Religion and Belief Connections
All connections part of Religion and Belief.
|12 Apostles||In Christianity, an apostle is one sent by Jesus. They were, according to the Acts of the Apostles and Christian tradition, disciples whom Jesus of Nazareth had chosen, named, and trained in order to send them on a specific mission: the establishment of the Christian Church by evangelism and the spreading of the "good news".
The 12 are: Peter, Andrew, James, John, Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew, Thomas, James (son of Alphaeus),
Thaddeus, Simon the Zealot, Judas Iscariot
|Armenian Orthodox Church||10|
|Atlantis||Sites connected to cultures identified as Atlantis. Links must be to a specific location, not just to a whole continent or country.||5|
|Augustinian Order||The Augustinians, named after Saint Augustine of Hippo (354||12|
|Axis Mundi||Locations that have been regarded as the Center of the World / Axis Mundi / Omphalos (Navel of the World)||16|
|Beatified Persons||WHS connected with persons who have been "Beatified" by the Roman Catholic Church (but not, as yet, Canonised). Connection must be more significant than having merely "visited" the site. Excluding a "connection" of the numerous Beatified Popes to The Vatican.||4|
|Benedictines||Autonomous communities of monks living in accordance with the Rule of St Benedict||29|
|Buddhist Pure Land||Pure Land Buddhism is a broad branch of Mahayana Buddhism and currently one of the most popular traditions of Buddhism in East Asia. Included sites must be significant in the development of the "Buddhist Pure Land" philisophy of creating a pure land on Earth. Sites that are only associated with the Pure Land Buddhism sect are not sufficient.||6|
|Buddhist sites in non-Buddhist countries||With "non-Buddhist countries" defined as 1% or less of Population is a practicing Buddhist (see this list for reference).||13|
|Cadaver tombs||A cadaver tomb or transi (or "memento mori tomb", Latin for "reminder of death") is a type of gisant (recumbent effigy tomb) featuring an effigy in the macabre form of a decomposing corpse. The topos was particularly characteristic of the later Middle Ages. (wiki)||4|
|Calvary||Calvaries are Christian man-made sacred sites re-creating the topography of Jerusalem.||7|
|Carmelites||The Order of the Brothers of Our Lady of Mount Carmel or Carmelites is a Roman Catholic religious order founded, probably in the 12th century, on Mount Carmel, hence its name.||4|
|Cathedrals||A cathedral is a Christian church that contains the seat of a bishop.||161|
|Christian Churches in non Christian countries||WHS sites situated in a non Christian country yet consisting of, or including as a significant element of the inscribed area, an "operational" Christian religious building ("Non-Christian country" is defined as having less than 5% of population as Christian - see link).||6|
|Christian Pilgrimage Sites||43|
|Cistercian||The Cistercians are a Roman Catholic monastic order.||12|
|Conceptionists||The Order of the Immaculate Conception, also known as the Conceptionists, are a contemplative religious order of nuns. For some years, they followed the Poor Clares Rule, but in 1511 were recognized as a separate Catholic religious order, taking a new Rule and the name of Order of Immaculate Conception (wiki)||3|
|Confucianism||Confucianism is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system developed from the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius.||19|
|Coptic Orthodox Church||The Coptic Orthodox Church belongs to the Oriental Orthodox family of churches, and has its headquarters in Alexandria and Cairo.||3|
|Dance of Death||WHS where representations of the Dance of Death or Danse Macabre are or have been displayed.
The Dance of Death is an artistic genre of late-medieval allegory on the universality of death: no matter one's station in life, the Dance of Death unites all. The Danse Macabre consists of the dead or personified Death summoning representatives from all walks of life to dance along to the grave, typically with a pope, emperor, king, child, and labourer. (wiki)
|Dominican Order||The Dominican Order is a Catholic religious order founded by Saint Dominic in the 13th century.||23|
|Early Christianity||WHS where some physical remains relevant to the period of "Early Christianity" may be seen.
"Early Christianity" is "commonly defined as the Christianity of the three centuries between the Crucifixion of Christ (c. 30) and the First council of Nicaea (325)" (Wiki) which was called by Constantine to develop a consensus of Christian belief from within the wide variety of interpetations which had developed. It is normally divided into 2 periods
a. The Apostolic Age - Crucifixion to death of John the Apostle (c 110)
b. The ante Nicene Period
|Eastern Catholic Churches||The Eastern Catholic Churches are autonomous, self-governing particular churches in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, the Pope. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_Catholic_Churches for the included churches. There's overlap with Syriac Churches, but not all Syriac Churches are Eastern Catholic (and vice versa).||13|
|Ethiopian Orthodox||The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church is an Oriental Orthodox Christian church in Ethiopia. The Ethiopian Church was part of the Coptic Orthodox Church until 1959, when it was granted its own Patriarch by Coptic Orthodox Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of All Africa, Cyril VI.||5|
|Feathered serpent||WHS containing a structure dedicated/related to the Feathered Serpent deity in one of its Mesoamerican cultural manifestations.
