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Author kintante
#301 | Posted: 3 May 2020 08:28 
There are already lots of reviews about the sites. But if there is interest I can add a few. What sites would you be interested in reading an additional review? I would lean towards covering one with "only" 3 reviews or a tent site.

Author winterkjm
#302 | Posted: 3 May 2020 15:20 | Edited by: winterkjm 
I would personally be interested in 5 reviews, all of which can provide information specific to your visit that many others have not commented on or have not experienced.

World Heritage Sites (3)

Gochang, Hwasun, and Ganghwa Dolmen - Only 1 reviewer mentioned the Hwasun Dolmen site. Of the 3 dolmen clusters, this is the one I have not visited.

Baekje Historic Areas - You are the first reviewer to visit Mireuksaji, after its full re-assembly, thoughts?

Namhansanseong - How much of the wall did you actually hike? Did you go to the ruined outer wall?

Tentative Sites (2)

Southwestern Coast Tidal Flats - No reviewer has mentioned any other site besides Suncheon, what was your impression of the Gochang tidal flats? Being Korea's nomination for 2020, it would be nice to hear more about the other serial components.

Stone Buddhas and Pagodas at Hwasun Unjusa Temple - Currently a topic on the Top Missing List, is this the best cultural site remaining on Korea's Tentative List?

Author kintante
#303 | Posted: 3 May 2020 17:49 
I will get to work then :)

Author kintante
#304 | Posted: 5 May 2020 16:11 
Reviews are in the pipeline. I did not do Namhansaneong, as I cant really addsomething new. I walked from the North Gate via the South Gate to the East Gate. So I left out the ruined part.

Author winterkjm
#305 | Posted: 8 May 2020 15:43 | Edited by: winterkjm 
Stone Buddhas and Pagodas at Hwasun Unjusa Temple (100% rating based on 3 votes)

Based on the two reviews, I am starting to wonder if this site has an outsiders chance to squeeze into one of the final positions for the Top Missing! Considering how well represented Korea is, it probably won't make it though. When thinking about what is "missing" in Korea, I kept my proposals to a minimum because, well Korea has 14 world heritage sites! I learned quite a bit about Unjusa since its inclusion on the Tentative List, thanks in no small part because of both of your reviews. This is one of the last major cultural sites in the country and I will have to travel to Hwasun during my next visit.

"It would also be Korea's best world heritage site." - Philipp

"I spent around two hours exploring all the pathways and admiring every single statue and pagoda." - Philipp

"Unjusa Temple might be one of Korea's most amazing cultural tourist spot." - Zoë

"Beyond the temple are paths to more statues so don't turn back just yet." - Zoë

Author winterkjm
#306 | Posted: 24 Oct 2020 15:17 | Edited by: winterkjm 
50 Examples of Korean Heritage on UNESCO Lists

From the Korean Heritage Webzine (special issues on UNESCO), a visual summary of 25 years of achievement in international recognition/preservation of Korean Heritage.

World Heritage Timeline 2020 - 2025

UNESCO World Heritage
2020 - Getbol, Korean Tidal Flat (awaiting IUCN Recommendation - Delayed WHC)
2021 - No Official Nomination
2022 - Gaya Tumuli
2023 - No Official Nomination (TBD: Potentially Hanyangdoseong)
2024 - Bangudae Valley (potential for Cultural Landscape)
2025 - No Official Nomination (TBD: Potentially Hanyangdoseong)

UNESCO Intangible Heritage
2020 - Yeondeunghoe, lantern lighting festival
2021 - Restricted Nomination
2022 - Korean Mask Dancing
2023 - Restricted Nomination
2024 - Making of Jang (bean paste)
2025 - Restricted Nomination

UNESCO Memory of the World [Under Comprehensive Review]

Upcoming UNESCO Global Geoparks & Biosphere Reserve Nominations
2021 - Wando County (Biosphere Reserve)
2022 - Jeonbuk, West Coast Region Geopark
2023 - Busan National Geopark

Author winterkjm
#307 | Posted: 26 Oct 2020 04:51 | Edited by: winterkjm 
Updated Korean Tentative List 11/15/2020 - 4/15/2021 [Expected/ Not Guaranteed]

After 10 years, Korea seems on the verge of an updated tentative list (large or small is anyone's guess). Numerous symposiums have been held for aspiring nominations between 2016-2020. Several nominations have been submitted to the Cultural Heritage Administration between 2018-2020, most were rejected (my count is 7 rejections) with recommendations not dissimilar to ICOMOS 'not inscribe' evaluations. These rejections are not permanent and most seek to resubmit based on provided recommendations.

