Garajonay National Park contains the best example of laurisilva, a humid subtropical forest that in the Tertiary covered almost all of Europe.
The park is located in the center and north of the island of La Gomera, one of the Canary Islands. The forests are made up of laurel-leaved evergreen hardwood trees, reaching up to 40 meters in height. Many of the species are endemic to the islands, and harbor a rich biota of understory plants, invertebrates, and birds and bats, including a number of endemic species.
Garajonay is renowned as one of the best places to observe the two Canarian endemic pigeons, Laurel Pigeon (Columba junoniae) and Bolle's Pigeon (Columba bollii).
Visit December 2014
Spain’s Garajonay National Park only has a small footprint on the web. In preparation of my visit, I had been looking for a few extra links to upgrade the site’s page on this website. But not many people seem to go there or at least write about it. It’s not popular among World Heritage lovers either: it’s ranked 409th out of 481 European WHS in our listings. The park covers the central part of the Canary Island of La Gomera, which is the neighbouring island to Tenerife. Tenerife’s prominent WHS Teide volcano can be seen well from the Garajonay.
Garajonay’s claim to fame is its laurel forest. At its inscription as a WHS in 1986, this Spanish national park was seen as the best preserved stretch of laurisilva that once covered all Canary Islands and Madeira. 13 years later the similar Laurisilva of Madeira was admitted to the WH list. Its nomination document goes a long way to describe the differences: the Madeira laurel forest WHS is about 5 times larger than the one on Gomera, and the forest “is in general more luxuriant than the Canarian forest, being taller, wetter and cooler.” They claim that the Madeiran forest was just lesser known and written about in the 1980s than the Canarian ones. So maybe Garajonay’s value isn’t that outstanding after all.
Interisland rivalry aside, something with an enormous impact happened to Garajonay in 2012: a forest fire burned 3,000 hectares (20%) of this national park. During my visit two years later, the effects were still very prominent. I started with an ascend to the top of Garajonay mountain, and noticed blackened trees all around the summit. An information panel at the top describes how succesful the conservation in this national park has been in the 1980s, by eradicating all foreign trees (such as eucalyptus). A final note has been added about the fires: optimistically they point out to see and look how quickly the forest recovers. My eyes however tell me that tree heath regrows much quicker than laurel forest.
To see as much as possible of Garajonay National Park in one day, I hiked for 10km along its “roof top”, a circular walk from Laguna Grande to the top of Garajonay. The mountain top itself is a popular tourist stop, a 30-minute uphill walk from the main road. Here you can find the great views on the surrounding islands such as Tenerife and Gran Canaria.
The rest of the hike fortunately was much more quiet. I had prepared for a cool cloud forest, packing a sweater and a soft shell jacket. But due to the fires, the paths now lie out in the open. Even in late December the sun in this part of the world is strong. Also there seems to have been little rain recently. Only during the last 2 kilometers of my hike, near Laguna Grande, I saw some of the features that I had anticipated: lush vegetation, mosses and lichens. Still much less of those than I saw on (the wetter) Madeira and certainly on the ultimate wet forest Yakushima.
Although La Gomera sees its fair share of tourists, it still is somewhat of an adventure to get to Garajonay. There are only a handful of buses a day, and on "my" bus people were left at the bus station of San Sebastian de la Gomera because the bus was full. And when you finish your visit, you can only hope there will be a return bus. Otherwise you’ll have to hitchhike. I missed my return bus too, and got picked up by a shark-like taxi driver who cruised past the bus stop just after the bus had left.
Solivagant - December 2015
A few suggestions / experiences for anyone considering a visit to Garajonay National Park (NP) -
a. We gave La Gomera island 2 days/1 overnight in early Dec 2015 – I am sure that those who enjoy walking holidays could (and do) spend much longer but we found this was long enough to see both the NP and the island highlights. You could tick the NP off (even including a walk) in a single day return by ferry from Tenerife but that would be very rushed having spent the money to get there!
b. Although (as per Els above) you could rely on Taxi/Bus, my view is that car rental is particularly worthwhile given the scattered nature of the sights around the island and the frequency/routing of busses. It is not as cheap as on Tenerife (We paid 50 Euro for 2 days inc full CDW) but not bad. All the international, national and local rental agencies are located at the small ferry terminal at San Sebastian. Having left Los Cristianos on Tenerife at 9 am on the fast ferry, we arrived at 9.50 and were “on the road” at 10.05 with a pre-booking.
c. The main NP visitor centre is outside the NP in the north of the island (the NP calls it the “area Pre-parque”!). See this map top right. The exhibits of geology and nature are a little old but we found the ethnological section in the so-called “House of Memories” well worth a visit - primarily for a video about various aspects of life on, and history of, Gomera (The Silbo “whistling language”, the “Salto del Pastor” pole leaping, palm honey, terrace construction, guanche “wheel-less” pottery etc etc). A spanking new centre is being built just down the road (see link). Its Canarian architect also designed the nearby “Abrante lookout” set 620m asl with stunning views over the village of Agulo and beyond).
d. At this point it is worth mentioning the “Guanches” - the aboriginal Canarians conquered (with some difficulty) by the Castilians between 1402-96. They make a good “tourist story” of course but it does genuinely seem that aspects of their life (including their genes!!) have been passed down the centuries to the present. I noticed this section in the 1986 IUCN Evaluation for Garajonay -“The Garajonay National Park nomination, as presented by the Government of Spain provides the following justification for designation as a World Heritage property
a) Cultural property. Criteria being examined by ICOMOS.
b) Natural property ……..”
followed solely by IUCN’s evaluation on Natural criteria. So it appears that Spain actually nominated the site on mixed criteria – presumably because of its Guanche archaeological remains but the Cultural aspect got dropped at the time of evaluation. However, I have been unable to find any reference to any evaluation by ICOMOS so can’t be 100% sure.
