseong School MacPherson Pavilion
- Gyeseong School Adams Hall
- Gyeseong School Henderson Hall
- Old Building of Dongsan Hospital

Jeonju Base (2)
- Auditorium and Main Hall Porch of Sinheung High School
- Geumsan Church

Gwangju Base (6) *K-Heritage TV Video Highlighting Gwangju's Yangnim-dong
- Speer Hall of Former Jennie Speer Memorial School for Girls
- Curtis Memorial Hall of Former Jennie Speer Memorial School for Girls
- Winsborough Hall of Former Jennie Speer Memorial School for Girls
- Gwangju Superia Girls' High School Small Auditorium
- Owen Memorial Hall
- Missionary Wilson's Residence

Mokpo Base (2)
- Former Missionary Residence of Jeongmyeong Girls' Middle School
- Yangdong Church

Suncheon Base (5)
- George Watts Memorial Hall at Former Southern Presbyterian Church
- Missionary Preston's House
- Former Suncheon Missionary School for Foreign Children
- Maesangwan Hall at Maesan Middle School
- Suncheon Coit Missionary House

"The modern Protestant mission was built for modern education with the permission of Emperor Gojong at the end of the 19th century. Western modern education programs lowered the illiteracy rate of the late Joseon society, which reached 80% at the time. The introduction of Western medicine and facilities enabled systematic treatment of diseases. It brought great progress in the medical system of the late Joseon Dynasty. Western education and medical projects improved the quality of life of the people and has played a major role in the conversion of many Koreans to the Christian faith. Early missionary activities were sent out from countries such as the United States, Canada, England, and Australia. The missionaries were divided into regions, and missionary work for each major city was carried out with the establishment of a mission base. The main components of these "mission bases" are schools, hospitals, churches, missionary residences and centers." - (imperfect translation) ICOMOS Korea & Cultural Heritage Administration of Korea

The Cultural properties included range from the Great Han Empire Period (1897-1910) and well into the Japanese Colonial Period (1910-1945). Many, but certainly not all components have been designated at the national level. Furthermore, additional "mission bases" were established in the Northern provinces of Korea, yet their preservation and potential inclusion will be discussed, but considered unlikely under current relations with the DPRK. A previous "Christian nomination" had been submitted by stakeholders in Chungcheongnam-do which centered around Catholic sites, but ultimately was rejected by the Cultural Heritage Administration in January 2020. While some consideration or inner dialogue has occurred about the prospects of including Protestant, Catholic, and Anglican sites in a serial nomination together it seems a Protestant focus is favored because its more tangible relation to Korea's modernity. About 20% of South Koreans are affiliated with Protestantism today.

Author winterkjm
#335 | Posted: 27 Jul 2022 11:18 | Edited by: winterkjm 
Regarding the inclusion of Hoeamsa Temple Site in Yangju as a tentative site, I am personally more intrigued about what might be in the pipeline for Korea's Tentative List update(s). While the location is relative close proximity to Seoul, it actually takes some time to reach by public transportation and its well outside Seoul "proper" in Gyeonggi-do province. I have not yet visited, but as an archaeological site the museum will be an important component of any visit.

Short youtube video in English highlighting Hoeamsa Temple Site and its inclusion on Korea's Tentative List

Korean articles with good pictures of the Archaeological Site:
- Korean Herald
- Yonhap News

Author csarica
#336 | Posted: 15 Aug 2022 19:08 
I need help with my Korean itinerary. I will visit South Korea between September 1-8, but I will be in a congress for the most of the time that I will spend there. The answers to my questions may already be in this website or may even be found easily by simple google search but I am really short of time to do a proper travel plan. It is a very intense period of my life in terms of my job.

I have two full days of travel before the congress, September 2nd and 3rd.
My plan is as follows:
September 2 -> Aiming a rucek(visiting 5 whs in a single day) in Seoul by using public transport. (I will start with Hwaseong, followed by Namhanseong. Then I will come to downtown to visit Changdeokgung and Jongmyo Shrine. I will choose to visit royal dynasty tomb of Seolleung and Jeongneung. I will visit any place that I planned and failed to visit in the first day, city walls as well as the non-whs parts of Seoul during the congress when I find time to escape.

Q1) Are there any combined tickets or cards particularly for these 5 whs sites that I need to be aware of? Or a card that covers both public transport and these sites?
Q2) Should I buy the tickets in advance? Are there long queues in the ticket offices?
Q3) Are there any considerable difference between royal dynasty tombs? The one that I choose is a good or bad one?
Q4) Is google maps accurate for public transport in Seoul?
Q5) Which SIM card do you prefer for data? Should I buy it from Incheon airport?