Is this a guarantee that a new tentative list will emerge, hardly. It may just be a select few sites are approved or none at all. It is very easy to find information on aspiring nominations in Korea and the Cultural Heritage Administration make their meeting notes public, making it convenient to see when nominations are approved or rejected. A handful of important "World Heritage" Meetings are scheduled over the next few months. For aspiring nominations, the magic words to type in "Google translate" are 'UNESCO Provisional List'.

Agricultural Heritage (3)
- Byeokgolje and Uirimji Reservoir (Gimje)*
- Jeju Stone Cultural Landscape
- Wando Gudeuljangnon [Cultural Landscape]

Buddhist Heritage (2)
- Goryeo Ruins of Namhan River Basin Temples in Wonju [3 Components]*
- Yangju Hoeamsa, archetype of Zen Temple in East Asia*

Confucianism (2)
- Confucian Royal Academy: Seonggyungwan Munmyo
- Seongju Royal Placenta Chambers*

Military Heritage & Fortresses (4)
- Bukhansanseong Fortress (Goyang) [Extension]*
- Dangseong Fortress (Hwaseong) [Paper: page 26 ICOMOS Thematic Study and the Eastern Silk Roads 2016]
- Doksanseong Fortress - Semadae Site (Osan)
- Maritime Fortifications: Ganghwa Island and Gimpo [Serial Nomination]*

Modern Heritage (5)
- Busan Provisional Capital and Refugee Trail [8 Components]
- Catholic Relics in Chungnam Province [Serial Nomination]*
- Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) [Transnational]
- Sorok Island [Paper: Sustainable Conservation of a Difficult Heritage in South Korea]
- Yongsan Park [Planning Stages for Urban National Park - Ongoing discussion for UNESCO Listing)

Natural Heritage (6)
- Cretaceous Dinosaur Fossil Sites [Potential for updated nomination, new components]
- Jeju Volcanic Island and Lava Tubes [2 Component Extension]
- Jirisan National Park [Potential for Mixed Heritage - Sacred Mountain]
- Mount Seorak and Mount Geumgang [Expansion of 2 TWHS into a single Transnational nomination]
- Odaesan National Park [Potential for Mixed Heritage - Sacred Mountain]
- Ulleungdo Marine Ecosystem

Prehistoric (1)
- Neolithic Sites of Korea: Amsa-dong and Osan-ri [2 Components]

Tumuli (2)
- Ruins of the Hanseong-Baekje [Extension to Baekje Historic Areas]
- Yeongsan River Basin - Ancient Tombs of Mahan (Naju)

*Application Rejected by (CHA), plans for re-submission

Author winterkjm
#308 | Posted: 27 Nov 2020 21:04 | Edited by: winterkjm 
The Seoul City Wall (Hanyangdoseong) nomination may be expanded to include the Northern fortifications (Bukhansanseong) that protected pre-modern Seoul. This expansion would effectively double the length/size of the nomination from 12km to approximately 24km of intact protected fortifications, including part of Bukhansan National Park.

"Currently, the government is pursuing a comprehensive research, such as a plan to link Bukhansanseong and Hanyang City as a continuous heritage, and the results are expected to be seen by next year." November 2020

Moreover, the government is opening all remaining sections of the Seoul City Wall between November and this coming Spring, making a proper circumnavigation (without any detours) possible for the first time. There are plans in the works to better connect trails from Seoul City Wall with Bukhansanseong (about 5 kilometers apart), which really would add a special element to this hiking course connecting Seoul with Bukhansan National Park. Lastly, a section of the fortress around Namsan Mountain in central Seoul is now open as an archeological site. Much of this section of the fortress was largely destroyed in the 20th century, a Japanese WWII bunker is located here and the ruins of the Chōsen Shinto Shrine.

"Off-limits No More" Korea JoongAng Daily (English)

"Walking from Seoul's first park to northern city gate that overlooks Seoul" The Korean Herald (English)

"Seoul reveals traces of old Hangyang" The Korean Herald (English)

"More Mt. Bukak trails to be opened to citizens: Cheong Wa Dae" Yonhap News (English)

This expansion plan seems logical to me, since much of the fortification to protect Seoul on view today (both Hanyangdoseong and Bukhansanseong) are from Sukjong of Joseon's large-scale re-building or expansion project of the Capitals defenses between 1704 and 1714. Perhaps this nomination is reconfigured for a new submission for 2023, though that requires rapid development of a complete nomination file by January 2022. If Naganeupseong Village is not ready, the Hanyaongdoseong dossier just may fill the slot for 2023, or both nominations might look toward 2025.

