Architecture Connections

All connections part of Architecture.

Architectural design competitions Notable constructions (that are part of WHS) where the architectural design was chosen after a competition. 7
Art Deco Art Deco buildings which are included in WHS inscriptions. Limited to:
a. Significant buildings
b. Buildings whose Art Deco credentials are referred to in the Inscription document or Advisory Body review
Art Nouveau 22
Badgir Traditional Persian wind tower. 4
Baroque 82
Beehive tombs A beehive tomb, also known as the tholos tomb (plural tholoi), is a burial structure characterised by its false dome created by the superposition of successively smaller rings of mudbricks or, more often, stones. The resulting structure resembles a beehive and hence the traditional English name. 7
Bentheim Sandstone Bad Bentheim is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany in the district of Grafschaft Bentheim on the borders of North Rhine-Westphalia and the Netherlands roughly 15 km south of Nordhorn and 20 km northeast of Enschede.

Bentheim’s sandstone, known as Bentheimer Gold, which was quarried in the main town and Gildehaus, was shipped abroad beyond the old county’s borders between the 15th and 18th centuries and used for important buildings. (wiki)

See also Bentheim Sandstone Museum
Brick architecture 80
Built in Laterite Laterites are soil types rich in iron and aluminium, formed in hot and wet tropical areas. Nearly all laterites are rusty-red because of iron oxides. They develop by intensive and long-lasting weathering of the underlying parent rock. (wiki) 8
Carrara marble Carrara marble is a type of white or blue-grey marble of high quality, popular for use in sculpture and building decor. It is quarried in the city of Carrara located in the northernmost tip of modern-day Tuscany, Italy. (wiki) 10
Cave dwellings 14
Cave Temples or Churches Built into natural caves with possible outside features and carving. 20
Cenotaph A cenotaph is an "empty tomb" or a monument erected in honour of a person or group of people whose remains are elsewhere. It can also be the initial tomb for a person who has since been interred elsewhere. Although the vast majority of cenotaphs are erected in honour of individuals, many of the best-known cenotaphs are instead dedicated to the memories of groups of individuals, such as the lost soldiers of one country or empire. (wiki) 12
Chahar Bagh Gardens " a Persian-style garden layout. The quadrilateral garden is divided by walkways or flowing water into four smaller parts In Persian, "Chār" means 'four' and "bāgh" means 'garden'." See 10
Chinese Garden Chinese Gardens or Chinese Scholar's Gardens. "The design of Chinese gardens was to provide a spiritual utopia for one to connect with nature, to come back to one's inner heart, to come back to ancient idealism." (wiki)

Chinese gardens have seventeen essential elements: 1) proximity to the home; 2) small; 3) walled; 4) small individual sections; 5) asymmetrical; 6) various types of spatial connections; 7) architecture; 8) rocks; 9) water; 10) trees; 11) plants; 12) sculpture; 13) jie jing (borrowed scenery); 14) chimes; 15) incense burners; 16) inscriptions; 17) use of feng shui for choosing site.
Chinoiserie Chinoiserie refers to a recurring theme in European artistic styles since the 17th century, which reflects Chinese art and is characterized by the use of fanciful imagery of an imaginary China. 12
Churrigueresque Churrigueresque refers to a Spanish Baroque style of elaborate sculptural architectural ornament which emerged as a manner of stucco decoration in Spain in the late 17th century and was used up to about 1750, marked by extreme, expressive and florid decorative detailing, normally found above the entrance on the main facade of a building. (wiki)

