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Author winterkjm
Partaker
#316 | Posted: 19 Jan 2022 01:23 | Edited by: winterkjm 
Yangju Hoeamsa Temple Site (Republic of Korea) *32 km North of central Seoul

Seoul Capital Area

With the approval of Yangju's Goryeo period temple (archaeological site) by the Cultural Administration of Korea a couple of days ago, the Seoul Capital Area will have 6 WHS and 2 TWHS. Of these, 7 of 8 are accessible by the Seoul Subway system (Deokjeong station is < than 4 km from the Hoeamsa Temple Site Museum & Namhansanseong Station is < than 4 km to the South fortress gate). There are other sites in and around Seoul that are vying for approval on Korea's tentative list, but I will not speculate which may win approval in the coming months or years (if at all).

Seoul Proper (Special City)
- Changdeokgung Palace Complex
- Jongmyo Shrine
- Royal Joseon Tombs
* Seoul City Wall, Hanyangdoseong (2012) TWHS

Seoul Perimeter (Gyeonggi-do)
- Namhansanseong
- Hwaseong Fortress
- Ganghwa Dolmen
* Yangju Hoeamsa Temple Site (2022) TWHS

As major expansions to the Seoul Subway are completed between 2022 and 2028, it's perhaps not surprising that nearly all of the Joseon Royal Tombs inscribed in the Seoul Capitol Area, including those in Gyeonggi-do will have their own metro station (many already do). Even the DMZ (Dora observatory) Dorasan station is accessible by metro train as of 2021. Oeam Village (TWHS) in Asan is located near (< than 6km) one of Seoul's most far-reaching Metro stations, Onyangoncheon in Asan. For those of you who have not been, Seoul is probably one of the best locations outside Europe to visit a half-dozen WHS with incredible ease and at a very low transportation/ticket cost.

Author nfmungard
Partaker
#317 | Posted: 19 Jan 2022 04:34 
winterkjm:
Seoul Capital Area

As much as I enjoy Seoul (actually on my revisit list), I dislike the constantly growing number of narrow tailored WHS in and around Seoul. If Paris had opted to break down Banks of the Seine, we would talk about Tour Eiffel & Champs de Mars, Louvre & Tulleries, Les Invalides, Notre Dame & Ile de la Cite, Petit Palais & Champs Elysee, ... Add Montmarte, ...

It gets ridiculous. Eventually, it's just an urban landscape.

Author winterkjm
Partaker
#318 | Posted: 19 Jan 2022 10:44 | Edited by: winterkjm 
I understand the sentiment, but in that regard Seoul is more like London. Many of the historical sites are spread out and the historic core is not as "intact" as Paris. I think Changdeokgung and Jongmyo, which are adjacent may have been inscribed together because of their historical connections. However, the 18 clusters of royal tombs, Namhansanseong, and Ganghwa dolmens, would be a major stretch to combine. It would not make sense (in my mind) to link ALL current WHS associated with and constructed during the Joseon Period 1392–1910. That would be similar to just consolidating multiple WHS in Turkey and Greece, including dozens of components to piece together a loosely associated Byzantine WHS over various centuries. The Seoul Capital Area that I indicated in the map above has a population of 27 million (more than half Korea's total population). Seoul has played a crucial role historically on the Korean Peninsula, both as its capital, but also as a major city during the Goryeo, Silla, and Baekje Periods, so the History does run deep.

Author winterkjm
Partaker
#319 | Posted: 19 Jan 2022 14:02 | Edited by: winterkjm 
nfmungard:
it's just an urban landscape

Interestingly, Beijing seems to be going this route. I wonder if all these WHS in Beijing will remain or stay seperate? Probably the later. Both Beijing and Seoul have done reconstructive work (and demolitions) to reconnect previously severed parts of their historical axis.

As in Korea (Changdeokgung & Jongmyo), there is a fair point to be made in combining such heritage sites. With Beijing, clearly the Imperial Palace, Temple of Heaven, and the Central Axis could be combined into one WHS. However, this is unlikely to happen because the evolution each nomination took (including the Imperial Palace in Shenyang). As in Korea, I would not be in favor of combining tombs and fortifications that are mostly not in the historic core of Beijing or Seoul to the royal palace or state shrine/temple.