Author Durian
#309 | Posted: 29 Nov 2020 22:29 

I think overall expand the WHS Namhansanseong to include Bukhansanseong and whole city wall as Seoul Defense System, maybe easier move. It will be quite strange to list Southern defensive fortress separate from Northern and central fortress.

Author winterkjm
#310 | Posted: 30 Nov 2020 02:02 | Edited by: winterkjm 
expand the WHS Namhansanseong to include Bukhansanseong and whole city wall as Seoul Defense System

Dates and Origins

Hanyangdoseong, Seoul City Wall (four periods of construction: 1396 - 1422 - 1704 - 1800) *all dates in bold are clearly visible and easy to differentiate
- Circumference marks the boundaries of the dynastic capital

Namhansanseong was constructed in 1624 (Pre-Joseon remnants/origins)
- Distance from capital center (about 25km)

Bukhansanseong was constructed in 1711 (Pre-Joseon remnants/origins)
- Distance from capital center (about 9km)

Options for Nomination
1) Seoul City Wall (singular, as seen in failed 2017 nomination, but improve dossier)
2) Seoul City Wall (including Bukhansanseong, seen as natural extension based on proximity)
3) Seoul City Wall (extension including Bukhansanseong, Namhansanseong - Seoul Defensive System, re-evaluate criterion)
4) End Seoul City Wall nomination (pursue Bukhansanseong as extension to Namhansanseong)

Reasoning for Namhansanseong and Seoul City Wall to remain separate and distinct
1) Origin, preservation, design, and management are distinct enough.
2) No tangible benefits for tourism to join with Seoul City Wall.

Reasoning to connect Seoul City Wall (Hanyangdoseong) with Bukhansanseong
1) Tangchundaeseong (linked with Inwangsan Mountain section of Seoul City Wall) was built in 1713 to connect Hanyangdoseong with Bukhansanseong Fortress.
2) Origin and design are linked by King Sukjong's large-scale refurbishment of Seoul's defenses in 1704 and 1713.

Reasoning to connect Seoul City Wall and Bukhansanseong with Namhansanseong (WHS)
1) Ultimately all fortifications are connected in overall purpose to protect the capital.
2) All major components are from the Joseon Dynasty and design elements (while not uniform) are arguably not dramatically different.

Reasoning to End Seoul City Wall nomination and pursue Bukhansanseong extension to Namhansanseong (WHS)
1) Bukhansanseong was created to "fill the gap" in Seoul's defenses after the Qing invasion of Joseon, in which Namhansanseong became the last defense of the capital.
2) Components include similar length of fortifications, remnants of Temporary/Emergency Palace (ruins), Buddhist temples, and mountainous natural topography.

OUV Criteria: Namhansanseong

Criterion (ii): The system of fortifications of Namhansanseong embodies a synthesis of the art of defence in the Far East in the early 17th century. It stems from a re-examination of Chinese and Korean standards of urban fortification, and from fears aroused by new firearms from the West. Namhansanseong marks a turning point in mountain fortress design in Korea, and it went on to influence in its turn the construction of citadels in the region.

Criterion (iv): Namhansanseong is an outstanding example of a fortified city. Designed in the 17th century as an emergency capital for the Joseon dynasty, it was built and then defended by Buddhist soldier-monks who respected pre-existing traditions already in place.

Proposed OUV Criteria: Hanyangdoseong, Seoul City Wall *Criteria would require adjustment if Bukhansanseong is included or extension is pursued

Criterion (iii): The original shapes of the gate towers and main wall are intact, providing a clear look at the traditions followed at the time of construction. Currently, 12.854km of the original 18.627km wall has been preserved or restored, making this the longest among the traditional city walls that remain around the world. The foundations for some of the unrestored parts endure as well. The Joseon dynasty lasted for around five centuries, the longest Confucian dynasty in all of East Asia, and Hanyangdoseong protected the Joseon capital during all that time. Moreover, repair and reconstruction projects were conducted periodically during Joseon, and these were detailed in written records that survive, while the wall itself provides physical evidence of the wall-building techniques and styles employed at different times.