September 3 -> I will head to the Ulsan for Gyeongju hotspot. (Tongdosa, Gyeongju, Bulguksa Temple, Oksan academy and Yangdong Village (between 6-9 pm)
Q1) Is a rucek feasible here with a rental car if I start the day at 9 am at Ulsan station? If I should skip a whs because of time issues, which one(s) do you choose?
Q2) if you have one chance, which one do you choose? Seokguram Grotto or Bulguksa Temple?
Q3) If I visit Yangdong Village between 6-9 pm, do I miss lots of things? Are there any must-see time-sensitive places in the village (i.e., museums)?
Q4) Can I see Ulsan petroglyphs between 6-9 pm? Is it a time-sensitive place?
Q5) Classic question, which app for navigation in South Korea?
Q6) How difficult to drive in Korea with zero Korean language?
Q7) I found a Hertz in Ulsan Station. Anyone knows a better place for whs hunt?

Author winterkjm
#337 | Posted: 15 Aug 2022 22:53 | Edited by: winterkjm 
Firstly, I would look at the whole situation as thus: South Korea is a relatively easy country to return to and there is no possibility to visit all 15 WHS in 2-3 days (maybe half). So I would suggest visiting some of the highlights that are doable in the 2.5 days and then you'll have another reason to return in the future (being less focused on Seoul). Knowing how active Korea is, they will probably have another 2-3 WHS in the next 5 years or so anyway.

I personally see very little joy in visiting all 5 of these WHS in a single day because its addition by subtraction. To fit this in one day, you select Seolleung and Jeongneung Royal tomb (perfectly fine), but arguably not even a top 10 component of this serial property of 18 tomb clusters. Time constraints likely mean only a partial self-guided tour of Changdeokgung and not the garden (a highlight for some, just don't expect a "Japanese-style Garden" because well this is Korea, they do their own thing). Namhansanseong and Hwaseong takes some time to get to and even a very cursory exploration would sacrifice a good amount of time at one or the other (or both). Since Korea's WHS are not legendary icons on the list, giving them even less time could taint your impression or appreciation, which could lead to an unsatisfactory visit. For example, I would barely consider a single Joseon tomb a proper visit (unless it was Donggureung) and even then its better to at least visit 2 or 3 of them. Visiting a single gate or short stretch of wall at Hanyangdoseong, Namhansanseong, or Hwaseong Fortress will also seem incomplete to those who have explored each site thoroughly.

Changdeokgung Palace Complex - located in the heart of Seoul
Jongmyo Shrine - located in the heart of Seoul
Royal Joseon Tombs - six of eighteen tomb clusters are located in Seoul, the majority of the remaining tomb clusters are located in Gyeonggi province, which surrounds the capital.
Namhansanseong < than 25km from the city center, just outside of Seoul proper
Hwaseong Fortress < 50 km from the city center, accessible by Seoul Metro Train (1 hour)

Regarding Joseon Tombs: My Flickr Album
Yungneung Cluster (or Yunggeolleung) is not far from Hwaseong Fortress (probably 10-15 minutes by taxi) and includes the burial mounds of an iconic Prince and King of Joseon. Hongyureung Cluster (or Hongneung and Yureung) are interesting because they are representative of Late Joseon which stylized itself as an Empire, therefore they are eccentric compared to the modest/elegant Confucian norm found in the other 17 clusters. Donggureung Cluster is the largest group of Joseon tombs and offers the most representative burial location of the collection. Gwangneung is a UNESCO Biosphere reserve and one of the most beautiful natural locations of any Joseon tomb.

So my advice (which might not appeal to you), only focus on the Seoul and Gyeonggi-do WHS and save the rest of the country for a future visit. You can do these 5 WHS very well and give them their due time. Or push yourself to visit a couple more WHS, but perhaps be unsatisfied by much of the experience.

Day 1
Changdeokgung & Jongmyo
Hanyangdoseong (two hikes at these locations is preferable) - Inwangsan and Naksan
Joseon Royal Tombs (select 2 of 3 - Donggureung, Gwangneung, and/or Hongyureung)

Day 2
Hwaseong Fortress Early morning trek (full circle of nearly 6km with time to hike on top and outside/bottom of the fortress)
- Taxi/ride share to Yungneung (nearby)
- Take lunch in Suwon before taking the train back toward Seoul
Namhansanseong for late afternoon/early evening hike until Sunset
- Back to Seoul for Dinner

Remaining 1/2 Day in Seoul (TWHS and Aspiring Candidates)

