Baibars (1223 - July 1, 1277, Damascus), was a Mamluk Sultan of Egypt. He was one of the commanders of the forces which inflicted a devastating defeat on the Seventh Crusade of King Louis IX of France and he led the vanguard of the Egyptian army at the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260, which marked the first substantial defeat of the Mongol army and is considered a turning point in history.
- Aleppo occupied it in 1261
- Crac des Chevaliers In 1271 the fortress was captured by Mamluk Sultan Baibars on April 8 with the aid of heavy trebuchets and mangonels (wiki)
- Damascus death 1277
- Historic Cairo Baibars Mosque
- Old City of Acre besieged 1263
- Old City of Jerusalem Baibars' emblem at the Lion's Gate
- Qadisha Valley At the end of the Crusades the Qadisha caves witnessed dramatic actions against their supporters, the Maronites. The Mameluk Sultans Baibars and Qalaoun led campaigns in 1268 and 1283 respectively against these fortress-caves and the surrounding villages. (AB ev)
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