Caves of Maresha and Bet Guvrin
The Caves of Maresha and Bet Guvrin are man-made subterranean complexes up to 2,000 years old. These archaeological sites are situated below the ancient twin towns of Maresha and Bet Guvrin in Lower Judea.
In a layer of soft chalk some 475 cave complexes have been carved out during different periods. The area was in use from the Iron Age to Persian, Judaic, Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine antiquity. Some forty burial sites were dug into the ground at the foot of the hills close to Maresha, including three main necropolises.
The region is close to the ancient route linking Mesopotamia to Egypt. Agricultural practice is also very old, the caves were for example in use for the pressing and storage of olive oil and for raising pigeons.
Some fifteen key caves have been opened to the public. The entire nominated property is included in the ‘National Archaeological Park of Bet Guvrin – Maresha’.
Wojciech Fedoruk - January 2016
Bet Guvrin-Maresha National Park is located in about one hour drive from Jerusalem to the south, in a very nice area next to the boarder with Palestine. The complex consists of excavations in Maresha and more famous caves in Bet Guvrin. The whole site is quite large, which makes it difficult but doable without a car. Unfortunately, due to the lack of time that day we were not able to visit Maresha, so we focused on the caves of Bet Guvrin.
There are in general two types of caves in the park – first ones, much smaller and shallow, served as burial places during Sydonian times. They are covered with well-preserved paintings and Greek inscriptions. Then, around 1km ahead, there are famous bell caves – about 800 beautiful grottos spread over a picturesque area. Although they look like made by nature, I was surprised to find that most of them were actually human-bored. Most of them have holes in the center of the ceiling and sunlight plays inside making the interior view very intersesting.
I found this WHS one of the most interesting in Israel and it is strange to me that it is so rarely visited. During our visit in December only few tourists were there and even the entrance was free (or maybe we just did not notice the ticket office).
Thomas Buechler - July 2014
We included the National Park of Bet Guvrin-Maresha in our tour of Israel, just a few weeks after the site has been included in the Unesco family.There was no commemorative plate yet.I would say its a great advantage of travelling with a car as the different sites within the park are far from each other.They give you a handy leaflet at the entrance with detailled informations.Bet Guvrin was for me quite special for the variety of beautiful caves dug by its former inhabitants.There you find the Columbarium Cave where doves were raised in over 2000 niches-for their eggs, meat and also the fertilizer was used.Doves were also sacrified in religious rituals.Just in Maresha (which was abandoned during the Roman period) some 85 combarium caves have been found, with tens of thousand of niches.
Other hightlights are the socalled Sidonian caves which were used during the Hellenistic period as burial grounds.
They contain rich frescoes and inscriptions.
The Bell Caves date from the Byzantine period and are a great sight, not to be missed at the end of the circuit.
They come in all shades of greytones, and are really huge.
Assif Am-David - May 2008
Bet Guvrin-Maresha is a large archaeological park with abundant testimonies to its different inhabitants in the course of history including Edomites, Phoenicians, Greeks, Jews, Romans, Crusaders and Arabs. The site is mostly known for its exceptional elaborate cave system which was carved in the soft rock for different domestic and agricultural purposes. I would certainly recommend not to miss the Roman amphitheatre at the site. It is not as impressive as the ones in Verona and Rome but it is certainly the best one in Israel. Another prominent finding were the Phoenician tombs covered with frescoes.
Share your experiences!
Have you been to Caves of Maresha and Bet Guvrin? Click here to add your own review.
Full name: The Caves of Maresha and Bet Guvrin in the Judean
2014 - InscribedReasons for inscription
2011 - Requested by State Party to not be examinedAfter "deferral" recommended by ICOMOS
The site has 27 connections. Show all
- Microcosm Full name: Caves of Maresha and Bet-Guvrin in the Judean Lowlands as a Microcosm of the Land of the Caves
- Ancient Roman colonies Bet Guvrin was the seat of a Roman governorate during the 2nd and 3rd centuries CE. It was at this time one of the most important cities in Roman Palestine and a major crossroads. (AB ev)
- Byzantine Empire and Civilization During the Byzantine period, Bet Guvrin became an important Christian centre (AB ev)
- Canaanite cultures Maresha
- Historical Food Remains Chicken bones at Maresha
- Knights Hospitaller There is a Crusader church in Bet Guvrin used by the Knights Hospitalers.
- Phoenician world Phoenician presence (AB ev)
- The Crusades There is a Crusader church in Bet Guvrin used by the Knights Hospitalers.
- Locations for playing sport The Roman Amphitheater: This amphitheater was originally intended for gladiator fights to entertain the masses (off website)
- Olive presses Bet Guvrin
- Stone Quarries Bet Guvrin: It was as stone quarries that most of the caves were originally dug - "It was during (the Hellenistic) period that extensive building began in the lower city. This required the quarrying of many caves that provided the building blocks for construction on the surface; most of the subterranean complexes were quarried at that time.".... "In the late Byzantine period (the seventh century CE), the bell caves began to be quarried for building stone"... "The Early Muslim period: ..... During this period the caves were further quarried for building stone; that is the time when most of the bell caves were dug. The quarrying of the bell caves reached its zenith during the Early Muslim period, from the seventh to the eleventh centuries CE, when the building material they produced was sold at distant markets. The tenth-century Arab historian Al-Muqaddasi wrote that the district of Bet Guvrin had numerous marble quarries, apparently referring to the chalk quarries in the bell caves. At a later stage of the Early Muslim period, some of the bell caves were turned into columbaria or plastered cisterns" (Nom File)
Religion and Belief
- Jewish religion and culture Jewish graves
- Mentioned in the Bible Maresha: "And Rehoboam...built cities for defense in Judah...Gath, and Mareshah, and Ziph" (2 Chron. 11:5-8).
- Mosques converted from churches / cathedrals / synagogues There is a Crusader church in Bet Guvrin used by the Knights Hospitalers. It was later converted into a mosque
- Built in the 8th century BC "The practice of subterranean excavating as quarries and annexes for dwellings and villages began in the 8th century BCE." (AB ev, about Maresha)