Author nfmungard
Partaker
#320 | Posted: 19 Jan 2022 16:09 | Edited by: nfmungard 
winterkjm:
I understand the sentiment, but in that regard Seoul is more like London.

Really? Please feel free to elaborate how the capital of the empire where the sun never set compares to Seoul? For better or worse, the UK has made a huge impact on human history in the last few centuries (economics, industrialization, science, culture...).

winterkjm:
Interestingly, Beijing seems to be going this route.

Same here. Please feel free to elaborate how the capital of the leading human civilization for the last 800 years compares to Seoul.

Korea was most of the time a vassal state of China. It's interesting as it has a unique cultural bend. It has nice nature and nice sites. But Seoul is not the center of the world and does not play in the same league as cities such as Paris, Rome or London. All of which have less sites.

I don't like inflationary inscriptions in general. And I don't like this national perspective equating the amount of WHS to the importance of the nation and the city.

Author winterkjm
Partaker
#321 | Posted: 20 Jan 2022 02:33 | Edited by: winterkjm 
I certainly was not comparing the worldwide impact of Joseon with that of Ming/Qing China or the British Empire. I daresay, UNESCO and ICOMOS also do not analyze one culture, kingdom, or Empire as superior regarding world heritage candidates, granted comparative analysis is important (not quite the same though). The world heritage list is represented very well with numerous WHS from both Britain and China. Seoul's world heritage successes and prospects (like many smaller nations) in my view enrich the World Heritage List because they challenge the narrative of a handful of powerful Empires as the heralds of civilization and culture. At the same time, do I think the world heritage list needs more Korean fortresses or tombs? No.

To take a little dip into History, but not too much! The term "vassal state" is very much contested and if used broadly over many centuries is quite inaccurate. Many of Korea's WHS are associated with the early-mid Joseon period, which coincide with close ties with the Ming Dynasty. Certainly, Joseon was a tributary state, which I view as distinct from "vassal" kingdoms in Medieval Europe or Japan. Ming rulers did not interfere with domestic affairs or diplomacy on the Korean Peninsula and the King of Joseon only need pay his respects (primarily through ritual envoy missions). This did however end with the Qing invasion of Korea in the 17th century, where Joseon was forced to submit unwillingly after the siege of Namhansanseong. Regardless of terminology, rule under Sejong (a kind of renaissance period in Korea) should be more well-known and Hanyang/Seoul in 1450 (last year of Sejong's reign) was not only larger than London, but arguably more important in Asia than London was to Europe.

nfmungard:
Seoul is not the center of the world and does not play in the same league as cities such as Paris, Rome or London. All of which have less sites.

This comment, while generally true attempts to affirm a subjective viewpoint that large Historic Centre's are somehow less prestigious than a handful of world heritage sites in and around a city, no? I mean the very idea of a Historic Centre, as in a city such as Paris or Rome itself collectively having outstanding universal value? Is that not extraordinary? Finally, to be precise London has 4 WHS and Seoul proper has 3 WHS.

Let's not underestimate Seoul today however, because the jury is still out about which city will be more globally important in the 21st century!

Author nfmungard
Partaker
#322 | Posted: 21 Jan 2022 07:21 
winterkjm:
do not analyze one culture, kingdom, or Empire as superior regarding world heritage candidates,

It's not that they are superior, it's just that historically way more happened there (inventions & innovations) that had global impact. The industrialization was British. Assuming you look for OUV, you will go to where things happened first.

For Korea, the sites are primarily documenting the Korean culture. Which is a valid source of OUV. But it implies a smaller pool of sites than e.g. countries, that can also claim to have been globally / regionally influential beyond their own orders.

winterkjm:
Seoul's world heritage successes and prospects (like many smaller nations) in my view enrich the World Heritage List because they challenge the narrative of a handful of powerful Empires as the heralds of civilization and culture.