Option 1 Hoeamsa Temple Site newly added tentative nomination of a massive ruined temple/archaeological site (official UNESCO description)

Option 2 Port City Incheon possible addition to tentative list (not official yet) (Google Maps Location)

Option 3 (both) Jeong-dong District including Deoksugung Palace (Jeong-dong First Methodist Church, Simpson Memorial Hall of Ewha Girls' High School, Baejae (Pai Chai) Hakdang East Hall (Appenzeller Noble Memorial Museum) possible addition to tentative list related to a proposed serial Western missionary nomination

Sungkyunkwan possible addition to tentative list (not official yet)

As far as I remember (could be outdated information) there is a group ticket you can purchase at any Joseon Palace or Jongmyo Shrine that includes various options and pairings (including all palaces or just Changdeokgung and Jongmyo). I would use the Seoul Metro as often as needed and use taxis based on convenience when not in Central Seoul. Avoiding rental cars and the Hi Pass system on Korean highways is probably ideal considering a first time visit to the country. My recommended itinerary is still quite busy and would probably be too much for people who are not big on hiking or long walks (Korean fortresses can be a good workout). In two and a half days, taking in five world heritages, two tentative nominations, and 2 to 4 components of a serial nomination is still a worthy ambitious plan (in my mind)!

Author meltwaterfalls
#338 | Posted: 16 Aug 2022 07:59 | Edited by: meltwaterfalls 
Joseon Royal Tombs
I fully understand winterkjm's point (and on pretty much everything Korean -and USA- he would be the voice I listen to most). However I only visited Seolleung and Jeongneung, and felt that was adequate for me. I fully accept it isn't the best or give me a comprehensive view of the OUV but if time is tight then it could well suffice.
It is very easy to visit, there are pretty much metro stations on three corners of the park, so I would probably visit in some free time around an evening or break in the conference, this will free up time to visit the four other WHS in the area.
It does have opening and closing times though (6am-8pm), though if you are really desperate both of the mounds are right next to the walls and you can see Seolleung pretty clearly from outside, though the other is a little more hidden by bushes, but I would certainly recommend getting inside the park.

Hwaseong Fortress
I don't remember there being any form of ticket or restriction in access, it is just a city wall, so should be free to walk around from memory (perhaps specific gates had some sort of entry?). This is the main access point if coming from the station, it is just a path, so should have no access issues. I would recommend a full circuit, however if your time is limited, the western half was more interesting than the eastern half.
So I would probably schedule that as the last stop as it isn't as constrained by opening times, also I remember walking around at dusk and it was starting to be lit up which was nice.

For your southern trip, it feels adventurous to fit it all in, but potentially doable, but agree with winterkjm leaving it untouched provides a good reason to return, however on your specific questions that I have some knowledge of:

Q2) if you have one chance, which one do you choose? Seokguram Grotto or Bulguksa Temple?
Bulguksa is the bigger part, the Grotto is just that, a small grotto, I would really recommend seeing both componants, but if one had to be culled it would be the grotto.

Q3) If I visit Yangdong Village between 6-9 pm, do I miss lots of things?
Not really, it is just a village and even during the day there wasn't much happening between tour groups walking around, I enetered one house with a nice courtyard, but hardly a must see. It seems to now have a Ticket Office, I don't fully understand how access works as it wasn't there when I visited, but there seems to be an access barrier across the road, but I can't see how you could be stopped from parking up and just walking into the village if the office is closed (at 4pm)

Q4) Can I see Ulsan petroglyphs between 6-9 pm?
I don't know on this as I haven't visited, but the petroglyphs seem to be on the opposite bank of a stream, so light levels may really hamper a visit, especially on something like rock art which can be hard to see in even the best conditions.

Q6) How difficult to drive in Korea with zero Korean language?
I didn't drive so can't advise from experince, however from memory and looking on Google streetview the main tourist sites tend to be highlighetd on brown signs and written in English as well as Hangul, how easy that is beyond the immediate environs of the WHS I have no idea though, sorry.

Author Solivagant
#339 | Posted: 16 Aug 2022 09:01 | Edited by: Solivagant 
Q5) Classic question, which app for navigation in South Korea?
Q6) How difficult to drive in Korea with zero Korean language?
Q7) I found a Hertz in Ulsan Station. Anyone knows a better place for whs hunt?

Earlier in this Forum is a review of our 10 day trip by rentacar in S Korea.
It may still contain something of use.
Don't worry about the driving and Hangul - if you need to know it will be in Latin script!
I would probably try now rather than Navmii - but that is just personal preference developed since the Korean trip
The route spreadsheet has unfortunately dropped off Els's dB some time ago!!
Re the petroglyphs - see my review for Bangudae - difficult to see even in good light

Author elsslots
#340 | Posted: 16 Aug 2022 09:05 
The route spreadsheet has unfortunately dropped off Els's dB some time!!