"The Feathered Serpent was a prominent supernatural entity or deity, found in many Mesoamerican religions. It was called Quetzalcoatl among the Aztecs, Kukulka among the Yucatec Maya, and Q'uq'umatz and Tohil among the K'iche' Maya. The double symbolism used in its name is considered allegoric to the dual nature of the deity, where being feathered represents its divine nature or ability to fly to reach the skies and being a serpent represents its human nature or ability to creep on the ground among other animals of the Earth, a dualism very common in Mesoamerican deities" (Wiki) The deity first emerges in the Olmec culture c1400- 400 BCE. For a history of its spread from Teotihuacan to the Maya see http://www.anthro.illinois.edu/faculty/lucero/documents/12-LuceroPanganiban.pdf
|Fortified religious buildings||19|
|Founded after Animal Miracle||WHS founded after animals performed some kind of action considered as a miracle.||4|
|Franciscans||Members of Catholic religious orders that follow a body of regulations known as "The rule of St. Francis"||34|
|Goddesses||Sites with close links to a "Goddess"||37|
|Greek Orthodox churches outside Greece||Greek Orthodox churches outside Greece (and Cyprus)||11|
|Hercules||Roman mythological figure (Greek origin).||14|
|Hiberno-Scottish Mission||The Hiberno-Scottish mission was a mission led by Irish and Scottish monks which spread Christianity and established monasteries in Great Britain and continental Europe during the Middle Ages.||4|
|Hieronymites||"Hieronymites, or the Order of St. Jerome (Latin: Ordo Sancti Hieronymi, abbreviated O.S.H.), is a common name for several congregations of hermits living according to the Rule of St. Augustine, with supplementary regulations taken from the writings of the 5th-century monk and scholar, St Jerome. The principal group with this name was founded in Spain in the 14th century. Their traditional habit is a white tunic with a brown, hooded scapular and a brown mantle" (Wiki).||3|
|Hindu pilgrimage sites||8|
|Hindu Sites in non Hindu countries||WHS in non Hindu countries which contain structures which are or were at some time Hindu temples/shrines. "Non-Hindu countries" are defined as ones where 5% or less of the Population is a practising Hindu. Thus excluding inter alia India (80.5%), Nepal (80.6%), Bangladesh (9.2%) and Sri Lanka (15.4%).||10|
|Holiest place||The most holy place of a religion||16|
|Holy Tunic||Relics of the clothing worn by Jesus at the time of the Crucifixion. Biblical references (John. 19: 23-24; Ps. 21 : 18-19) seem to suggest that there were 2 sets of clothing i.e The "robe"/"himatia" or overgarments (which was divided into 4 parts) and the "Seamless Tunic"/"khiton" or undergarb (link.
All traditional accounts are Eastern Orthodox unless stated otherwise.
|Horse Burials||WHS associated with the burial of horses as part of funeral rites - either when dead or alive and whole or in part||4|
|Hospitaler Bethlehemites||Order founded by Brother Peter of Saint Joseph Betancur - March 21, 1626 (Tenerife) - April 25, 1667 (Antigua Guatemala). Became a Fransican Tertiary in Guatemala and opened a hospital for the poor followed by shelter for the homeless, schools etc. The activity grew and eventually developed into a new religious order "La Orden de los Bethlemitas y las Bethlemitas" which was recognised and approved by the Holy See. The activities spread atound Latin America. "The Bethlehemites, because of making only simple vows, remained under diocesan jurisdiction from which they wished, however, to be freed so that their congregation might be converted into a regular religious order bound by solemn vows. The Spanish court did not approve this plan and at first the Holy See was not favourable to it, but due chiefly to the influence of Cardinal Mellini, former nuncio at Madrid, Roderick of the Cross at length overcame all difficulties and in the Papal Bull of 26 March 1687, Innocent IX authorized (the order) to make the three solemn vows according to the rule of st Augustine and to have a superior general, and granted them all the privileges of the Augustinian friars and convents." (Wiki) The order was suppressed in 1820 but was re-established by Pope John Paul II in 1984. "Hermano Pedro" was beatified in 1980 and canonised in 2002.||4|
|Introduction of Christianity||WHS which are located at sites closely connected with the introduction of Christianity within the nominating country.||8|
|Islamic pilgrimage sites||Top pilgrimage sites for Shia or Sunni muslims. Mecca and Medina are generally considered no. 1 and no. 2, several others are vying for spots no. 3 - 5.||10|
|Jesuits||The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu, S.J. and S.I. or SJ, SI ) is a Roman Catholic Church religious order whose members are called Jesuits. The order was founded by Saint Ignatius of Loyola||36|
|Jewish religion and culture||WHS with physical remains of Jewish religion or culture. These may include synagogues, cemeteries, ritual baths (mikveh) and specific town quarters such as mellahs.||80|
|Karaites||Karaite Judaism or Karaism is a Jewish Movement, distinct from Rabbinic Judaism. Read more at wiki||5|
|Lavra||A Lavra signifies a monastery community with significant autonomy within the (orthodox) church hierarchy.||4|
|Legends and Folk Myths||81|
|Living indigenous religions||OUV related to a living, indigenous religion||21|
|Manichaeism||Manichaeism was a major Gnostic religion that was founded by the Iranian prophet Mani (c. 216-276 AD).
