The Mamluk Sultanate (1250-1517) was a regime of a military caste of former soldiers of slave origin who had been converted to Islam. They were of varied ancestry but were often Kipchak Turks, Circassians, or Georgians.
- Aleppo Rebuilt the city in the late 13th century (Great Mosque, Citadel) and constructed the Altinbugna Mosque (1318-1323)
- Damascus Mausoleum of Baibars (1277-1281), Madrasa Afriduniya
- Historic Cairo Palace of the Bashtak, Sultan Hassan Mosque (1356-1362), various mausolea. Cairo also was the capital of the Mamluks.
- Old City of Acre The Mameluke period (named after the Moslem rulers of Egypt) began in 1291 with the conquest of Acre and continued until 1517. Acre came within the mamluka of Gaza. The city was destroyed and totally abandoned, with only a few buildings remaining around the port (AB ev)
- Old City of Jerusalem Al Aqsa Mosque ("added two naves and two gates to the mosque's eastern side") and several structures in the Muslim Quarter, like the Markte of the Cotton Workers
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