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Ravenna

The Early Christian Monuments of Ravenna are a unique collection of mosaics and monuments from the 5th and 6th centuries.

Ravenna, an important port, was known under the Romans and Byzantines as Classis. It developed into a major centre of Christian art and culture on the instigation of Galla Placidia, the wife of Western Roman Emperor Constantius III (and regent of that empire herself for a few years). She was a fervant Christian and was involved in the building and restoration of various churches throughout her period of influence.

The 8 inscribed monuments are:

- Neonian Baptistery (c. 430)

- Mausoleum of Galla Placidia (c. 430)

- Arian Baptistry (c. 500)

- Archiepiscopal Chapel (c. 500)

- Basilica of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo (c. 500)

- Mausoleum of Theodoric (520)

- Basilica of San Vitale (548)

- Basilica of Sant' Apollinare in Classe (549)

Map

Visit February 2009

Ravenna is a fairly large city, and the monuments that contain the mosaics are spread out over several locations. One is even in another town, in Classe. I had some trouble orientating myself at first, though there are signposts to the churches. And I had to take care where I was walking, because Ravenna appeared to be a town of cyclists, passing the pedestrians on all sides.

First I arrived at the Basilica of San Vitale. Here I paid the entrance fee of 8.5 EUR that is valid for 5 of the major monuments. What to say about the Basilica? It is an octagonal building, somewhere between Roman and Byzantine in style. Its interior has to be seen to be believed: there are mosaics everywhere, on the floor, at the walls, at the ceiling. Lots of gold, and clear Christian symbols.

At the back of the Basilica lies the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia. This is a tiny building. Access is limited to 5 minutes, so I had to wait with a couple of others for our time slot. Certainly worth waiting for - the mosaics here seem a little older and less refined. But what a brilliant blue mosaic that covers the hallway!

Another cluster of these monuments is located about 15 minutes away by foot. Next to the giant Duomo lies the Neonian Baptistery. As small as the Mausoleum, but worthy in its own right. The floor and baptismal font (a former Roman bath) are made of marble and have lots of ornaments. The mosaics here cover part of the walls and the ceiling, completing the very fine overall interior.

The Archiepiscopal Chapel is closed at the moment, and I didn't have time to go to the Basilica in Classe. However, the mosaics and monuments I have seen I can recommend to anyone.

Community Reviews


Solivagant - October 2016

If you arrive in Ravenna by car you will face the usual problem of where to park during your visit. Now, I am congenitally incapable of willingly paying for parking - indeed we toured Italian WHS for 17 days and only spent 2.60 euros on it! Even if others are not so “penny pinching” it may be of use to know that there is a large, well paved area of free, long term parking in front of the Mausoleum of Theodoric. You are going to want to visit there anyway and the car park is only a 15 minute walk from the San Vitale complex and the city centre.

Another logistical aspect about Ravenna’s WHS which it is worth understanding is the ticketing system – this is complex even by Italian standards. There are 8 inscribed locations – 5 of these (Archiepiscopal Museum with the Chapel of Sant’Andrea and the Ivory Throne, Neonian Baptistery, Basilica of Sant’Apollinare Nuovo, Basilica of San Vitale and the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia) are in Ravenna centre and require a combined entry ticket (you cannot buy an individual ticket for any of them), 1 (Arian Baptistry) is also in the centre and is free to enter and 2 (Mausoleum of Theodoric on the city outskirts and Basilica of Sant’Apollinare 6kms away in Classe) require a different combined entry ticket. That combined ticket also includes the (non-UNESCO) National Museum at San Vitale and these 3 sites are also available for entry by individual tickets at each (at a slight extra cost over the combined ticket if you want to visit all 3 but cheaper if you only want to enter 1 or 2 of the WHS locations). I won’t go into the opening hours as they too are complex, with each having slightly different opening/closing times and are best studied on up-to-date web sites BUT, most importantly, all except the National Museum are open on a Monday!

We decided that we didn’t need to enter the Theodoric Mausoleum (It is well visible from beyond the fenced in area and is worth seeing if only for its 300 tonne single roof stone) and not to see the National Museum. So we bought a ticket just for Classe and then one for the 5 in the city. If you do decide to “complete the UNESCO set” with a visit to Sant’Apollinare at Classe I would recommend going before you get “mosaiced out” in Ravenna itself!. The Mosaic in the apse is particularly striking and “famous”. The site also has good free parking and doesn’t suffer from the tourist crowds and noisy guides as in central Ravenna – indeed visiting the Galla Placidia mausoleum was a bit of a “bun fight” even on a mid September afternoon, with its own separate queue and a 5 minute time limit with lots of “pushing” among the tour groups when inside.

The site overall is undoubtedly justified as one of our “Top 200”. At all the locations the mosaics are wonderfully “fresh” and so different from the later Christian iconography on display at most Italian religious sites. It is interesting to use the site as a starter for exploring the “Arian Controversy” and trying to identify the “Arian” aspects and the possible numerous “firsts” among extant early Christian art – the beardless, naked Christ (photo), the first mention of the names of the 3 Magi, the depiction of Satan counting goats and lacking later acquisitions such as horns etc etc.