The style was named after José Benito de Churriguera, who appears to have been influenced by the highly decorated styles of Moorish architecture.
Conical roofs 19
Coral Masonry 10
Created by Michelangelo WHS that hold works by Michelangelo, excluding those in museums. 5
Designed by André Le Nôtre André Le Nôtre (12 March 1613 - 15 September 1700) was a French landscape architect and the principal gardener of King Louis XIV of France. 4
Designed by Balthasar Neumann Johann Balthasar Neumann (27 January 1687 (?) - 19 August 1753), usually known as Balthasar Neumann, was a German architect and military artillery engineer who developed a refined brand of Baroque architecture, fusing Austrian, Bohemian, Italian, and French elements to design some of the most impressive buildings of the period. (wiki) 3
Designed by Diogo de Boitaca Diogo de Boitaca (c. 1460 - 1528?) was an influential architect and engineer of some of the most important Portuguese buildings, working in Portugal in the first half of the 16th century. (wiki) 4
Designed by Donato Bramante Donato Bramante (1444 - 11 March 1514) was an Italian architect. He introduced Renaissance architecture to Milan and the High Renaissance style to Rome, where his plan for St. Peter's Basilica formed the basis of design executed by Michelangelo. (wiki) 3
Designed by Galeazzo Alessi Galeazzo Alessi (1512 – December 30, 1572) was an Italian architect from Perugia, known throughout Europe for his distinctive style based on his enthusiasm for ancient architecture. (wiki) 3
Designed by Gustave Eiffel Works by the French structural engineer Alexandre Gustavo Eiffel 6
Designed by Hans Hendrik van Paesschen Hans Hendrik van Paesschen (c. 1510-1582) was a Flemish architect, based in Antwerp, who designed high-style classical buildings in many countries of northern Europe. (wiki) 4
Designed by Jan Blazej Santini Aichel Jan Blazej Santini Aichel (3 February 1677 – 7 December 1723) was a Czech architect of Italian descent, whose major works represent the unique Baroque Gothic style. (wiki) 3
Designed by Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach (20 July 1656 – 5 April 1723) was an Austrian architect, sculptor, and architectural historian whose Baroque architecture profoundly influenced and shaped the tastes of the Habsburg Empire. (wiki) 4
Designed by Juan Guas Juan Guas (c. 1430-33 – c. 1496) was a Spanish artist and architect of French origin. He worked in a group of architects to create the Isabelline style. (wiki) 4
Designed by Jules Hardouin-Mansart Jules Hardouin-Mansart (16 April 1646 – 11 May 1708) was a French architect whose work is generally considered to be the apex of French Baroque architecture, representing the power and grandeur of Louis XIV. (wiki) 6
Designed by Karl Friedrich Schinkel Karl Friedrich Schinkel (13 March 1781 - 9 October 1841) was a Prussian architect, city planner, and painter who also designed furniture and stage sets. Schinkel was one of the most prominent architects of Germany and designed both neoclassical and neogothic buildings. (wiki) 4
Designed by Lei family WHS built or designed by members of the Lei family, a legendary architectural family who have been responsible for construction and restoration of imperial buildings during the Qing Dynasty.

See this article for more about the Lei family's architects.
Designed by Leon Battista Alberti Leon Battista Alberti )February 14, 1404 – April 25, 1472) was an Italian humanist author, artist, architect, poet, priest, linguist, philosopher and cryptographer; he epitomised the Renaissance Man. (wiki) 3
Designed by Luigi Vanvitelli Luigi Vanvitelli (12 May 1700 – 1 March 1773) was an Italian engineer and architect. The most prominent 18th-century architect of Italy, he practised a sober classicizing academic Late Baroque style that made an easy transition to Neoclassicism. (wiki) 3
Designed by Michele Sanmicheli Michele Sanmicheli 1484–1559), was a Venetian architect and urban planner of Mannerist-style, among the greatest of his era. (wiki) 4
Designed by Mimar Sinan Koca Mi'mâr Sinân Âğâ ("Sinan the Architect") (c. 1489/1490 – July 17, 1588) was the chief Ottoman architect (Turkish: mimar) and civil engineer for sultans Suleiman the Magnificent, Selim II, and Murad III. He was responsible for the construction of more than 300 major structures and other more modest projects. (wiki) 6
Designed by or influenced Le Corbusier WHS connected with Le Corbusier
a. Containing a building designed by him
b. Visited by him and for which he did designs or which are regarded as having influenced him (with reference to his writings/drawings).
Designed by Oscar Niemeyer Oscar Niemeyer (born December 15, 1907) is a Brazilian architect who is considered one of the most important names in international modern architecture. 5
Designed by Pirro Ligorio Pirro Ligorio (c. 1512/1513 - 30 October 1583) was an Italian architect, painter, antiquarian, and garden designer during the Renaissance period. (wiki) 3
Designed by Vauban Sébastien Le Prestre, Seigneur de Vauban and later Marquis de Vauban (15 May 1633 - 30 March 1707), commonly referred to as Vauban, was a Marshal of France and the foremost military engineer of his age, famed for his skill in both designing fortifications and in breaking through them. He also advised Louis XIV on how to consolidate France's borders, to make them more defensible. 6
Designed by Vincenzo Scamozzi Vincenzo Scamozzi (2 September 1548 – 7 August 1616) was an Italian architect and a writer on architecture. (wiki) 4
Designed by Walter Gropius Walter Adolph Georg Gropius (18 May 1883 – 5 July 1969) was a German architect and founder of the Bauhaus School, who, along with Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier and Frank Lloyd Wright, is widely regarded as one of the pioneering masters of modernist architecture. (Wiki) 3
Domes Significant domed buildings 49
Double chapel The double chapel, sometimes double church, is a chapel or church building with two storeys that either have a central aperture enabling their simultaneous use for services or are completely separate, just connected by a staircase, and used for different liturgical functions. (wiki) 6
Double Helix A double helix is a pair of congruent geometrical helices with the same axis, differing by a translation along the axis. Like the dominant structure of DNA.