Criterion (iv): The location of the Hanyangdoseong was decided according to the theories of geomancy and the topography of Korean Peninsula, while the walls follow the ridgelines between the four inner mountains. The walls were built of stone and supported from behind by layered soil and rock that gently slopes to blend into the landscape. The walls' use of the natural terrain, the contours of the four inner mountains, and the look of the wall on both sides combine for wonderfully scenic view in an urban area.

My Flickr Albums:
- Hanyangdoseong, the Seoul City Wall
- Bukhansan Fortress
- Namhansanseong

*Notice: There is an indication of a "connecting" fortress near the Inwangsan [top left] section of the Seoul City Wall. In 2015, plans to restore and preserve this fortification gained traction, previously this site had been largely unprotected and ignored. "Tangchundaeseong Fortress and Hongjimun Gate were built to connect the Seoul City Wall with Bukhansanseong Fortress. Construction of the fortress began in 1713." There is a strong hiking culture in Seoul and linking the popular hikes along Seoul City Wall with Bukhansan National Park via a cultural route that is a contiguous world heritage site? I would actually be surprised if this route was not pursued.

Author winterkjm
#311 | Posted: 17 Feb 2021 02:13 
Petroglyphs in Bangudae Valley (renamed from Daegokcheon Stream Petroglyphs) will be Korea's next nomination following Getbol, Korean Tidal Flats (2020) and Gaya Tumuli (2022). An announcement from the Cultural Heritage Administration has approved this TWHS as the next "priority nomination". An exact timeline is not forthcoming from (CHA), but some news reports indicate 2025 as the hopeful date of inscription. "Ulsan City is promoting academic research and domestic and international comparative studies on the Daegokcheon petroglyphs with the goal of being listed as a World Heritage site in 2025." This may lend further credence to the reported efforts to reformat the Hanyangdoseong, Seoul City Wall nomination to include Bukhansanseong as a continuous heritage, therefore requiring a couple years of research and discussion to re-submit a complete nomination. Therefore, we might conclude with fairly high certainty that Korea will have no official nominations for 2023 and 2024. This could off course change, but Naganeupseong (which might be the next priority nomination), does not seem to be at an advanced stage at this point in time.

Author winterkjm
#312 | Posted: 15 Aug 2021 01:20 | Edited by: winterkjm 
Building a "World Petroglyph Center"

"City officials see next year (2022) as the time to establish the basic plan aimed at building the petroglyph center. The basic plan will include the location, scale, and project cost of the petroglyph center. The project to build the petroglyph center will be promoted with this as a stepping stone, but it is clear that the deadline will be within 2025, the target year for UNESCO World Heritage listing of the petroglyphs of the Daegokcheon Stream." Article August 10th, 2021

Incorporating Hanyang City Wall, Bukhansanseong Fortress, and Tangchundae Fortress

"If our goal goes well, we plan to apply for registration to the Cultural Heritage Administration in 2023 after concentrating on discovering additional heritage values ​​for Hanyang City Wall, Bukhansanseong Fortress, and Tangchundaeseong Fortress through working-level consultations with Goyang City and Gyeonggi Province. After that, the Cultural Heritage Administration fully reviews and supplements the registration value by 2025, then applies for registration to UNESCO, undergoes substantive examination by ICOMOS, and expects to be registered in 2027 or 2028 at the earliest." Article August 15th, 2021

After the Gaya Tumuli nomination in 2022, its seems likely the next Korean world heritage dossier will not be submitted for a couple years. In 2022, Korea's tentative list will include three 20+ year old nominations, seven 10+ year old nominations, and only one recent nomination: Unjusa (2017). The agenda for the coming years is a new/updated tentative list and selecting what priority nominations will follow the Gaya nomination.

Author winterkjm
#313 | Posted: 15 Aug 2021 02:22 | Edited by: winterkjm 
I just proposed a new hotspot for Korea, which could be useful for WHS travellers. Not only are these 5 WHS very conveniently accessible, but plenty of tentative sites are nearby. Two Gaya Tumuli sites are less than 100 km from Yeosu. Additional TWHS that are nearby are Naganeupseong, which is about 25 km away, Unjusa Temple (near Hwasun) is about 75 km away, Gangjin Kiln Sites are under 100 km away, and Yeosu is the best location to take the ferry from Yeosu Terminal to Sado Island to see the Dinosaur footprints there. Therefore, you can check off five world heritage sites and five TWHS in a city that is linked by KTX high-speed train, can access Jeju by Ferry (under 6 hours), and is only a 1 hour domestic flight from Seoul. The connection does not include any Seoul WHS or Gyeongju WHS, which provides a very different collection of Korean WHS (often less visited components in Jeolla province). Yeosu was the host of the 2012 World Expo. Being far away from the major cities (Seoul, Incheon, Busan, and Daegu), renting a car could be a preferable option that allows easy access to some of the most beautiful countryside of South Korea.