Interestingly, you stress Seoul, not Korea. And if you read my initial post, then my complaint was about specifically that: that Seoul seems overrepresented, all the while Northern Korea (for political reasons) is not. I can see plenty of Korean WHS. I just have a hard time to make Seoul the city with the most WHS globally. And like I said: For me at a certain points, these become WHS cities and should be grouped as such (why not use a proper serial site).

winterkjm:
Finally, to be precise London has 4 WHS and Seoul proper has 3 WHS.

Kew and Greenwich are in greater/outer London. I think Namhangsong and Hwaesong should be counted too.

Author winterkjm
Partaker
#323 | Posted: 21 Jan 2022 12:24 | Edited by: winterkjm 
nfmungard:
My complaint was about specifically that: that Seoul seems overrepresented, all the while Northern Korea (for political reasons) is not. I can see plenty of Korean WHS. I just have a hard time to make Seoul the city with the most WHS globally.

All fair points and I get what your saying. Seoul (for better or worse) does dominate South Korea, even when they've tried to shift the administrative capital to Sejong City. One of my favorite areas of the country is Jeollanam-do and I am interested to see if North Korea is successful with their 2022 nomination of Mt. Kumgang.

nfmungard:
Hwaseong should be counted too

I can understand that you would include Namhansanseong as part of the Seoul WHS, because its purpose is the defense of the capital (also place of refuge for the King). However, Hwaseong is located in Suwon (a separate city of 1.25 million) and it was purposefully built away from Seoul as part of a new city.

nfmungard:
For Korea, the sites are primarily documenting the Korean culture. Which is a valid source of OUV. But it implies a smaller pool of sites than e.g. countries, that can also claim to have been globally / regionally influential beyond their own orders.

The only minor issue I have with this, though I agree with you to some degree. This line of thinking will almost always favor cultural sites in the West (& somewhat Japan). Especially if we are taking into account the global impact of Colonialism and Industrialization. How many stunning theaters, government/finance buildings, palaces, cathedrals, and early industrial sites in Europe were funded by resources gained through Colonialism (including what was done to China or even Korea in Japan's case)? So do these countries deserve more world heritage sites and recognition? Based on size and influence its inevitable if pursued (at least in certain types of cultural sites). Yet, for me personally, I do not value the Joseon Royal Tombs any less or more than the Imperial Tombs in China or the mausoleum of the Danish royal family found at Roskilde Cathedral. It's not surprising that Korea has no Industrial sites, but plenty of inscriptions related to Confucianism and Buddhism.

Rambling thoughts about History

Why does S. Korea have nearly as many Confucian cultural sites inscribed as China, despite being almost 100x smaller in land mass and about 30x smaller in population? It's not because its only documentaring Korean culture, it is also based on the fact that they represent an exchange of ideas between Joseon Korea and Ming China. Moreover, Korea did not go through as dramatic a reckoning with their Confucian past as China did during the 20th century (therefore preservation is quite high). The Cultural Heritage Administration of Korea has expressed openness to transnational nominations connected to Confucianism, but so far China has not reciprocated interest (at least not publically). Regarding Korea's Buddhist heritage, Silla and Baekje monks were travelling to China mostly starting in the 6th and 7th centuries to introduce Buddhist scriptures back home and even a famous trip to India by Hyecho occured in the 8th century. When Buddhism spread to Japan through Korea, this might be considered "influential beyond their own orders". Korea has been very successful inscribing Confucian and Buddhist related properties with mostly positive ICOMOS recommendations. The Yangju Hoeamsa Temple Site (Goryeo origin/Indian influence), which is an archaeological ruin, burnt down sometime in the mid-16th century. Of Korea's two TWHS related to Buddhism, I am not sure what would have a better chance with ICOMOS Stone Buddhas and Pagodas at Hwasun Unjusa Temple or Yangju Hoeamsa Temple Site. The later has no connection to the establishment of Seoul as the capital (despite its proximity), the temple did however have some patronage from some of the early Joseon royals. Unjusa in many ways remains an anomaly. I hope to visit both, Unjusa (based on the reviews alone) seems like the more rewarding site for visitors.

I think this is such an interesting conversation, it's been fun to explore your perspective (nfmungard) on this.

