Ancient Merv

Ancient Merv was a major oasis-city in Central Asia, on the historical Silk Road. Several cities have existed on this site, which is significant for the interchange of culture and politics at a site of major strategic value.

Its remains span several millennia of human history:

- The Bronze Age centres (2500-1200 BC)

- The Iron Age centres (1200-300 BC)

- The historic urban centre (Erk Kala, Gyaur Kala, and the medieval city of Sultan Kala or Marv al-Shahijan)

- The post-medieval city, Abdullah Khan Kala


Visit May 2010

Merv is such an extensive site that I don't know how I would have visited it on my own. Probably hire a taxi and be transported from location to location. The thing about Merv is that it holds the archeological remains of 5 cities, built next to each other during different periods in time. There's a small museum near the entrance where a model of the total area can be seen, and how the different cities are positioned.

First real sight in the park is the Mausoleum of Sultan Sanjar. It has been almost completely restored with the help of Turkish funds. This is the building that you will see in the distance over and over again from different corners of Merv park.

Next stop is at the "Forbidden City". These are just remains of walls. We can go on / in it, without being limited to certain paths. Our obligatory Turkmen guide only is a bit worried about stray dogs (we didn't see any). On the ground lie lots of bits of coloured tiles. The Turkmen authorities haven't even begun proper excavations here.

The Erk-Kala is the oldest city ruin. Nowadays it is 'just' a large hill (somewhat like a tell?) on which you can climb and look out over the adjoining little oasis.

At Gyaur-Kala only some walls remain. Our attention here is mainly drawn by the resident camels that are roaming around in this part of the park.

Finally we go to Kiz Kala, the remains of two palace fortresses. These are still quite intact. Also some of the original architectural features of the interior can still be seen.

Merv is so large that you will not encounter many other people at most of the spots. Busiest is the mausoleum of Sultan Sanjar, especially popular by local visitors so it seems.

Community Reviews


Those travellers who have followed the Silk Road will have become used to restored cities – Bokhara, Samarkand and Khiva in Uzbekistan. And very fine they are too. But if you venture south to Turkmenistan and visit Merv it is a very different sort of experience.

This 100 square kilometre site contains the remains of at least 5 different cities dating from the 6th century BCE through Alexander the Great and the Persians to the Seljuk Turks. At which point it was totally destroyed by Jenghiz Khan in 1221. The newer cities were built alongside (rather than “over” which is the norm in most continually inhabited sites) the old and all used mud bricks. So what you see is a jumble of walls, earthworks and misshapen buildings as they succumb to the elements.

If you are there you must have overcome the labyrinthine bureaucracy of Turkmenbashi (“Father of the Turkmen”) to get a visa. Indeed you will already be totally overwhelmed by his cult of personality – the gold statues, the photos, the books, the carpets with his picture on, the marble palaces, even his gold monogram in the corner of every TV program as it spouts again the details of this magnificent cotton harvest or that world class factory.

So see Merv as an antidote – a reminder of temporal nature of states whatever their politics and whoever their leader! All will be dust one day.

If you have obtained a visa you will probably be travelling with a guide and, unless you have great knowledge or a wonderful imagination, a guide is really needed in Merv as mud wall succeeds mud wall. He will also have got you through the interminable and frequent road checks needed to travel from Ashgabad to Mary, the Soviet city near to Merv, where you will probably have spent the night before driving on for the last half hour. You will also need a car to get round the site – the distances are enormous.

Among the surviving buildings are the remains of a 7th century fortress known as the Kyz Kala (see photo). Another major building, which has been significantly restored is the 12th century Mausoleum of Sultan Sanjar. Whilst this latter might represent a pinnacle of Islamic architecture for its simplicity it tended in my mind to become just another “domed mosque” on a journey of domed mosques. It was the, altogether more elemental, Kyz Kala which seemed to me to best capture the atmosphere of the ruins and which I remember when I think of Merv!

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Site Info

Full name: State Historical and Cultural Park "Ancient Merv"

Site History


The site has 33 locations. Show all

  • 1st of three Icehouses
  • 2nd of three Icehouses
  • 3rd of three Icehouses
  • Abdullah Khan Kala
  • Bairam Ali Ding
  • Besh Agyz koshk
  • dings near Bairam Ali Electricity Station
  • Durnali koshk
  • Garam koshk
  • Gonur Tepe
  • Greater and Lesser Kiz Kala
  • Greater and Lesser Nagym Kalas
  • Historic urban centre of the Merv oasis, Erk and Gyaur Kala and Sultan Kala Turkmenistan
  • Kelleli; Adji Kui; Taip
  • Kelte Minara koshk
  • Koshk Imaret near Abdullah Khan Kala
  • Kurtly ‘caravanserai’
  • Mausolea of Imam Bakr and Shafi Turkmenistan
  • Mausoleum of Huday Nazar; the Mausolea of Gok Gumbaz Turkmenistan
  • Mausoleum of Imam Qasim Turkmenistan
  • minaret at Garry Kishman
  • mosque and minaret at Uly Kishman
  • Mosque/Mausoleum of Talkhattan Baba Turkmenistan
  • Ovliali koshk
  • Porsoy koshk
  • Takhirbaj Tepe
  • the Koshk-i Murat
  • Thulli koshk
  • Timurid iwans or Askhab
  • Togoluk
  • Yaki Pir koshk
  • Yaz and Gobekli Tepes
  • Yusuf Hamdani


The site has 24 connections.


  • Cisterns at Beni Makhan Mosque
  • Dovecotes 
  • Icehouses Locations 886-015, 016 and 017 1st, 2nd and 3rd "of three icehouses"
  • Mausolea Mausoleum of Sultan Sanjar (1157), Mausoleum of Muhammad ibn Zayd (1112), plus three mausolea from the Timurid period at Geok Gumbaz



  • Abbasid Caliphate AB: "Numerous major events and personalities of historic importance have been associated with Merv. These include Abu Muslim, who initiated the Abbasid revolution..."
  • Bronze Age Five early settlements have been uncovered
  • Parthian Empire 
  • Seljuk Empire capital of the Great Seljuks Empire at the 11th-12th centuries (AB ev)
  • Silk Road 

Human Activity

Individual People

  • Alexander the Great Known as "Alexandira Margiana" See link. Also from the Nom File - "The oasis formed part of Alexander the Great's empire, and Pliny (NH VI, 16-17) suggested that the Hellenistic city was founded by Alexander".
  • Genghis Khan 

Religion and Belief

  • Buddhist sites in non-Buddhist countries Remains of a Buddhist stupa at Gyaur Kala
  • Mosque Several, including the mosque-mausoleum complex of Sultan Sanjar and the 12th century Seljuk Talkhattan Baba Mosque
  • Stupa Remains of a Buddhist stupa at Gyaur Kala


  • Built in the 5th century BC The succession of cities, which together once encompassed over 1000 ha, date from the 5th century BCE to the present day. The first city was Erk Kala.


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