'Gebel Barkal and the Sites of the Napatan Region' comprise a series of archaeological sites that are testimony to the important ancient culture of the Second Kingdom of Kush.
The sites in and around their former capital city of Napata include tombs (with and without pyramids), temples, living complexes and palaces. The pyramids and tombs are unique in their typology and technique.
The designated area of more than 60km length in the Nile Valley contains the following 5 locations:
- Gebel Barkal: religious and administrative center on a natural hill
- El-Kurru: cemetery and royal burial place
- Nuri: cemetery with pyramidal tombs
- Sanam: residential area and cemetery for common people
- Zuma: burial field
Visit December 2014
Gebel Barkal was Nubia's Holy Mountain. Its size and shape appealed so much to exploring Ancient Egyptians who came down the Nile, that they started building temples at its foot. It remained a sanctuary to the god Amun for centuries, from the Egyptian "colonization" to the time of the Black Pharaohs when the local Nubian rulers took control over South Egypt and moved their capital to Meroë.
Although the main Amun Temple looks to be well-excavated nowadays, I was amazed at the level of archaeological work still going on. Two teams were busy when I visited: an international group under guidance of the Sudanese Ministry of Antiquities, and an Italian-led group. The Italians were focusing on a building which is being excavated for the first time, although it lies right next to the Amun Temple and also directly at the foot of the mountain.
There were no other people around besides the archaelogists when we visited during the day, but some 50 locals and international tourists showed up later to watch the sunset from the top of the mountain. To me, the site's highlights include the still erect pillars topped with serpents symbolizing the goddess Hathor (see picture below), the hieroglyphs on the column fragments that have fallen down, the finely carved interior of the Temple of Mut and the small pyramid field at the far end of the archaeological zone.
Some 10 kms from Gebel Barkal, on the outskirts of a small village, lies El Kurru. This is the oldest among the 5 locations that constitute this WHS. The pyramids here are gone, but the underground tombs that lay beneath them have been preserved well. There are three of these tombs at the site (most travel guides name only two, that shows that important new discoveries are still made in Sudan). The excavation of the third and biggest one is sponsored by Qatar.
I was only able to visit the interior of the tomb of Tanwetamani ; that of his mother was undergoing maintenance. It lies deep underground, you go in via a steep stairway. Downstairs the tomb is surprisingly spacious. Ten people fit in easily into either of the two rooms. The walls and ceilings are completely covered in wall paintings of the Egyptian kind, using red, yellow and blue on a white background. The lower paintings (up until 1m from the floor) unfortunately have been damaged by a flooding. This is the best collection of original wall paintings that I saw during my time in Sudan, their colours have been beautifully preserved.
Nuri is the third location of this WHS that I visited, doing so at the end of a 2 hour Nile "cruise" that ended at the opposite side of the river from where we started. The other two included sites (Zuma and Sanam) are smaller and barely excavated. Nuri's pyramids are more "Egyptian" in style than the ones at the main Gebel Barkal site: bigger and less steep. They are among the oldest that remain in Sudan.
Nuri has visual links with the Gebel Barkal: the table mountain is always in sight when you're walking around Nuri's 19 remaining pyramids. The American archaeologist George Reisner has thrown in some of the usual solstice theories.
The charm of Gebel Barkal and associated sites lies with this sense of exploration and ongoing discoveries. They are less well researched and excavated than similar Egyptian sites, but are majestic in their appearance and worth their spot on the WH List.
stewart ayu - March 2009
I visited jebel barkal and karima in 1988. At the time I was not aware of the temples and town which did not appear to have been excavated yet. However, the pyramids were easy to find and climbing up onto the jebel was easy. Children guided me around the jebel as there were no tourists nor kiosk. nothing really. However, two half buried panthers were discernable. At the time I thought they were sphinxes but National Geographic did an article indicating they were panthers. Being there in 1988 was a priceless experience and perhaps more intimate than visiting the archeological sites in Egypt. And getting to Karima was quite an adventure. There was no road and the train took an arduous 40 hours. Getting from Karima to Aswan took about 18 days.
Solivagant - December 2005
For a range of historic and logistical reasons the “Egyptian” ruins of Sudan are considerably less known than those of Egypt proper. Books on Egyptian archaeology rarely give more than a few lines to the sites south of Abu Simbel. Whilst Meroe (only on Sudan’s tentative list) is my favourite Sudanese site the inscribed site of Jebel Barkal is well worth visiting. As at all Sudan’s sites you are likely to be the only tourists there (what a contrast to Egypt!) and the atmosphere is heightened by the encroaching desert sand – you could almost be a 19c explorer reaching the sites for the first time!
The UNESCO “site” of Jebel Barkal consists of 5 locations. The “main” one is the “table topped” mountain of Jebel Barkal itself which is only around 100 metres high but dominates the flat Nile valley for miles around. Even though it was for long periods outside their area of direct control it was believed by the Ancient Egyptians to be the home of the god Amun. This was possibly because of sandstone pillar at one end (photo) which could be regarded as looking like a “Uraeus” (the cobra symbol of kingship). At the base of this and symbolically cut into the mountain lies a cave containing a temple to Mut the bride of Amun. Inside is a statue of the dwarf god Bes the protector god who helped in childbirth and promoted fertility. Below the Jebel are the ruins of a Temple to Amun from 15th C BC. Although there are a number of later Nubian Meroitic period pyramids around the Jebel it is its connection with mainstream Egyptian beliefs that gives the site its prime significance. Rameses the Great turned the temple into an important centre during that period when Egyptian influence over the area was strong. In Abu Simbel Amun is shown sitting inside a mountain thought to be Jebel Barkal.