This connection is about WHS that display the double helix in architecture and engineering.
Dravidian Architecture Dravidian architecture was a style of architecture that emerged thousands of years ago in the Southern part of the Indian subcontinent or South India, built by the Dravidian peoples. It consists primarily of pyramid shaped temples called Kovils in Tamil which are dependent on intricate carved stone in order to create a step design consisting of many statues of deities, warriors, kings, and dancers. (wiki) 10
Dry Stone Construction Buildings constructed of stone held together without mortar or similar. The stones may be "worked" or "rough". "Walls" not currently or originally part of a building are excluded. 26
Early Under-floor Heating Ondol heating - The ondol floor was made from packed earth covered in paper. Hot smoke was then passed along channels beneath the floor to heat the room. Ondol floors were used in rooms of the main living quarters. Every private residence of traditional Korea, no matter how humble, was equipped with a heated ondol floor and a kitchen for cooking, which was essential during Korea's cold winters.

Kang bed-stove heating - The Kang is a traditional long (2 meters or more) sleeping platform made of bricks or other forms of fired clay and more recently of concrete in some locations. Its interior cavity, leading to a flue, channels the exhaust from a wood or coal stove. Typically, a kang occupies one-third to one half the area the room, and is used for sleeping at night and for other activities during the day. A kang which covers the entire floor is called a dikang, di meaning "floor".

Hypocaust heating - A hypocaust was an ancient Roman system of underfloor heating, used to heat houses with hot air. Many examples of such hypocausts exist in villa and house foundations in Roman centres in Germany and England. The usual custom was to lead the hot air from a hypocaust into a single vertical flue in the wall of the room to be heated, through which the hot air and smoke escaped into the open air. Where greater warmth was desired, several flues would lead up from the hypocaust in the side walls of the room; at times these wall flues consisted of hollow, oblong tiles, set close together, entirely around the room.

- Not solely associated with baths
- Constructed before 750 AD
Earth Architecture An earth structure is a building or other structure made largely from soil. Includes adobe or mud-brick buildings. 31
English garden The term "English garden" or "English park" is used in Continental Europe for a large-scale landscape garden with its origins in the English landscape gardens of the 18th century. 26
Expressionist architecture Expressionist architecture was an architectural movement that developed in Europe during the first decades of the 20th century in parallel with the expressionist visual and performing arts that especially developed and dominated in Germany. (wiki) 3
Faux marble WHS where Faux marble techniques include marbleizing, scagliola and marmorino were used (on a larger scale).

Feng Shui Feng Shui was widely used to orient buildings - often spiritually significant structures such as tombs, but also dwellings and other structures - in an auspicious manner (wiki) 17
French (formal) garden Features of a formal garden:
- terrace
- topiary
- statuary
- hedge
- bosquet
- parterre
- sylvan theater
- pergola
- pavilion
- landscaping
Garden City Movement The garden city movement is a method of urban planning that was initiated in 1898 by Sir Ebenezer Howard in the United Kingdom. Garden cities were intended to be planned, self-contained communities surrounded by "greenbelts", containing proportionate areas of residences, industry and agriculture. (wiki)

Further reading:
- The German Garden City Movement (1902-1931)
Georgian Architecture Georgian architecture is the name given in most English-speaking countries to the set of architectural styles current between 1720 and 1840. It was widely disseminated in the English colonies of the time. 11
Gold Surfaces Buildings which have a significant amount of Gold leaf on their external surfaces. 50
Gothic 64
Gothic Revival The Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic or Neo-Gothic) is an architectural movement that began in the 1740s in England. Its popularity grew rapidly in the early nineteenth century, when increasingly serious and learned admirers of neo-Gothic styles sought to revive medieval forms, in contrast to the neoclassical styles prevalent at the time.

