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Itchan Kala

Itchan Kala, the inner town of Khiva, is a preserved example of a Muslem city in Asia at the beginning of the 19th century.

The town is completely surrounded by brick city walls, which have four gates at the cardinal points.

The oasis of Khiva was the last halting place for caravans before the desert in Iran. Since the 4th century it was the center of Khorezm civilization, an Iranian kingdom famous in Antiquity for its hydraulic techniques.

Nowadays, Itchan Kala presents unique examples of moslem architecture in the Djuma mosque and the many medressehs. There is also traditional domestic architecture: enclosed houses with courtyards, reception room and private apartments.

Map

Visit May 2010

At first sight the Itchan Khala of Khiva is a deception: an almost empty open air museum, except for numerous French tour groups with loud guides. Where have I landed? Is this the once so remote oasis town? The monumental walls, gates and other historic buildings in town look over-restored as well.

Fortunately I stayed here for two nights, and it certainly grew on me. My hotel (the Arkonchi) is located within the walled section, making it easy to wander around during all hours of the day. Although only early May, the temperatures easily reached 35 degrees Celsius during the day. So the best exploring was in the early mornings and evenings. The rest of the day I spent hanging around in one of Uzbekistan's best features: the chaikhanas (tea houses).

Almost every building in town is some sort of museum or shop (or combination of these two). I just entered them all - sometimes I was disappointed because of the overly commercial atmosphere, but I was pleasantly surprised too a number of times. Highlights certainly not to be missed are the Pahlavan Mahmud Mausoleum (tiled all over and very serene), the Djuma mosque with its 112 wooden colums and the Tosh Kovli Palace.

Community Reviews


Solivagant

The WHS of “Khiva” is more properly titled the “Itchan Kala” (or Ichon Qala or Ichan-kala) which refers specifically to the old walled town of the Khiva Oasis. The town is very heavily restored and operates virtually as an open air museum in its own right. Indeed the main gate holds a ticket office where entrance fees and camera charges are paid. Locals do live inside and it is possible to “enter” from other gates – but you will not get into the museums without a ticket.

Many of the buildings inside the walls are museums and, when one has added the tourist shops, the carpet factories and the hotels (The Hotel Khiva is an old meddressa and worth a visit even if you are not staying), there is not a great deal else. There is an obligatory “genuine” Bactrian camel for being photographed with and there are sellers of furry Uzbek hats for being photographed with! Yet Khiva in my opinion transcends all this and is “worth the journey” for the chance to experience, an albeit restored, Central Asian walled city. We particularly liked wandering around in the quiet of the evening and sunset is very fine when taken from a high place such as the Islom Huja minaret.

Your ticket entitles you to a bewildering array of entrances but not amazingly to 1 major highlight, the viewing platform in/above the Ark, which should NOT be missed (at relatively small extra cost)as it gives the best view over the whole town. A guide is well worth having (and I don’t often say that!). Many of the museums are tired left-overs from Soviet days and can be given merely a very quick “once over”, but even these can hold surprises. In one history museum we found a room praising “Khorezm”, a mighty state in the 10th -14th centuries, and now split between Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan by Stalin’s arbitrary borders and just a province in Uzbekistan. Talking to the guide we began to get a feeling for his loyalty to the concept of “Khorezm” and through that for the tribalism and nationalisms within Uzbekistan and Central Asia (A bit further north the province of “Karakalpakstan” is autonomous within Uzbekistan –albeit totally environmentally ruined by the Aral Sea disaster)


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Site Info

Full name: Itchan Kala

Site History

Locations

The site has 1 locations.

  • Itchan Kala

Connections

The site has 18 connections.

Architecture

Constructions

  • Baths Anusha Khan baths
  • Caravanserai Tim and Cereven-Serai of Allakulikhan (19th century)
  • Glazed tiles 
  • Harem The Tash Hauli Palace "built by Allah Kuli Khan (1826-1842). The first section of the palace to be built was the Harem (1830-1832), home to the Khan (first room on left) and his four legal wives in the five comfortable southern iwans and to female relatives."
  • Mausolea Several, including the brilliant Mausoleum of Pahlavan Mahmud (1247-1325)
  • Unfinished constructions Kalta-minor: "short minaret": In 1855 the Khiva ruler Muhammad Amin Khan was killed and the construction of the magnificent minaret was stopped, leaving it at a height of 29m (where 70 or 100m was aimed)
  • Walled cities 

History

  • Khorezm empire Khiva was its (later) capital, after Konya Urgench
  • Silk Road According to ICOMOS Thematic Study from 2014
  • Slavery Had a very flourishing slave market

Religion and Belief

  • Mosque Djuma Mosque (rebuilt in 1788-89, but originating from 10th century)

Timeline

Trivia

World Heritage Process