Pombaline Lisbon is part of the Tentative list of Portugal in order to qualify for inclusion in the World Heritage List.
Click here for a short description of the site, as delivered by the state party.
- ●● Tentative
The coordinates shown for all tentative sites were produced as a community effort. They are not official and may change on inscription.
On a previous visit to Lisbon we had of course seen the central Baixa district and noted its coherent design created after the 1755 earthquake, but it hadn’t really occurred to us that it might justify WHS status. So we paid more attention during our recent trip in Apr 2012!
Mind you, the entry on the UNESCO web site introducing the T List site doesn’t sound very hopeful! “Despite the absence of any institutional framework, or even systematically and coherently published and publicised opinion, the idea of putting forward the Pombaline "Baixan”, or old downtown district of Lisbon, for World Heritage listing has been evaluated summarily by several political and cultural institutions, and the possibility of preparing and organising such an application has been discussed, albeit without a formal presentation or accompanying documentation” …. “Although the logic behind the physical limits of the Pombaline "Baixa" is rather unclear-and somewhat fluid” ……. “in the last century, careless and erratic management may have jeopardised important features of authenticity and singularity, perhaps irreversibly”.
Regarding the possible boundaries – those on the south, east and north are clearly determined by geography and the 1755 rebuilding plan. The Western side however is less clear – The WHC statement based on Portugal’s T List submission in 2004 refers to a 62 block area “not including the extension of the Pombaline city to other growth nuclei”. My particular interest in where this western boundary might be arose because of 2 sites which may or may not be included
a. The Santa Justa lift. Only starting operation in 1902 it vertically connects the Baixa with the “Alta” areas. Although certainly not “Pombaline” it is, nevertheless, perhaps the city centre’s most emblematic structure! (photo)
b. The Chiado – the transition area between “Baixa” and “Alta” and a major shopping area. Its reconstruction was also a part of the Pombaline plan. A major fire in 1988 area destroyed a large area of it and it is only just completing restoration.
Using the 2004 description, I would have expected the former to have been included and the latter largely excluded. However, reading available documentation, it is clear that there has been some major rethinking going on about the boundaries. Although Lisbon’s original hope was for inscription to have been submitted by Jan 2006 the Portuguese government decided that more work needed to be done on matters such as a Management Plan and the nomination was put on the back burner – particularly, it is said, whilst Portugal progressed the inscription of Fado on the Intangible List! More recently it has been resurrected and dusted off as part of Lisbon’s Carta Estratega through to 2025 and plan for the revitalization of Baixa-Chiado. In particular it seems to have been decided to extend the site to the full boundaries of the Pombaline plan. See this link.
That’s a big task – a large part of the centre of a major city to be managed to UNESCO’s high standards? Can Portugal really achieve it in the foreseeable future – especially given its current financial problems? And is it worth it? Well I have certainly come to value more highly what I saw from having studied its history and am fully prepared to accept its OUV credentials. But Portugal seems excessively bullish regarding the criteria it intends going for -“… sobre sucessivas sugestões ou propostas dos vários membros, que conduziu a preencher se todos os seis critérios regulamentares, embora tal não fosse necessário” (All 6 criteria “even though this isn’t necessary”!!!). It apparently intends making a virtue out of the Non-Pombaline developments in the area as demonstrating the living/developing nature of the city!
Nzinga de Andrade
After the big shake of 1755, the new buildings incorporated a set of features intended to supply them with adequate seismic behavior, enabling them to resist horizontal loads and to dissipate a considerable amount of energy. Among these measures the so -called �Gaiola� (the Cage) stands out , unquestionably Gaiola is based on a set of timber members embedded along the inner face of the main stone masonry facade walls.
�Baixa Pombalina �allow us to interpret an outstanding anti-seismic construction system, which was a step beyond its time.
Today it still reveals high efficiency.