Author winterkjm
Partaker
#324 | Posted: 22 Jan 2022 09:23 | Edited by: winterkjm 
This is a hypothetical scenario (partially inspired by nfmungard) in which I identify a limited # of Korea's 15 WHS that could reasonably be consolidated, including some extensions of inscribed sites with current TWHS. I do not necessarily prefer this, but since I don't believe any of Korea's inscribed sites are convincingly undeserving of their UNESCO designation, this would be one way to limit over-representing certain types of heritages and regions on the world heritage list. I do not think a Historic Core for current WHS in Seoul is possible, nor has the idea ever seriously been pursued.

Korea's WHS (15)

🟦 Seokguram Grotto and Bulguksa Temple (1995)

Haeinsa Temple Janggyeong Panjeon, the Depositories for the Tripitaka Koreana Woodblocks (1995)

🟨 Jongmyo Shrine (1995)

🟨 Changdeokgung Palace Complex (1997)

Hwaseong Fortress (1997)

🟦 Gyeongju Historic Areas (2000)

Gochang, Hwasun and Ganghwa Dolmen Sites (2000)

Jeju Volcanic Island and Lava Tubes (2007) *planned extension to include 2 additional components is ongoing, not approved yet

Royal Tombs of the Joseon Dynasty (2009)

🟪 Historic Villages of Korea: Hahoe and Yangdong (2010)
- Oeam Village (TWHS) could be an Extension

🟧Namhansanseong (2014)
- Seoul City Wall (TWHS), along with the planned inclusion of Bukhansanseong could be an Extension

Baekje Historic Areas (2015) *planned extension to include Seoul components is ongoing, but not approved yet

Sansa, Buddhist Mountain Monasteries in Korea (2018)

Seowon, Korean Neo-Confucian Academies (2019)

Getbol, Korean Tidal Flats (2021) *planned extension of 9 tidal flats by 2025, including the most northern component near Ganghwa Island

🟦 Seokguram & Gyeongju
🟨 Changdeokgung & Jongmyo

🟪Historic Villages of Korea Extension to include TWHS
🟧Namhansanseong Extension to include TWHS

Currently, there are three noble villages (Hahoe, Yangdong and Hangae), two fortress villages (Naganeupseong, Seongeup) and two farm villages (Oeam and Wanggok) in Korea, all of which are designated as national heritage. - UNESCO Description/Comparative Analysis (Domestic)

Oeam is a representative clan village with rich Confucian traditions, it may not be distinct enough to warrant inscription alone. An extension may be the preferable route. Naganeupseong is distinct enough and its very different than Hahoe and Yangdong.

Korea's TWHS (13)

Likely Inscriptions (2)
- Naganeupseong, Town Fortress and Village
- Stone Buddhas and Pagodas at Hwasun Unjusa Temple

Possible Inscriptions (5)
- Gaya Tumuli
- Petroglyphs in Bangudae Valley
- Mt. Soraksan Nature Reserve
- Hanyangdoseong, Seoul City Wall
- Yangju Hoeamsa Temple Site (approved, awaiting UNESCO publication)

Unlikely (6)
- Ancient Mountain Fortresses in Central Korea
- Kangjingun Kiln Sites
- Oeam Village
- Salterns
- Sites of fossilized dinosaurs throughout the Southern seacoast
- Upo Wetland

*Busan Provisional Capital and Refugee Trail has been conditionally approved by (CHA) to be added to Korea's tentative list. However, some re-development concerns around Busan Port, Pier 1 have delayed official selection and 1-2 components still required cultural heritage designation before moving forward. I have a hard time imagining this serial nomination being inscribed, but I would have to see the final selection of components in relation to the official criteria. This slick video production (< than 5 minutes) includes all the major components and gives you an idea about this modern heritage proposal. The DPRK, China, and Russia are not likely to be very supportive!

Author nfmungard
Partaker
#325 | Posted: 22 Jan 2022 11:21 
winterkjm:
my favorite areas of the country is Jeollanam-do

Would have said Gwangju. Turns out we have the same preference. ;)

winterkjm:
Mt. Kumgang.

Should be cross border with Seoraksan. I am on record stating that Seoraksan should be inscribed. If Kumgang is even better, sure. I dimly recall that NK did logging turning forested mountains into blanks?