Klaus Freisinger - April 2016

In my opinion, Ravenna is one of the finest and most interesting WH sites not just in Italy, but in all of Europe. The remains from the late Roman/early Byzantine Empire and the early Christian era are incredibly well-preserved and the mosaics for which Ravenna is so famous are just stunning in every way. The WH listing consists of 8 distinct sites that can be easily visited on a walk through the city (except for Classe). From the station, I first went to the Arian Baptistry (a small building with a nice ceiling mosaic), then to the Basilica of Sant' Apollinare Nuovo (a large complex with 2 fantastic rows of mosaics plus some hard-to-spot hands showing Theoderic and his court that were not quite removed when the Byzantines reconquered Ravenna). After a detour to Dante's Tomb and the Basilica of San Francesco with its famous groundwater-covered mosaic floor, I went to the Neonian or Orthodox Baptistry (larger and much more decorated than the Arian one, with exceptionally beautiful mosaics) and then to the Cathedral Museum, which houses the Archiepiscopal Chapel and the only remaining oratory from the early Christian era. Then I continued to the San Vitale complex, which includes the Basilica boasting Ravenna's most famous mosaics which show Emperor Justinian and his (in)famous wife Theodora, who, despite never having set foot in the city, still wanted to project their power in their remaining Italian lands. The complex also features the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, which contains the city's oldest and best-preserved mosaics (a fantastic blue), as well as her sarcophagus (she is buried in St.Peter's in Rome, though). A short walk from the centre, the Mausoleum of Theoderic stands in a pretty park and is the only remaining tomb from a Germanic king (his sarcophagus is of course empty). The final monument, the Basilica of Sant' Apollinare in Classe, stands in the former naval port of Classe, a 5-minute train ride from the city. It has a similar design and construction to its namesake church in the centre (both named after Ravenna's first bishop), maybe with less impressive mosaics. All in all, a highlight of any trip to Italy.


Clyde - September 2012

I visited this WHS in September 2012. It is truly a hidden gem! The terracotta monuments are a treasure chest of mosaics, one more beautiful than the other. I visited all 8 listed sites and my favourite is the Cappella S. Andrea (Arcivescovile), a small private chapel with fine mosaics (the highlight is the gold/blue sky with 99 species of birds). The least aweinspiring of the sites was perhaps the Mausoleo of Teodorico which is quite a walk out of the historical city centre. The Basilica in Classe is also worth visiting. I reckon Ravenna is one of my favourite WHS in Italy.


Hubert Scharnagl - May 2012

The Ravenna WHS consists of eight early Christian monuments of the 5th and 6th Century: basilicas, baptisteries and mausoleums. Probably the significance of the monuments alone would justify the inscription, because little is preserved from the period between the Roman Empire and the Christian Middle Ages. But the exceptional feature of the site are the marvellous mosaics.

We started our tour, like probably the most visitors, at the Basilica of San Vitale. San Vitale is an octagonal building and has mosaic decorations on the walls and the ceiling. The exceptionally well preserved mosaics depict scenes from the Old Testament and portraits of the Emperor Justinian and his wife Theodora accompanied by their entourage. The mosaics glow in gorgeous colours: blue, green and gold. It is hardly possible to describe how impressive they are and photos can not adequately illustrate their magnificence. You have to see them.

Close to the Basilica San Vitale is the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia. Mosaics cover the entire surface of the vault, the central dome and large parts of the walls. The ceiling shows a deep blue sky with white and golden stars. The theme is the Redemption, Jesus is shown as the Good Shepherd with his sheep, and the apostles are depicted.

Next we went to the Neonian Baptistery near the Cathedral. It is dominated by the large octagonal baptismal font made ​​of marble. The mosaic at the ceiling depicts the baptism of Jesus in the Jordan by John the Baptist. Also the walls are decorated with mosaics and marble inlays. Next to the Cathedral is the Archiepiscopal Chapel (accessible via the museum), the only preserved private oratory of the orthodox bishops.

Another highlight is Sant'Apollinare Nuovo, a basilica with three naves and with Corinthian columns. The side walls are decorated with mosaics, on the left the procession of 22 virgins led by the Three Wise Men and on the right the procession of 26 martyrs. Noteworthy are the mosaics at the entrance showing the palace of Theodoric and the ancient harbour of Classe. After the conquest of Ravenna by Byzantine forces, the mosaics of Theodoric and his courtiers were removed and replaced by images of curtains. If you look closely you can see remains of the original figures like e.g. hands. The apse is from the Baroque period and does not harmonise with the rest of the church. On the way back to San Vitale is the small Arian Baptistry, the ceiling mosaic is preserved and shows the baptism of Jesus.

These six monuments are located within walking distance in the centre of Ravenna and are covered by a combined ticket for 9.50 Euro (in 2011). The Mausoleum of Theodoric is located in a small park just off the centre, you have to cross the railway line and a main road. It is not decorated with mosaics and you do not miss anything if you do not visit.