e. The NP certainly does have Guanche burial caves and ceremonial altars within it which could have justified such a nomination but, as far as I could discover, none of these are accessible or much publicised though some of the caves can be seen on exposed rock faces- they certainly seem to provide thin justification for a mixed site! At the summit of Alto de Garajonay there is a reconstructed shrine (said to be situated over the original) - but that is all we saw of Guanche “remains” in the NP.
f. You are going to have to decide which walks (if any!) you want to do in order to experience the NP beyond the road. We decided that we “needed” to see a range of the different climatic, and hence botanical, zones so chose 4 (numbered on the map above) to do in part. The weather across our visit was partly sunny with some passing cloud – in some respects we were lucky in this but I guess we did fail to experience the NP in all its misty glory!
i. No 3 – from the main parking/restaurant area at Laguna Grande hardly justifies the word “walk” – more of a stroll really, but it does provide a signed introduction to a number of tree and plant species. The rest of the NP only has signs at the route entrances but there is an App downloadable from the NP Web site (which unfortunately we didn’t have!) with explanations accessible via dot codes fixed to small posts accessed via your camera.
ii. No 17 - to the island’s highest point from the main road. As Els comments, this provides nice views of both La Gomera and, on Tenerife across the sea, of Mt Teide (Photo taken further down in a forested area), but that area of the NP was (and still is) devastated by the fire of 2012 so doesn’t really provide an impression of a “forest”
iii. No 5 - is in an area of lower, more open forest (“Fayal Brezal”) – a few months later than our visit it apparently has fine floral displays
iv. No 2 - takes in a deep “ravine” area with running stream (rare on la Gomera) and thicker taller trees. We were quite amused to hear a conversation of marital disharmony from a couple we passed in which the lady complained to her partner that the walk was “cold, damp and boring”!! Well, we thought it was a long way short of any of those but it was true that, once one had seen a few tens of thousands of trees and a lot of moss etc, there didn’t seem a great incentive to continue much further! I guess that we are “botanically ignorant”. Even the 2 Pigeon species, which so love the Laurel species of Gomera that they don’t live anywhere else, didn’t come out to see us!
g. When planning our visit to the island, I was interested to note the rediscovery in 1999 of the Gomera Giant Lizard (Gallotia Bravoana) which had apparently, for many years, been thought extinct. The UNESCO Web site states that this is one of a number of “iconic and/or IUCN Redlisted animals and plants found in the property”. Indeed it has even been transferred to this Web site’s “Connection” for WHS containing “critically endangered species”!! Wrong! Garajonay is a cloudy and cool ecosystem not really conducive to reptiles. In fact the lizard is a dry wall species and only exists on the cliffs of La Merica in the Valle Gran Rey – a “Parque Rural” OUTSIDE the Garajonay NP - and well worth visiting. See here. The AB evaluation is of course dated 1986, well before the species was rediscovered, so UNESCO didn’t gets the information which led it to claim that the species is inside the NP from there. The list contains other errors too - e.g the Tenerife lizard (Gallotia galloti) which is also listed as a Garajonay creature isn’t even present on La Gomera!! (Confirmed on its IUCN Red List page). In its 1986 Evaluation IUCN concluded that “Possibilities for extension of the boundaries of the park ……..should also be encouraged”. Well that certainly hasn’t happened yet - instead in 2012 the entire island was declared a World Biosphere Reserve (WBR). The WBR web page correctly claims the Gomera Giant Lizard and makes no mention of its Tenerifean cousin!
h. Much of the exposed volcanic and eroded geology of the island, some of which is very fine, lies outside the forested NP – but there is an area of Volcanic Plugs known as Los Roques as you enter the NP from San Sebastian. Another advantage of having ones own transport is the ability to stop at will at the many “Miradores” located at frequent intervals along all the roads and from where the “geology” is better seen.
i. Those who are interested in the UNESCO “Masterpieces of Oral and Intangible heritage” list might like to know that there is a plaque and a statue commemorating the inscription of the Silbo Whistled language on that list in 2009, situated just outside the NP at the Mirador de Igualero (a couple of kms S of the Alto). I have been unable to discover why that location was chosen – there wasn’t any explanation. However we did obtain a “whistling demonstration” there from a boy who was visiting with his parents. It appears that Silbo is now a compulsory element within the Gomeran educational curriculum!! The lady guide we spoke to at the VC told us that her son could “converse” in Silbo with her father but that her generation had missed out entirely on learning this Gomeran “speciality”!
I have been there several times and find the island magical.
However outide the park times are changing and some of Gomera's magic has been lost to development. Go there before it is too late - it is cheap and easy to get to.
There is plenty of information available in english now - including maps and 3 different walking guides
if you need more info contact me
Living in Europe gives you the opportunity to take a cheap stand by flight to Teneriffe, Canary Islands. Catch a boat to La Gomera, where you can rent a house or stay at the camp site in El Cedro.
Garajonay national park is fantastic at an altitude of 1000-1400 mtrs it is often swept in clouds,
colder than you might expect and damp as a rainforest. Useful link: http://www.mma.es/parques/lared/garaj/index.htm#
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Full name: Garajonay National Park
1986 - InscribedReasons for inscription
The site has 1 locations.
Bus #1 from San Sebastian travels 5 times a day through the park. Pajarito is the most convenient stop.
The site has 15 connections. Show all
- Wildfires 2012
Religion and Belief
- Miocene It arose about 10-12 million years ago, when huge blocks of the oceanic crust emerged from the ocean floor and different volcanic episodes increased its size.
- Viewable from another WHS The southern slopes of Garajonay NP are visible from the Teide peak but also from many locations within the Western part of Teide NP.