The other locations relate more directly to the Nubian civilizations which had a separate existence from those of Lower and Upper Egypt. At El Kurru there is a royal Cemetery of the Kushite civilization. Two of the tombs can be entered and contain fine wall and ceiling paintings – but unless you are a great expert in the styles of different Egyptian periods you will not probably find these any more interesting than those which can be seen in Egypt. More interesting perhaps is the existence on this 1 site of pyramids built over a period of c 250 years from around 880BC showing a process of Egyptisation from low circular structures through to more “classical” pyramids. By the end of this period these Nubian rulers had taken over Egypt proper and ruled as the 25th Dynasty – using ownership of Jebel Barkal as providing legitimacy to be the true representative of Egyptian traditions. The other location which might reward non specialists is the royal Cemetery of the Napatan civilisation at Nuri on the other side of the Nile in sight of the Jebel and used by the later 25th Dynasty rulers. It contains a number of typically Nubian steep sided pyramids in various states of decay but without any visitable tombs.
We visited the Jebel and El Kurru but only viewed Nuri across the Nile by binoculars from the Jebel and from a viewpoint about 10 kms north (there is apparently a small local ferry). The Jebel is well worth climbing for sunset – it provides a fine view down on to the Temple of Amun and of the Nile valley. You can also see the holes thought to have been made to support wooden structures used in reaching the pinnacle to carve cartouches and cover the “Uraeus” with gold. The climb up is a bit rocky but a sand dune face provides for a rapid and safe descent down another side! The temples themselves can be visited in the morning. At El Kurru, some 20 kms south, all of the structures are very ruined and most visitors will need a book to assist any mental reconstruction of what they looked like (The Times “Ancient Civilizations” has such a plan). Amazingly flash photos are still allowed inside the tombs. Visiting the sites is tied up in bureaucracy – As of late 2005 each separate location costs $40 (up from $10 a year earlier) and both permission and payment must be arranged in Khartoum as the authorities don’t trust the local “Ghaffirs” with money (they presumably want it all for their own BMWs!!). The nearby town of Karima is the road/rail head (though the latter is closed). Roads from East and West to Karima are both desert tracks (with local pick up trucks or bus) but a sealed road East across the Bayuda desert is being built by the Chinese to support the Merowe Dam. If you come in from Wadi Halfa and Egypt you apparently need to go to Khartoum because of permit issues even though you will pass relatively close to the desert track to Karima at Dongola. For these reasons it may be simpler to give Jebel Barkal a miss and concentrate on the sites at Meroe, Naqa and Musawwarat (all Tentative List sites). It would be shame for committed Egyptologists or WHS enthusiasts but in many respects these sites are more accessible both logistically and in terms of what is “on show”.
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Full name: Gebel Barkal and the Sites of the Napatan Region
2003 - InscribedReasons for inscription
The site has 5 locations.
The hill and main archaeological site lies on the outskirts of the city of Karima. The other 4 locations are further away, and need private transport.
The site has 20 connections. Show all
- Rock Cut Architecture "rock-cut burials and temples" (AB ev)
- Dynastic Burial Places "Later Napatan pyramids were sited at Nuri, on the west bank of the Nile in Upper Nubia. This necropolis was the burial place of 21 kings and 52 queens and princes. The oldest and largest pyramid at Nuri is that of the Napatan king and twenty-fifth dynasty pharaoh Taharqa. The most extensive Nubian pyramid site is at Meroe, which is located between the fifth and sixth cataracts of the Nile, approximately one hundred kilometres north of Khartoum. During the Meroitic period over forty kings and queens were buried there."
- Hypogea AB evaluation Unlike the Egyptian pyramids which were built to enclose and hide the burial chamber,the Napatan ones are commemorative monuments to the deceased, buried in a hypogeum underneath. In front of the pyramid a small temple was built, for offerings.
- Necropolises "Later Napatan pyramids were sited at Nuri, on the west bank of the Nile in Upper Nubia. This necropolis was the burial place of 21 kings and 52 queens and princes. The oldest and largest pyramid at Nuri is that of the Napatan king and twenty-fifth dynasty pharaoh Taharqa. The most extensive Nubian pyramid site is at Meroe, which is located between the fifth and sixth cataracts of the Nile, approximately one hundred kilometres north of Khartoum. During the Meroitic period over forty kings and queens were buried there."
- Table Mountain Djebel Barkal is described variously as a "table topped mountain", a Mesa or a Butte - see
Religion and Belief
- Axis Mundi
- Horse Burials At El Kurru "some 120 meters to the north-west of pyramids K.51-K.55 four rows of graves were found which contained horse burials. The rows contained four, eight, eight and four graves respectively.... The tombs had all been robbed, but enough remained to determined that the horses were all buried in an upright position. The horses were buried with all their trappings" (Wiki)
- Sacred Mountains Jebel Barkal means 'holy mountain' in Arabic, it was believed to be the home of the god Amun (Sudan Bradt Guide)
- Built in the 8th century BC Gebel Barkal consists of 5 sites mainly from the Napatan and Meroitic culture of the 2nd Kushite Kindom between 8C BC until 4C AD, together with some earlier Egyptian remains at Jebel Barkal from their period of rule over Kush, pre-Napatan tombs at El Kurru from 9C BC and some post-Meroitic remains at Zuma through to 6C AD. By 3C BC the royal burial grounds had been transferred to Meroe. GB would best be described as '1st millennium BC'. The chosen 'century' represents the commencement of the Napatan period
- First inscriptions Sudan 2003
WHS on Other Lists
- World Monuments Watch (past) Gebel Barkal, Karima (2000)