Yeosu Hotspot [includes domestic airport and ferry terminal to Jeju]

Getbol, Korean Tidal Flat < than 25km from Suncheon Bay and under 50km from Boseong Tidal Flats

Seowon, Neo-Confucian Academies < than 100km from Namgye and Pilam Seowon by car

Baekje Historic Areas < than 150km to Iksan (direct KTX high-speed train 1.5 hours)

Sansa, Buddhist Mountain Monasteries of Korea < than 50km to Seonamsa (direct KTX high-speed train to Suncheon 15 minutes)

Gochang, Hwasun, and Ganghwa Dolmen < than 75km from Hwasun Dolmen site

Author meltwaterfalls
#314 | Posted: 17 Aug 2021 06:57 
I just proposed a new hotspot for Korea, which could be useful for WHS travellers.
Yeosu Hotspot [includes domestic airport and ferry terminal to Jeju]

Thanks for this. This covers the majority of the sites I missed on my first visit.

Author winterkjm
#315 | Posted: 16 Sep 2021 03:10 | Edited by: winterkjm 
Cleaning up Korea's Tentative List

Updated and Expanded Nominations: 3
- Petroglyphs in Bangudae Valley (changed from Daegokcheon Stream Petroglyphs)
- Seoul Defense System: Hanyangdoseong and Bukhansanseong (changed from Seoul City Wall)
- Korean Cretaceous Dinosaur Coast (changed from Sites of fossilized dinosaurs throughout the Southern seacoast)

Extensions: 3
- Getbol, Korean Tidal Flats Phase II (adjacent tidal flats - Gunsan, Muan, Goheung, and Yeosu)
- Jeju Volcanic Island and Lava Tubes (Chagwido Island and Suwolbong Peak)
- Baekje Historic Areas (Ruins of Hanseong Baekje - Seoul Components)

New Nominations: 2
- Busan Provisional Capital and Refugee Trail (conditionally approved serial nomination - 8 components)
- Catholic Relics in Chungnam Province (serial nomination - pending components)

The former Seoul City Wall nomination is being re-worked through a multi-year project to create a contiguous updated nomination with Bukhansanseong. Goal for a complete dossier is 2028. Petroglyphs in Bangudae Valley is a re-imagining of the original tentative site as a cultural landscape. Goal for a complete dossier is 2024-5. I cannot completely write-off the "Korean Cretaceous Dinosaur Coast" nomination which was withdrawn in 2009. New discoveries have been made over the last decade, additional components have been discussed. I don't believe they have completely given up on this serial nomination.

Korea is seeking to follow through on the IUCN recommendations for a "Getbol, Korean Tidal Flats Phase II" listing of adjacent tidal flats and expanding the property. Goal for a complete dossier is 2025. A Jeju Extension is based on the IUCN rejection of some components of a "minor boundary modification" in 2018. IUCN requested Korea to submit an extension. Listing Chagwido and Suwolbong specifically would be the primary goal of this extension if it moves forward. The Baekje Extension is still very much actively seeking a place on Korea's Tentative List. The Seoul Hanseong Baekje Museum in Olympic Park (like the museums in Gongju, Buyeo, and Iksan) is the central hub for information about the proposed components.

Regarding new nominations, I have certainly referenced several potential candidates over the years (some may yet emerge). However, Busan has already been conditionally approved by the Cultural Heritage Administration. Busan is a candidate city for the 2030 World Expo and one goal is for Busan's Modern Heritage to be inscribed before then. A Catholic Heritage nomination in Korea seems inevitable, but there has been some discussions and disagreements about the components, theme, and approach for demonstrating OUV. Should so-called "martyr" sites be included? Or is the focus more generally on the introduction of Christian/Catholic faith to the Korean Peninsula? The figure of Andrew Kim Taegon looms large on this proposed nomination, a particularly important early Korean priest who studied in Macau and the Philippines, before becoming an ordained priest in Shanghai. The time period (mid to late 19th century) is particularly relevant to any nomination as the country faced growing foreign pressure and influence, including unrest amongst the Korean population such as the Donghak Peasant Revolution (1894). About 11% of the Korean population in Catholic.

While I expect some or most of these proposals to move forward, it remains unclear what the exact timeline is for Korea's next Tentative List update.

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