Kumgang is somewhat mystical to me. Couldn't visit and when South Koreans talked about it, I always felt reminded of the Ostpreußen Vertriebenen (Germans who fled/were expelled from Eastern Europe post WW2) talking about Masuren and Königsberg. Would be nice to be able to visit at all/without hassle to get a neutral read.

winterkjm:
West (& somewhat Japan). Especially if we are taking into account the global impact of Colonialism and Industrialization.

Assuming the West means USA and Europe, I think there are other areas that should be added: China, Russia, India, Iran and Turkey are all global heavy hitters. But yes, most of Africa, South America and Asia would not be able to claim globally important sites. Still, OUV means overall universal value. It does not mean everyone gets the same amount of WHS per capita/area.

winterkjm:
How many stunning theaters, government/finance buildings, palaces, cathedrals, and early industrial sites in Europe were funded by resources gained through Colonialism

I think this is a bit off topic for Korea, but I think this "everything is colonialism" argument is one that I find historically inaccurate.

1) Not all colonies were created equal. There were cashcows (Mexico, Haiti, India). And there were territories that weren't worth the effort for the colonial powers.

2) Cathedrals tend to medieval and as such predate colonialism. Indeed, colonialism is a limited time period and greatly depends on the country how long you can make the argument.

3) The assumption that all of Europe profited from colonialism is off. Only a few European countries actually had colonial empires of note for centuries: Portugal, Spain, France, Netherlands and the UK. Italy, central, eastern and northern Europe did not.

4) I think it's not clear what enabled what. Your view: Colonialism enriched the colonial powers allowing them to build cultural artifacts. Opposing view: Because these countries (most notably the UK) were advanced economies, they were able to conquer the world.

5) Last but not least, what is so different to colonialism to the Mongols conquering the world, the Huns storming Europe, the Arabs sweeping antiquity, the Persian king of kings? ... Slavery isn't it, for that matter.

winterkjm:
any less or more than the Imperial Tombs in China or the mausoleum of the Danish royal family found at Roskilde Cathedral.

Like I said, I agree there are unique cultural sites tied to Korea that derive their OUV on Korea, not their global significance.

winterkjm:
Why does S. Korea have nearly as many Confucian cultural sites inscribed as China

Appreciate your explanation. For me, this is a pretty standard case for WHS. You have a movement. The fashion changes. The king redecorates / tears down the old palace to build a fashionable new one ... In the end, it's often in overlooked areas (Fatepur Sikri e.g.) where historic authentic buildings remain. And I do agree that Korea kept traditions alive that elsewhere may have fallen out of fashion.

Re combining, I don't see much need apart from Seoul adding more and more sites.

Author Khuft
Partaker
#326 | Posted: 23 Jan 2022 12:53 
nfmungard:
Korea was most of the time a vassal state of China. It's interesting as it has a unique cultural bend. It has nice nature and nice sites. But Seoul is not the center of the world and does not play in the same league as cities such as Paris, Rome or London. All of which have less sites.

I don't think the number of sites really matters. Paris and Rome have significant portions of their central historical core on the list - it almost diminishes the contribution these cities have had on human culture, as it amalgamates everything into a "historic centre of xyz" - similar to "old town of Regensburg" or "Town of Bamberg". (London could have done so too, if it had chosen to, but it preferred to focus on specific monumental ensembles and their significance - indeed like Beijing or Seoul.) Seoul is, therefore, not more represented than these cities - many more Paris and Rome monuments are included on the list than monuments in Seoul. The latter just followed the route of discrete listing rather than amalgamated listing due to the fact that its monuments are strewn across the whole metropolis, and whatever contiguous old city centre it may have had has long vanished. I don't see a particular problem with this approach, and it actually makes contributions of individual monuments to world heritage more salient.

Author winterkjm
Partaker
#327 | Posted: 10 Feb 2022 03:03 | Edited by: winterkjm 
Evolution of 3 TWHS & 1 WHS - may be updated on official T-list to reflect an expanded original nomination. Cultural landscapes, serial nominations, and extensions.