|Marian Shrines||WHS containing (or once containing) "Marian Shrines" - ("a shrine marking an apparition or other miracle ascribed to the Blessed Virgin Mary, or a site on which is centered a historically strong Marian devotion. Such locales are often the destination of pilrimages").||9|
|Mentioned in the Bible||Places mentioned in the Bible (Old and New Testaments). "Connections" are made where a
a. historic town/city is mentioned in the Bible without identifcation of a more specific location within it but the inscribed area can be regarded as including that part which would have existed in Biblical times
b. "historic" name is used in the Bible but scholarship or "tradition" has established that this refers to the same place as is inscribed under a (more) "modern" name.
c. specific location within a town/city is mentioned in the Bible and that location is inscribed or can be shown to be within the inscribed area. Thus, for instance, within Athens only the Acropolis is inscribed. But this location is not mentioned in the Bible even though Paul preached only a few 100 metres away at the Areopagus (Mars Hill) - so NO connection!
|Mercedarians||"The Royal, Celestial and Military Order of Our Lady of Mercy and the Redemption of the Captives also known as Our Lady of Ransom ( Latin: Ordo Beatae Mariae de Mercede redemptionis captivorums) is a Roman Catholic religious order established in 1218 by St Peter Nolasco in the city of Barcelona, at that time in the Kingdom of Aragon, for the redemption of Christian captives (during the Crusades). One of the distinguishing marks of the Order of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mercy is that, since its foundation, its members are required to take a Fourth Vow to die for another who is in danger of losing their Faith. The Order exists today in 17 countries" (Wiki)||8|
|Mithraism||Mithraism was a mystery religion which became popular among the military in the Roman Empire, from the 1st to 4th centuries AD. It is best attested in the cities of Rome and Ostia and in the Roman provinces of Mauretania, Britain, and in the provinces along the Rhine and Danube frontier.||5|
|Mosque||Notable mosques. Description should include name, year(s) of construction, denomination (if not stated, we assume it's Sunni) and remarkable facts that prove it's special / remarkable in any way.||89|
|Mosques converted from churches , cathedrals or synagogues||12|
|Multiple Religions||WHS which are, or have been, "significant" to more than one religion.
Excluding cities/towns which merely contain buildings belonging to multiple religions which are of no particular significance in religious or historical terms.
|Museums of Atheism||WHS containing buildings which were once "Museums of Atheism"||4|
|Named after a local Christian saint||WHS named after a Christian saint, only have saints directly connected IN PERSON with the site.||9|
|Nunneries||Sites that include active or former nunneries or convents (communities for religious women).||17|
|Nymphaeum||WHS containing the visible remains of a Nymphaeum. Excluding Renaissance or later structures titled "Nymphaeum".
