Diyarbakir Fortress and Hevsel Gardens


'Diyarbakir Fortress and Hevsel Gardens Cultural Landscape' comprises a fortified settlement along the Tigris River, which played an important role in many civilizations.

Its long history include Roman, Byzantine, Umayyad, Artuqid, Seljuk and Ottoman periods.


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Site Info

Full name: Diyarbakir Fortress and Hevsel Gardens Cultural Landscape

Site History

  • 2015 - Inscribed

    Reasons for inscription
  • 2015 - Advisory Body overruled

    ICOMOS advised Referral, Lebanon provided amendment for inscription


The site has 1 locations.

  • Diyarbakir Fortress and Hevsel Gardens


The site has 17 connections.





  • Byzantine Empire and Civilization Various Byzantine incursions occurred during this period; parts of the city walls were destroyed in 899, and were reconstructed to improve the city’s defence (as documented by several Abbasid inscriptions). (AB ev)
  • Ottoman Empire In 1515, after taking Amid, the Ottoman Empire further developed trade, built new public (commercial, religious and cultural) structures and contributed to the renewal of the city. The Ottoman period extended until 1922. (AB ev)
  • Seljuk Empire The Seljuk Period in Diyarbakır, between 1085 and 1093, saw further repairs and reconstructions to the walls of Diyarbakır. Towers number 15, 32, 42 (now known as Malik Shah or Nur Tower), and 63 (known as Findik Tower) were constructed during this period. The inscriptions on them confirm this information. (AB ev)
  • Silk Road Silk was grown in the Hevsel Gardens, contributing to the important trade from and through Diyarbakır to Aleppo (AB ev)

Human Activity

  • Irrigation and drainage "The Anzele Spring is located in the west part of the City Walls. It provides for the water needs of many mosques in the city, houses and gardens to the Urfa Gate, powers the mills outside of Mardin Gate, and irrigates the Hevsel Gardens".
  • Silk Manufacture In the Ottoman Period the Hevsel Gardens were covered entirely in Mulberry trees" (Diyarbakir Province is still a producer of silk)

Individual People

  • Gertrude Bell She viewed the city walls in 1909
  • Timur In 1394, Timur surrounded Diyarbakır and was able to enter the city through a hole on the city wall, and demolished many buildings. (AB ev)

Religion and Belief

  • Mosque Great Mosque of Diyarbakır, and several more within the citadel


World Heritage Process