Expanding Petroglyphs in Bangudae Valley [2025] *Formerly, Daegokcheon Stream Petroglyphs

"We are working hard to achieve the goal of registration in 2025. Director Kim pointed out the value of the Bangudae petroglyphs as a World Heritage Site in three ways: the unique prehistoric whale hunting relics, paintings carried out by various people from the Neolithic period to the Bronze Age through the Silla period, and the artistry of the petroglyphs itself." The appearance of the Korean Peninsula 7000 years ago

Extension Getbol, Korean Tidal Flats (Phase II) [2025]

"However, at that time, Muan tidal flats in Jeollanam-do, Hwaseong tidal flats in Gyeonggi, Yeongjong, Songdo, and Ganghwa tidal flats in Incheon were excluded from the World Heritage List. Instead, the World Heritage Committee recommended that the site be expanded by 2025." The Cultural Heritage Administration promotes the second-stage expansion of Korea's tidal flat World Heritage list

Expanding Hanyangdoseong, Seoul City Wall [2027-2028]

"Earlier, through Seoul Vision 2030, the city announced a plan to re-challenge for World Heritage listing by integrating Hanyang City Wall, Tangchundae Fortress, and Bukhansanseong Fortress. It is interpreted as the purpose of discovering a value completely different from the application for registration, which was withdrawn due to failing points in the preliminary examination in 2016. The city's goal is to inscribe the city's World Heritage Site in 2027." Re-challenge for World Heritage Listing of Hanyang City Wall begins in earnest

Expanding Naganeupseong, Town Fortress and Village

Goal of joint listing of 'Korea Eupseong' as a UNESCO World Heritage Site (serial nomination)

"All of the towns and villages (Haemi, Nagan, Jinju, Gochang) preparing for this joint registration have been preserved in their complete form, and they have a common feature of combining tangible and intangible assets related to pansori, such as Dongpyeonje of Nagan-eupseong, Seopyeonje of Gochang-eupseong, and Jungjungje of Haemi-eupseong, so it is expected to have great advantages in the development of cultural contents." Eupseong, including Suncheon and Gochang, promotes joint listing of UNESCO World Heritage Sites

Author winterkjm
Partaker
#328 | Posted: 27 Feb 2022 23:57 | Edited by: winterkjm 
Seoul Defense System: Hanyangdoseong and Bukhansanseong (changed from Seoul City Wall)

As discussed previously, the Seoul City Wall will try again, but will be a very different nomination. We likely can expect an update to Korea's tentative list this year, including this reworked nomination.

"In particular, under the theme of The Capital Defense System of the Joseon Dynasty, Hanyang City Wall-Tangchundae Fortress-Bukhansanseong Fortress will be integrated and all-round efforts will be made to be registered as a World Heritage Site in 2027. This year, it plans to promote the registration of the tentative list of World Heritage sites and the designation of Tangchundaeseong as a national cultural property (historic site), and establish an integrated protection management system in cooperation with Gyeonggi-do." - Announcement from the Seoul Metropolitan Government

Author winterkjm
Partaker
#329 | Posted: 16 Apr 2022 03:49 | Edited by: winterkjm 
Preparation of a systematic conservation plan for World Heritage in Korea

A five-year plan to systematically preserve and utilize UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Korea is being promoted. The Cultural Heritage Administration announced on the 11th that it would establish a 'Comprehensive Plan for World Heritage Conservation, Management and Utilization' and implement it by 2026.

The first of 16 Core Tasks is the "diversification of the provisional list".

We can see this already beginning with the expected publication (mid-year) of additional tentative nominations. There may be more to come, but these are the only two sites officially approved (currently) by the Cultural Administration of Korea. There may also be updated re-nominations of the Daegokcheon Stream Petroglyphs and Seoul City Wall TWHS by mid-year as well, to provide further detailed information, re-name the property, and in both cases an expanded nomination. We may also see a Phase II "Getbol, Korean Tidal Flat" extension emerge.