In parallel to the ascendancy of neo-Gothic styles in nineteenth-century England, interest spread rapidly to the continent of Europe, in Australia, South Africa and to the Americas.
Grotesques In art, grotesques are a decorative form of arabesques with interlaced garlands and strange animal figures. 8
Hyperboloid Structure 6
Hypostyle WHS containing "Hypostyle" structures.
"The word hypostyle comes from the Ancient Greek ὑπόστυλος hypóstȳlos meaning "under columns".... The roof may be constructed with bridging lintels of stone, wood or other rigid material such as cast iron, steel or reinforced concrete" Wiki). The term is used most strictly for buildings in which the roof is supported solely by Columns/Pillars without use of arches, vaults, buttresses or domes. It is, however, also used more widely where the main structure is still primarily supported by a "forest" of pillars holding up the roof, albeit with some "secondary" arching (e,g to allow a higher ceiling by preventing bending of the columns in the middle). Thus "In many mosques, especially the early congregational mosques the prayer hall has the hypostyle form" (Wiki). These, less strict uses of the term, are allowed where the structure is widely described as a "Hypostyle" but a reputable quote using the word should be provided. See
Ideal City The utopian concept of an Ideal City originates in Antiquity, and was often used in the Renaissance and later on providing better living conditions for factory workers e.a. 24
Indo-Islamic architecture Indo-Islamic architecture encompasses a wide range of styles from various backgrounds that helped shape the architecture of the Indian subcontinent from the advent of Islam in the Indian subcontinent around the 7th century. It has left influences on modern Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi architecture. Both secular and religious buildings are influenced by Indo-Islamic architecture which exhibit Indian, Persian, Arab, and Turkish themes. (wiki) Characteristics include traditional Indian decoration and tomb architecture (see this article for more. 12
International style Major architectural style originating in the 1920s and 1930s 10
Iron Structures WHS made significantly of "Cast" or "Wrought" Iron. 8
Isabelline style Architectural style created during the joint reign of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile (ca. 1480-1510) 4
Italian Architects outside Italy 26
Italian fascist architecture 4
Italian Renaissance garden The Italian Renaissance garden was a new style of garden which emerged in the late 15th century at villas in Rome and Florence, inspired by classical ideals of order and beauty, and intended for the pleasure of the view of the garden and the landscape beyond, for contemplation, and for the enjoyment of the sights, sounds and smells of the garden itself.

In the late Renaissance, the gardens became larger, grander and more symmetrical, and were filled with fountains, statues, grottoes, water organs and other features designed to delight their owners and amuse and impress visitors. The style was imitated throughout Europe, influencing the gardens of the French Renaissance and the English garden. (wiki_
Japanese garden 11
Macellum A macellum is an ancient Roman indoor market building that sold mostly provisions.

A macellum is a fairly easy building to identify from its design. A macellum provides shops arranged around a courtyard which contains a central tholos. The tholos is a round structure, usually built upon a couple of steps (a podium), with a ring of columns supporting a domed roof. A macellum is usually square in shape. (wiki)
Mannerism Mannerism is a period of European painting, sculpture, architecture and decorative arts lasting from the later years of the Italian High Renaissance around 1520 until the arrival of the Baroque around 1600. 18
Manueline style Manueline, or Portuguese late Gothic is a Portuguese style of architectural ornamentation of the first decades of the 16th century, incorporating maritime elements and representations of the voyages of discovery. 14
Martyrium A martyrium is a structure built at "a site which bears witness to the Christian faith, either by referring to an event in Christ's life or Passion, or by sheltering the grave of a martyr". Martyria, mostly small, were very common after the early 4th century, when Constantine became the first emperor to make the Nicene Creed the dominant religion of the Roman Empire. Martyria had no standard architectural plan, and are found in a wide variety of designs. (wiki) 4
Medina A medina quarter is a distinct city section found in many North African cities. The medina is typically walled, contains many narrow and maze-like streets. The word "medina" itself simply means "city" or "town" in modern day Arabic. (wiki) 13
Mies Van Der Rohe Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (March 27, 1886 - August 17, 1969) was a German architect, widely regarded as one of the pioneering masters of modern architecture. 3
Modern Urban Planning WHS dating from the late 19th, 20th or 21st century, where "Town Planning" or "Urban Planning" are cited (using those phrases) in the Statement of OUV, Criteria or description. 16
Moorish revival 19th century style inspired by Turkish Ottoman and Andalusian buildings 9
Mudejar style Vernacular style of Iberian architecture and decoration, strongly influenced by Moorish taste and workmanship 22
Multiple Works of a single architect WHS consisting solely of "oeuvres" designed by a single architect. Excluding town/city plans where an architect created the over-arching concept but not all the structures within. 5
Muqarnas Muqarnas are a form of architectural ornamented vaulting, the "geometric subdivision of a squinch, or cupola, or corbel, into a large number of miniature squinches, producing a sort of cellular structure", sometimes also called "honeycomb" vaults from their resemblance to these. They are used for domes, and especially half-domes in entrances and apses, mostly in traditional Islamic and Persian architecture. When some elements project downwards, the style may be called mocárabe; these are reminiscent of stalactites, and may be called "stalactite vaults".