|Order of Cluny||Monastic order, see link.||4|
|Pagoda||A religious building of the Far East, especially a multistory Buddhist tower, erected as a memorial or shrine. Pagodas included are remarkable because of age, height, design or historical importance.||23|
|Phoenix||WHS related to Phoenix, a mythical bird.||10|
|Pilgrimage route||WHS that cover a pilgrimage ROUTE / ROAD / TRAIL||11|
|Prophecies||WHS where prophecies were either made, or fulfilled.||9|
|Protestantism||Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation, rejecting papal authority and doctrine.||34|
|Relics from John the Baptist||8|
|Religious sites connected to fishermen||9|
|Russian Orthodox churches outside Russia||8|
|Sacred Forests or Groves||WHS that contain forests or groves with great religious importance to a particular culture.||16|
|Sacred Mountains||Sacred mountains are mountains sacred to certain religion. Almost all religions have some sacred mountains.||43|
|Saint Vitus||Saint Vitus, according to Christian legend, was a Christian saint from Sicily. He died as a martyr during the persecution of Christians by co-ruling Roman Emperors Diocletian and Maximian in 303. The cult of St. Vitus became very popular in Slavic lands. (wiki)||3|
|Saints' Caves||Caves which were significant to a Christian Saint. Identify the cave and the Saint.||3|
|Secret Societies||Secret societies from all over the world that are not connected specifically elsewhere.||4|
|Serapea||"A serapeum is a temple or other religious institution dedicated to the syncretic Hellenistic-Egyptian god Serapis. who combined aspects of Osiris and Apis in a humanized form that was accepted by the Ptolomaic Greeks of Alexandria. There were several such religious centers, each of which was a serapeion ( Greek: Σεραπεῖον) or, in its Latinized form, a serapeum." (Wiki)||5|
|Servite Order||The Servite Order is one of the five original Catholic mendicant orders.||4|
|Shia Islam||"Like other branches of Islam, Shia Islam is based on the teachings of the Quran and the message of .... Muhammad. In contrast to other types, the Shia believe that only God has the right to choose a representative to safeguard Islam, the Quran and sharia. Thus the Shias look to Ali, Muhammad's son-in-law, whom they consider divinely appointed, as the rightful successor to Muhammad, and the first omam. The Shia extend this belief to Muhammad's family, the Ahl al-Bayt ("the People of the House"), and certain individuals among his descendants, known as imams, who have special spiritual and political authority over the community" ....."modern Shia Islam is divided into three main branches. The largest Shia sect in the early 21st century is the Ithna ashariyya, commonly referred to in English as the Twelvers, while smaller branches include the Ismaili ("Seveners") and Zaidi ("Fivers")" .... "Shia Muslims consider sites associated with Muhammad, his family members (Ahl al-Bayt) and descendants (including the Shia Imams), their companions, and the prophets as holy places" (Wiki)||6|
|Shinto||WHS containing a significant "Shinto" element. Element has to be identified in description of connection.||8|
|Sikhism||WHS connected with Sikh religion and history||3|
|Situated on the "Sword of Michael" ley line||WHS situated on the Sword of St Michael ley line. "Ley lines are apparent alignments of landmarks, religious sites, and man-made structures. The pseudoscientific belief that these apparent lines are not accidental speculates that they are straight navigable paths and have spiritual significance". See Wiki for more and for a detailed map of the Sword of Michael ley line.||3|
|St Paul was here||WHS visited by St Paul. There should be some identified specific location within the inscribed area linked to either recorded history or legend which relates to St Paul's presence rather than merely the fact that he "passed through" (So e.g Rhodes is excluded).||7|
|Stupa||A stupa is a mound-like structure containing Buddhist relics, typically the remains of Buddha, used by Buddhists as a place of worship.||24|
|Stylite||A stylite is a type of Christian ascetic who lives on pillars, preaching, fasting and praying. Stylites were common in the early days of the Byzantine Empire.||4|
|Sufism||A "Sufi" is one who practices Islamic mysticism. Both Sunni and Shia Islam have Sufi orders and there are numerous schools (or Tariqah) often named after their founder and each with their own rituals.||15|
|Syriac Churches||The Syriac churches are churches originally adopted by the Syriacs (also called Assyrians) and whose sacred language (and sometimes also the everyday language) is Aramaic. These churches include the Assyrian (=Nestorian) Church, Syriac Orthodox, Syriac Catholic, Chaldean and Maronite Church.||8|
|The Magi||The biblical Magi, also referred to as the (Three) Wise Men or (Three) Kings, were, in the Gospel of Matthew and Christian tradition, a group of distinguished foreigners who visited Jesus after his birth, bearing gifts of gold, frankincense and myrrh. (wiki)||4|
|Theravada Buddhism||Theravada is the oldest surviving Buddhist school. It was founded in India. It is relatively conservative, and generally closer to early Buddhism, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka and most of continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand). (wiki)||10|
|Tibetan Buddhism||Tibetan Buddhism is the body of Buddhist religious doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet and certain regions of the Himalayas, including northern Nepal, Bhutan, and India. Tibetan Buddhism has four main traditions: Nyingma(pa), Kagyu(pa), Sakya(pa) and Gelug(pa) (wiki)||13|
|Tombs of Biblical Figures||WHS which contain a tomb attributed (correctly or by legend) to a "Biblical figure". Several figures "have" tombs in multiple locations according to different religious traditions. The "Bible" is defined as including any book in any Jewish or Christian tradition. Excluding partial "relics" held in reliquaries etc as opposed to a "tomb" supposedly containing a complete body.||5|
|Virginity||WHS connected with "Virginity" (Excluding Christian Marian Shrines, which have their own "connection")||3|
|Zen||Zen is a school of Mahayana Buddhism.||6|