A particular highlight is the Basilica Sant'Apollinare in Classe, about 8 kilometres south of Ravenna. It's architecture is similar to the homonymous basilica in Ravenna, but the interior of the basilica has impressed me even more. The apse mosaic depicts the Transfiguration of Jesus, the first where Jesus is symbolized by a cross (photo). The lower part shows a green landscape with sheep and the Holy Apollinaris of Ravenna. If you have enough time, the detour to Classe is worthwhile.

It is really impossible to say which monument and mosaic is the most impressive. All of them are exceptionally well preserved, it's hard to believe that they are so old. Half a day is enough to visit all the monuments, the city of Ravenna itself has not much to offer compared to other cities in northern Italy.


john booth - September 2011

This is truely a city of stunning mosaics, and all but one of the 8 sites listed in this WHS is decorated with the most colourful of mosaic art. By contrast the Mausoleum of Theodoric has a few faded frescoes and a red stone hip bath. Why was this included in the WHS?

The two churches of St Appolina, one in Ravenna, the other in Classe were for me the most outstanding. I travelled between the two by bus #4 and by train.

In 2011, to visit all 8 sites cost E19.50.


Isabel Salvatori - July 2006

Ravenna does not only have the most impressive mosaics that I've ever seen, but the town itself is also a really pleasant surprise. It is a very lovely town full of pintoresque corners and it is well worth a visit. If you are on your way to or from Venice, don't miss it!!


Graeme Ramshaw

Wow! There's no other word to describe the reaction when you enter the Basilica di San Vitale for the first time. The shimmering gold and the brilliant greens of the mosaics are just jaw-droppingly beautiful. Do you remember all those pictures from your art history or European history text books? Here they are. Justinian, Theodora, and the last vestiges of the glories of the Western empire are on display here. Due to Ravenna's having served as the capital of the empire for a short period after the sacking of Rome, there exist numerous other impressive monuments from the 5th and 6th centuries AD, such as Mausoleo di Galla Placidia, Sant'Apollinaire Nuovo, and the Neonian Baptistery. All are easily visited in an afternoon, and all are covered by a joint ticket costing 9.50 euros (as of May 2005).


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Site Info

Full name: Early Christian Monuments of Ravenna

Site History

Locations

The site has 8 locations.

  • Archiepiscopal Chapel Ravena, Province of Ravena, Region of Emilia Romagna, Italy
  • Arian Baptistry Ravena, Province of Ravena, Region of Emilia Romagna, Italy
  • Basilica of St. Apollinaire Nuovo Ravena, Province of Ravena, Region of Emilia Romagna, Italy
  • Basilica of St. Apollinare in Classe Classe, Province of Ravena, Region of Emilia Romagna, Italy
  • Church of St. Vitale Ravena, Province of Ravena, Region of Emilia Romagna, Italy
  • Mauseoleum of Theodoric Ravena, Province of Ravena, Region of Emilia Romagna, Italy
  • Mausoleum of Galla Placida Ravena, Province of Ravena, Region of Emilia Romagna, Italy
  • Neonian Baptistry Ravena, Province of Ravena, Region of Emilia Romagna, Italy

Connections

The site has 21 connections.

Architecture

  • Tetraconch The Mausoleum of Galla Placidia in Ravenna (425–30), world-famous for its mosaics, is almost a tetraconch, although there are short vaulted arms leading from the central space to each apse-end. These end in a flat wall with no semi-dome, and the entrance end is slightly longer (wiki)

Constructions

Damaged

  • Damaged in World War I "The Basilica of Sant' Apollinare Nuovo .....The present apse is a reconstruction after being damaged during WWI" (Wiki)

Geography

History

Individual People

  • Charlemagne Charlemagne's Palatine Chapel both uses San Vitale in Ravenna as a partial model and inspiration and incorporates materials taken on Charlemagne's orders from Ravenna . "Charlemagne visited Ravenna three times, the first in 787. In that year he wrote to Pope Hadrian I and requested "mosaic, marbles, and other materials from floors and walls in Rome and Ravenna, for his palace" ... The Chapel of San Vitale makes use of ancient spolia conceivably from Ravenna (Einhard claimed they were from Rome and Ravenna), as well as newly carved materials." Wiki (Einhard was a servant to and wrote a biography of Charlemagne)
  • Emperor Justininian The Church of San Vitale, dating from 548, was built under the sponsorship of Justinian I and his wife Theodora who both are memorialized in mosaics on the North and South walls of the apse. How "personal" this sponsorship was is disputed and indeed a construction of this name had been commenced prior to Ravenna's capture from the Ostrogoths by Justinian's general Belisarius in 540 (after which Ravenna was made the seat of Byzantine government in Italy). The design does appear however to have been completely revamped and it has been suggested that it reflects that "of the Byzantine Imperial Palace Audience Chamber, of which nothing at all survives".
  • Frederick II Captured in 1240
  • Galla Placidia Her mausoleum is here (though it does not contain her remains)

Timeline

  • Built in the 5th century Earliest monuments date from the 5th century, including the "Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, built in the second quarter of the 5th century"

Trivia

World Heritage Process