- Yangju Hoeamsa Temple Site
- Heritage of Busan, the Capital of Refugees during the Korean War

With the Gaya Tumuli ICOMOS evaluation incoming soon (May), we shall know the prospects and predictable outcomes fairly well. A not inscribe recommendation will immediately be withdrawn and a deferral recommendation will also likely be withdrawn promptly (as previously seen with the Seowon nomination file years ago). Unlike the Getbol nomination which continued on despite a deferral from IUCN, that was perhaps an outlier case (though I could be wrong). The justification by the state party at that time was: aim for inscription now for this complex nomination (development pressure around tidal flats was a concern if the nomination failed or was delayed again) and immediately plan for an ambitious expansion (phase II) to satisfy IUCN recommendations.

2023 - 2024 [No nominations planned]

2025 - Petroglyphs in Bangudae Valley *Flickr album
2026 - Heritage of Busan, the Capital of Refugees during the Korean War *Flickr album
2027 - The Capital Defense System of the Joseon Dynasty *Flickr album

*Not 100% confirmed or announced by CHA, but projected and identified in multiple articles about Korea cultural heritage (a Phase II "Getbol, Korean Tidal Flat" extension could alter this schedule)

The Busan City government is quite clear about the timeline as seen here. As previously posted, this video highlights most components of the Busan nomination and is narrated by K-drama actress Park, Sol-mi. If this was not already abundantly clear, world heritage aspirations, budget for the cultural heritage sector, and campaigns for nominations are serious business in Korea.

Author winterkjm
Partaker
#330 | Posted: 14 May 2022 02:12 | Edited by: winterkjm 
Cultural Heritage Administration Report

Wando Cheongsando Terraced Landscape - (currently) rejected by the cultural heritage administration for inclusion on Korea's Tentative List. A series of recommendations were included to encourage next steps for future inclusion on the state tentative list.

Rejection based on:
1) Lack of Comparative Analysis
2) Lack of Appropriate Management System
3) Established Heritage Area and Buffer Zone are insufficient

Ulsan City presented their priority nomination very recently. The Cultural Heritage Administration provided their recommendations on May 13th. More work must be done, in fact several detailed recommendations are included in the report. The nominated properties status as regards to submission for 2025 is ongoing, one area where there seemed general agreement is the criteria of world heritage inscription.

Petroglyphs in Bangudae Valley *Proposed Criteria Considered Met

(i) : A masterpiece created by human creativity
The petroglyphs of the Bangudae Valley are rare in the world, in which figures, abstract paintings, and characters are creatively and harmoniously carved on the same rock face for thousands of years using stones and metal tools skillfully. In particular, the Neolithic petroglyphs are unprecedented masterpieces in which animal species and ecological characteristics are expressed three-dimensionally and precisely from various angles.

(iii): unique or at least unique evidence of an existing or extinct cultural tradition or civilization;
The petroglyphs of the Bangudae Valley are outstanding heritages in which the universal trends of human social development are concentrated in pictures and texts. As East Asia developed into a hunting/gathering/fishing society, an agricultural society, and an ancient nation, it shows the process of changing human expression methods over thousands of years and the social and cultural aspects of different eras in a panoramic view. In particular, as unique evidence showing the concrete reality and entire process of whale hunting, the pinnacle of marine fishing culture in the Neolithic Age, it is one of the earliest heritage sites in the world.

https://news.kbs.co.kr/news/view.do?ncd=5460742

In other news

Seongeup Folk Village in Jeju is interested in applying to Korea's Tentative List. However, the interest has been around for 10 years and one wonders if and when this will ever happen. As shown above the Cultural Heritage Administration is quite thorough and requires a highly advanced stage nomination to get approved for the provisional list. See 5 potential nominations that were rejected in 2020 and with only Yangju Hoeamsa Temple Site being approved one year later after following detailed recommendations. The general plan is to formulate a nomination and send it to the Cultural Heritage Administration for consideration on the Provisional List by May 2024.

http://www.jejusori.net/news/articleView.html?idxno=402846

As planned for the future The Capital Defense System of the Joseon Dynasty nomination [replacement of "Seoul City Wall" and tentatively scheduled for 2027], an excavation dig has commenced starting April 28th at Tangchundaeseong. The full investigation (identifying the original shape, structure, and characteristics) of this "connecting" fortress between Hanyangdoseong and Bukhsansanseong will be conducted until July and the appropriate cultural heritage designation at the national level is hoped for by the end of the year. - Article April 2022

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