Neo-Baroque WHS containing Neo-Baroque architecture.- Defined as architecture which displays important aspects of Baroque style, but is not from the Baroque period proper: i.e., the 17th and 18th centuries. With date of construction and Architect. 3
Neoclassical architecture 51
No Nails Buildings constructed without the use of nails. 5
Norman architecture 6
Octagons Sites that have an octagonal shape (eight sides) 58
Palladio and Palladian style Andrea Palladio was a 16th century Italian architect. The Palladian style, named after him, is based on symmetry, perspective and classical Greek and Roman temple architecture. 15
Parkitecture WHS connected with the Architectural style known as "National Park Service Rustic" "also colloquially known as Parkitecture, is a style of architecture that arose in the United States National Park System to create buildings that harmonized with their natural environment. Since its founding, the National Park Service consistently has sought to provide visitor facilities without visually interrupting the natural or historic scene. The structures are characterized by intensive use of hand labor and rejection of the regularity and symmetry of the industrial world, reflecting its connections with the Arts and Crafts Movement. Architects, landscape architects and engineers combined native wood and stone with convincingly native styles to create visually appealing structures that seemed to fit naturally within the majestic landscapes. Examples of the style can be found in numerous types of National Park structures, including entrance gateways, park roads and bridges, visitor centers, trail shelters, hotels and lodges, and even maintenance and support facilities. Many of these buildings are listed on the National Register of Historic Places" (Wiki) 5
Plateresque Plateresque, meaning "in the manner of a silversmith", was an artistic movement, especially architectural, traditionally held to be exclusive to Spain and its territories, which appeared between the late Gothic and early Renaissance in the late 15th century, and spread over the next two centuries. The style is characterized by ornate decorative facades covered with floral designs, chandeliers, festoons, fantastic creatures and all sorts of configurations. (wiki) 9
Pre-Romanesque "Pre-Romanesque" is an architectural style from Western Europe, which preceded the beginning of the Romanesque period in the 11th century (ca. 5th-10th centuries). It is characterized by the introduction and absorption of classical Mediterranean and Christian forms with Germanic ones, creating innovative new forms. 15
Reinforced Concrete Masterworks made of reinforced concrete. 18
Renaissance 55
Restored by anastylosis The intent of anastylosis is to reconstruct historical architectural monuments which have collapsed from the original material. This is done by placing components back in their original place. 19
Restored by Viollet-le-Duc Eugène Viollet-le-Duc was a French architect and theorist, famous for his "restorations" of medieval buildings. 7
Rock Cut Architecture Structures carved in situ into 'living rock' which are not primarily based on natural caves even though in India and China these are often referred to as being 'caves'. 25
Rococo Rococo is a style of 18th century French art and interior design. 28
Romanesque 56
Sgraffito Sgraffito is a decoration technique produced by applying layers of plaster tinted in contrasting colors to a moistened surface. 6
Sites from antiquity with identified architects WHS (or significant parts thereof) dating from Antiquity (before 476 AD), where a named architect is known as responsible for the design. 10
Spolia Spolia is the re-use of earlier building material or decorative sculpture on new monuments. Only re-use after Antiquity is included. 9
Square Kufic Square Kufic is a form of Arabic Calligraphy.

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Star fort A star fort, bastion fort or trace italienne, is a fortification in a style that evolved during the age of gunpowder when the cannon came to dominate the battlefield. It was first seen in the mid-15th century in Italy. ... the star fortress was a very flat structure composed of many triangular bastions, specifically designed to cover each other, and a ditch. (wiki) 10
Steel-Framed construction Individually inscribed or a significant element of a wider site. 6
Tetraconch A tetraconch, from the Greek for "four shells", is a building, usually a church or other religious building, with four apses, one in each direction, usually of equal size. The basic ground plan of the building is therefore a Greek cross. (wiki) 6
Timber framing Timber framing (German: Fachwerk) is the method of creating structures using heavy timbers jointed together with various joints. It is an architectural style common in Germany, France, the UK and Holland. 18
Timurid Architecture 9
Urban fabric Historic center WHS which mention "urban fabric" (or "tissu urbain" in French) in their brief description. 17
Vernacular architecture Vernacular architecture is a term used to categorize methods of construction which use locally available resources and traditions to address local needs and circumstances. Vernacular architecture tends to evolve over time to reflect the environmental, cultural and historical context in which it exists. (wiki) 82
Wooden architecture Buildings constructed totally or mainly out of wood. 79