I think you mean this one?

Author Solivagant
#341 | Posted: 16 Aug 2022 09:12 
think you mean this one?

Yes... But the original link in the forum post wasn't finding it

Author elsslots
#342 | Posted: 16 Aug 2022 09:14 
wasn't finding it

It was old, I altered it. All "loose" documents are now in a folder called /docs

Author winterkjm
#343 | Posted: 16 Aug 2022 17:48 | Edited by: winterkjm 
Joseon Royal Tombs

I think Seolleung and Jeongneung has become the de facto logistical choice for many busy world heritage travellers in Seoul (understandably). However, it is not the only Joseon tomb that is easily visited by metro train. In fact, there are six clusters of Joseon tombs that are easily accessible from Seoul Metro train stations (more stations are planned that will make other clusters visible by metro train). See which tombs are currently accessible, including pictures in the article below.

It should also be considered for any world heritage traveller in Korea that "Seoul City Wall" has now evolved into an expanded nomination tentatively titled "The Capital Defense System of the Joseon Dynasty" and while technically connected there will be 3 components. This new expanded nomination of the "Seoul City Wall" aims for inscription in 2027, while in the meantime an updated UNESCO description/title may be updated sometime soon.

"The three fortresses Hanyangdoseong, Bukhansanseong, and Tangchundaeseong will be presented as a serial property for inscription on this global heritage registry."

Collectively visiting Hwaseong (Suwon), Hanyangdoseong (Seoul) & Bukhansanseong (part of national park), and Namhansanseong may be be an exhausting experience and ideally spread over a number of days. If you think that is too many individual inscribed fortresses in Korea, the Cultural Administration of Korea may agree with you to some degree as they are discussing/researching an extension or re-nomination of Hwaseong to broaden the site's OUV (a whole new seperate nomination seems unlikely, but has not been ruled out). Jeongjo is a widely celebrated monarch in Korea, he sought to relocate the capital from Seoul to a new location: Hwaseong (a name chosen by Jeongjo himself). The fortress that many of us have visited is only one legacy from King Jeongjo's ambitious plan. A blueprint related to a more secure and self-sufficient capital, including clean drinking water (reservoirs/dams), improved agricultural infrastructure, fair (full and part-time) labor payment to construct a modern defense system, and educational institutions centered around Confucianism. Part of Jeongjo's plan was also related to the veneration of his Father Prince Sado (buried at Yongneung) who was a victim of filicide. This serial nomination of 12 components located in Suwon, Hwaseong, and Osan was meant to be the foundation of a new capital and while Jeongjo's premature death ended this ambition, the legacy remains both in the historic sites listed below, but also in the lasting efforts of Modern Korea to move the capital (at least the administrative capital) away from Seoul. Sejong City may be the de facto capital by 2027 when the new General Assembly complex is completed.

Jeongjo Cultural Heritage: Hwaseong New Town
1. Hwaseong Fortress (Suwon) *WHS
2. Doksanseong Fortress and Semadae Site (Osan)
3. Yongneung and Geonneung (Hwaseong) *WHS
4. Yongjusa (Hwaseong) *footnote
5. Manseokgeo Resevoir (Suwon)
6. Mannyeonje Dam (Hwaseong)
7. Chukmanje Dam (Suwon)
8. Gwollisa Temple Confucian Shrine (Osan)
9. Hyanggyo Confucian School - 수원향교 (Suwon) *located just South of Hwaseong Fortress
10. Haenggung Palace (Suwon) *often paired with Hwaseong Fortress
11. Hwaryeongjeon Shrine (Suwon) *adjacent to Haenggung Palace
12. Jijibi Monument (Suwon)

*Yongjusa Temple is known as the "temple of filial piety," since it was constructed in the eighteenth century during a Buddhist revival under the reign of King Jeongjo. The temple was dedicated to the king's father, Sado Seja, who met an unnatural death.

Author meltwaterfalls
#344 | Posted: 17 Aug 2022 11:58 
Thanks for that article on public transport access to the Joseon tombs winterkjm, it is a useful resource for when I return to Seoul (who knows when)

Author joelonroad
#345 | Posted: 17 Aug 2022 17:55 
As alluded to above, Google Maps is essentially useless in South Korea.

Local alternatives are Naver and Kakao (I think we mostly used Naver for directions when walking and using PT).

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